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GROUP 1:

PRE-SPANISH
PERIOD
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
• Long before the Spaniard and other foreigners landed
on Philippine shores, our forefathers already had their
own literature stamped in the history of our race.
• Our ancient literature shows our customs and
traditions in everyday life as trace in our folk stories,
old plays and short stories. Our ancestors also had
their own alphabet which was different from that
brought by the Spaniards.
• The Spaniards who came to the Philippines tried to
prove that our ancestors were really fond of poetry,
songs, stories, riddles and proverbs which we still
enjoy today and which serve to show to generations
the true culture of our people.
EDUCATION
• Their was no formal schooling.
• Education was oral, practical and hands-on.
Parents trained their children informally.
• Natives wrote on many different materials
such as leaves, palm fronds, tree bark and
fruit rinds, but the most common material
was bamboo.
• They used knives, daggers, pointed stick or
iron as pen and color sap of trees and fruits
as ink.
GOVERNMENT
• It was headed by a datu and was independent
from the other group.
• The postion of datu was passed on by the
holder of the position to the eldest son or , if
none, to the eldest daughter.
• In the old days, a datu had a council of elders
to advise him, especially whenever he wanted a
law to be enacted.
• The law was written and announced to the
whole barangay by a town crier, called the
umalohokan.
CLOTHES  Upper Part

 Upper Part:  Baro or

 Collarless, Kamisa

Short-sleeved  Lower Part

jacket  Saya

 Lower part (Tagalog)

 Balang and

 Headgear patadyong

 Putong (Visayan)

 Headgear

 Tapis
ORNAMENTS
• Jewels (Gold, Carnelian, Pearl,
Beads, and Colored Glass)
• Ornaments (Armlets, Pendants,
Bracelets, Gold Rings, Earrings,
and Leglets)
•Tattoos
For men, tattoos were signs
of valor and many attributes
For women, it enchanced
beauty
SOCIAL CLASSES

Nobles
(Gat or Lakan)

Freemen
(Maharlika or Timawa)

Dependents
(Alipin, Ulipon, or Adipen)
MARRIAGE CUSTOMS
• A man belonging to one class, married a woman
of the same class but this customs was not rigid.
• Except Muslim, they practiced monogamy but in
some cases, a man could marry as many as he
could but only the first wife was considered as
legitimate spuse.
• Fixed marriage
• Two prerequisites to marriage: 1) Lover’s
servitude to the girl’s family.
2) Dowry given by
man to the girl’s parents.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
• Agriculture as the main source of livelihood.
• Two types of cultivation: kaingin and wet rice
farming
• Less arable lands were public property while
productive lands were private properties of datus
and nobles.
• Fermented of the sap coconuts and nipas into tuba
and vinegar.
• Aside from fishing and agriculture, other industries
were poultry, stock-raising, lumbering and boat-
building, mining, pottery making and weaving.
• Used barter system in business transactions.
MUSIC AND DANCE
• Had their own musical instruments,
songs, and dances
• Most popular musical instrument:
kudyapi
• Songs include love songs, religious
songs, rice planting songs, harvesting
song, rowing songs, battle songs,
vending songs, and others.
• Had colorful folk dances
ARTS
• Native Artistry was found in beads, amulets,
bracelets, earrings, and other body ornaments
made of gold, green jade, red carnelian, and other
attractive stones.
• Dyed and Ornamented their clothes with designs
and picturesque colors.
• Carves statues of anitos in wood, ivory, stone, and
crocodile’s teeth.
• Fanciful carvings on handle of bolos, knives,
daggers and on shields and boats.
• Maranao muslims had excellent woven products
and creative ornamental and decorative brass art.
BELIEFS
• Generally, for lack of better terminology prehistoric;
people are described to be animanistic.
• The religious leaders were called babaylan, baylana, or
katalona.
• For Muslims, it is imam or pandita.
• They worship in nature and ancestors and believed in
afterlife and heaven and hell.
• They believed in black magic and manogbarang or
manoghiwit. They believed in aswang or witches and
many more.
• And lastly, they believed in the efficacy of anting-anitng
or amulets as well as lumay or gayuma.
GODS AND GODDESS
• Bathala – The supreme god of being; creator of man
and earth and addressed sometimes as Bathalang
Maykapal.
• Dimangan – The god of good harvest.
• Lakapati – The goddess of fertility and the most
understanding and kind of all the deities.
• Mapulon – The god of seasons.
• Mayari – The goddess of the moon and one of the three
daughters of Bathala by a mortal woman.
• Tala – The goddess of the stars.
• Hanan – The goddess of morning.
• Idiyanale – The goddess of labor and good deeds.
BAYBAYIN
• The pre-colonial beautiful
ancient writing script of the
Islands of the Philippines.
• Baybayin has been a core
part of our culture and
heritage for centuries.
• Used our very own writing
script to sign documents,
write poetries, communicate,
and write letters to one
another.
NIPA HUT
Bubong

Bintana

Hagdan

Tinilad
LEGENDS
• Legends are a form of prose that the
common theme of which is about the
origin of a thing, place, location or name.
• The events are imaginary, devoid of truth
and unbelievable.
• Old Filipino customs are reflected in these
legends.
• Its aim is to entertain and to educate.
FOLKTALES
• Folk tales are made up of stories
about life, adventure, love, horror
and humor where one can derive
lessons about life.
• These are useful to us because they
help us appreciate our environment,
evaluate our personalities and
improve our perspectives in life.
EPIC AGE
• Epics are long narrative poems in
which a series of heroic
achievements or events, usually of a
hero, are dealt with at length.
• We can only determine their origins
from the time mentioned in the said
epics.
FOLK SONGS
• Folk songs are one of the oldest
forms of Philippine literature that
emerged in the pre-Spanish period.
• These songs mirrored the early
forms of culture.
• Many of these have 12 syllables.
EPIGRAMS (SALAWIKAIN)
• It is a rhetorical device that is a
memorable, brief, interesting, and
suprising satirical statement.
• These have been customarily used and
served as laws or rules on good behavior
by our ancestors.
• To others, these are like allegories or
parables that impart lessons for the
young.
RIDDLES (BUGTONG)
• It is a statement, question, or phrase
that has a double meaning.
• A riddle can also be described as a
puzzle to be solved.
• Riddles can be a great brain busters
and conversation starters to get you
think.
CHANT (BULONG)

• Used in witchcraft or
enchantment.
MAXIMS
• Is a short, easily remembered
expression of a basic principle,
general truth or rule of conduct.
• Some are rhyming couplets with
verses of 5, 6 or 8 syllables, each
line having the same number of
syllables.
IDIOMS (SAWIKAIN)
• Is a phrase or an expression that has
a figurative, or sometimes literal
meaning.
• It is categorized has a formulaic
language which means an idiom’s
figurative meaning is different from
literal meaning.
FAMOUS WORKS AND WRITINGS
• Visayan Epic Poetry: The Maragtas
Chronicles of Panay
• Mindanao Epic Poetry: Darangan
• Igorot Epic Poetry: Aliguyon
• Bicol Epic Poetry: The Ibalon
• Ilokano Epic Poetry: Biag ni Lam-
ang
THANK
YOU