Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

Design steps of Industrial Buildings

Design of Purlins
 Purlins should be designed carefully as these constitute a large
proportion of the steel dead weight in a structure.
 Therefore, these affect the overall economy of the structure.
 Purlins can be designed as simple, continuous or cantilever
 As per Indian Standard 800:84 purlins should be designed as
continuous beams.
 But the drawback in designing them like this is that purlins may
have to be sliced and continuity cannot be assured through
 Therefore, the purlin section provided should be as long in
length as possible.
 The exterior bay width is kept at about 80% of the
interior bay width to reduce the maximum moment in
the end span of purlins.
 This makes the moment in the end span equal to those in
the interior spans.
 Purlins are often designed only for normal component of
 The justification given for this is that purlins with roof
coverings act like a deep plate girder and due to this the
stress from parallel components can be neglected.
Design of Sag rods
 Designed as a tension member to resist the tangential
component of the resultant of the roof load and the
purlin dead load.
 The tangential component of the roof load is considered
to be acting at the top flange of purlins, whereas the
normal component and purlin’s dead load is assumed to
act at its centroid.
 Therefore, the sag rods should be theoretically placed at
points where the resultant of these forces act.
 But this is not practicable and sag rods are placed at the
minimum gauge distance below the top.
 The no. of sag rods to support each purlin depends upon
the length of the purlin and load to be supported.
 In general, a single line of sag rods at the centre of the
purlins is sufficient.
 When the purlins are supported by sag rods, the span of
the purlins for the load component parallel to the roof
truss is taken as the distance between the sag rods.
 The span of the purlins for the load component
perpendicular to the roof truss is taken to be the
distance between adjacent trusses.
Design of principal rafter
 Designed as a continuous strut.
 Generally, a double angle unequal section with long legs
back-to-back is most suited for an industrial building
 This is due to two reasons:
1. A rafter section should have the same radius of gyration
about the main axes (rxx=ryy) so as to achieve the same
bending strength about the two axes and to have the
value of the least radius of gyration as large as possible.
2. Also, the double angle section provides extra strength.
 Although, the design forces in various panel of the rafter
vary considerably, they are still made of uniform cross
 There are 2 reasons for this:
1. The saving achieved by changing the sizes in various
panels is offset by the cost of splice and connections.
2. There is a loss of lateral stiffness of the structure
Design of roof trusses
 Spacing of truss
 The economic spacing of the truss is the spacing that
makes the overall cost of the trusses, purlins, roof
coverings, columns etc. the min.
 It depends upon the relative cost of the trusses, purlins
 If the spacing of the trusses is large, the cost of these
trusses per unit area decreases but the cost of purlins
 If the spacing is small, the cost of these trusses per unit
area increases.
 Roof coverings cost more if the spacing is large.
Loads on the roof truss
 Dead loads
A simple formula for the approximate dead weight of roof
truss is
Live load
 Live loads are the result of the occupancy of a structure.
In other words, it varies with how the building is to be
used. For example, a storage room is much more likely
to larger loads than is a residential bedroom. Bleachers
at a stadium are likely to see larger loads than what is
seen on a pitched building roof.
 The specified live loads are generally expressed either as
uniformly distributed area loads or point loads applied
over small areas.
 Snow load:
 If the structure is situated in an area where the roof is
subjected to snow, the load considered for design should
be the max. of the live or snow load.
 The load due to snow depends upon the pitch of the
roof, the shape of the roof and the roofing material.
 Snow load maybe assumed to be 2.5 N/m2 per mm depth
of snow.
 When the roof slope is greater than 50 degrees, the snow
load may be neglected.
Wind load
Wind load on the roof trusses, unless the roof slope is too
high, would be usually uplift force perpendicular to the roof,
due to suction effect of the wind blowing over the roof.
Hence the wind load on roof truss usually acts opposite to
the gravity load, and its magnitude can be larger than gravity
loads, causing reversal of forces in truss members.
The following wind speeds are considered for analysis .one
hour mean wind speed is used for the analysis.


Earthquake load

Since earthquake load on a building depends on the mass of

the building, earthquake loads usually do not govern the
design of light industrial steel buildings. Wind loads usually
govern. However, in the case of industrial buildings with a
large mass located at the roof or upper floors, the
earthquake load may govern the design.
 The design of a roof truss consists in selecting a suitable
type of truss, estimation of loads and design of purlins,
members of the roof truss and their connections.
 The design is done in the following steps:
 Depending upon the span, roofing material etc. The type
of truss is decided and a line diagram of the truss is
 Various loads acting over the roof truss are estimated.
 The purlins are designed and the load acting at the
panel points of the truss are computed.
 The roof truss is analysed by any suitable method.
 The compression members are designed. The principal
rafter is designed as a continuous strut and the other
compression members are designed as discontinuous
 The tension members are designed.
 The width of the truss members should be kept minimum
as far as possible, because wide members have greater
secondary stresses.
 If the purlins are places at intermediate points, ie.
Between the joints of the top chord, the top chord will
be subjected to moments.
 1. IS: 456- 2000
 2. IS: 800- 2007