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Praktikum Anatomi VI

Axial Skeleton

FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN DAN ILMU


KESEHATAN
TIM ANATOMI FKIK UNJA
2017
The Human Skeleton
♥ Is the internal framework of the body
♥ It is composed of 270 bones at birth.
♥ This total decreases to 206 bones by adulthood
after some bones have fused together (os
coxae=os illium, os ischium, os pubicum,
sacrum 5 segment into 1, etc)
♥ The bone mass in the skeleton reaches maximum
density around age 30
♥ The human skeleton can be divided into the axial
skeleton and the appendicular skeleton

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3
Types of Bones
Bones can be classified into five types based on shape :
Bone Surface Markings
Bones have characteristic surface markings
Structural features adapted for specific functions
There are two major types of surface markings :
♥ Depressions and openings
Allow the passage of blood vessels and nerves or
form joints
♥ Processes
Projections or outgrowths that form joints or serve
as attachment points for ligaments and tendons
Depression & Openings:
Fissure : Celah Lekukan
Foramen : Lubang
Fossa : Rongga
Sulcus : Alur, Cekungan
Meatus : Saluran
Processes:
• Condyle : Tonjolan bulat
• Facet : Permukaan rata, kecil
• Head : Caput, Kepala
• Crest : Tonjolan bergerigi
• Epicondyle : Eminensia (tonjolan) permukaan
• Line : Linea
• Spinous process : Tonjolan panjang ujung
• Trochanter : Prosesus datar, lebar, diujung atas
• Tubercle : Tonjlan kecil, bulat, kasar
• Tuberocity
Axial Skeleton

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The Skull
The Skull
Contains 22 bones
• 8 Cranial Bones that enclose and protect the brain
• 14 Facial Bones that form the face

♥ Maxillary bones ♥ Inferior nasal conchae

♥ Mandible ♥ Zygomatic bones


♥ Lacrimal bones
♥ Palatine bones
♥ Hyoid
♥ Nasal bones
♥ Vomer
Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull
Superficial
landmarks
include the
sutures
– Lambdoid
– Coronal
– Sagittal
– Squamous
The Adult Skull
The Adult Skull – Lateral View
Paranasal Sinuses
• Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity
• Functions of paranasal sinuses:
• Lighten the skull
• Give resonance and amplification to voice
The Mandible and Hyoid Bones Lateral View
The Hyoid Bone

• The only bone that does


not articulate with
another bone

• Serves as a moveable
base for the tongue
Figure 7.3d
The Bones of the Face
Figure 7.3e
Lesser wing

Greater wings

Figure 7.4b
Fontanels
• Membrane-filled
spaces found
between cranial
bones in infants
• Replaced with bone
by intramembranous
ossification and
become sutures
• “Soft Spot” on
baby’s head
The
Vertebral
Column
The Vertebral Column
Vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
♥ 7 cervical vertebrae
♥ 12 thoracic vertebrae
♥ 5 lumbar vertebrae
♥ Sacrum and coccyx are fused vertebrae
Spinal Curvatue
• Four spinal curves
• Primary (accommodation) curves = thoracic
and sacral
– Appear in fetal development / accommodate the
thoracic and abdominal viscera
• Secondary (compensation) curves = lumbar
and cervical
– Appear several month after birth / help shift weight
from trunk to lower limbs
Primary/acommodation
curves

Secondary,compensation
curves
Vertebra Anatomy

♥ Typically has a body and vertebral arch


♥ Superior and inferior articular processes
♥ Separated by intervertebral discs
Structure of a Typical Vertebrae
Transverse Process

Costal Facet (thoracic only)


Superior
facets

Inferior
facets
Spinous Process Body Vertebral
Foramen

Vertebral Parts
Bifid Dens
Transverse Foramen
Process (Odontoid Process)
Vertebral
arch

Atlas (C1) Axis (C2)

Cervical Vertebrae
Lumbar
Vertebrae

Thoracic
Vertebrae

Thoracic & Lumbar Vertebrae


Intervertebra
Disk
Intervertebral
Foramen

Vertebral Column
Sacrum
♥ Protects
reproductive,
digestive and
urinary organs
♥ Articulates with
pelvic girdle and
fused elements of
coccyx
The Sacrum and Coccyx
Sacral Canal

Median Sacral Crest

Sacral Foramen
Sacral Hiatus

Articular surface
(SI joint)

Transverse ridge

Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae)


Articular surface
(sacroiliac joint)

Coccyx

Coccyx
Thoracic
Cage
Thoracic Cage
♥ Thoracic vertebrae
♥ Ribs
♥ Sternum
Ribs and sternum forms the rib cage
The Thoracic Cage

Figure 7.23a
Figure 7.23b
True Ribs 1
(Vera) 2 False Ribs
(7 pairs) 3 (Supuria)
4 (5 pairs)
5
6
7 4
Floating
1 5 (Fluktuantes)
2
3
Thorax
The Ribs
♥ Ribs 1-7 are attached to vertebrae
(“true ribs”)
♥ 8-12 are attached to the cartilage of the
7th rib (“false ribs”)
♥ 11-12 are floating ribs

Has a head, neck, tubercle and a body


Costal groove marks pathway of blood
returning to the heart
sternal clavicular
notch notch

manubrium sternal
angle

body
intercostal
space
xiphoid process

Sternum
Sternum
♥ Flat, narrow bone
located in the center
of the anterior
thoracic wall

♥ Consists of three
parts