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ANATOMY,

PHYSIOLOGY,
& DISEASE
FOUNDATIONS FOR
THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS

DEBORAH ROIGER
NIA BULLOCK

© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
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Chapter 7

The Nervous
System—Senses

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Learning Outcomes 1

7.1 Use medical terminology related to the senses


of the nervous system.
7.2 Classify the senses in terms of what is sensed
and where the receptors are located.
7.3 Describe the sensory receptors for the general
senses in the skin.
7.4 Explain the types of information transmitted by
sensory receptors in the skin.
7.5 Describe the pathway for pain.
7.6 Describe the sensory receptors for taste.
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Learning Outcomes 2

7.7 Describe the different tastes and explain how flavor


is perceived.
7.8 Describe the pathway for taste.
7.9 Describe the sensory receptors for smell.
7.10 Explain how odors are perceived.
7.11 Describe the pathway for smell.
7.12 Describe the anatomy of the ear.
7.13 Explain how sound is perceived.
8.14 Describe the pathway for hearing.
7.15 Describe the anatomy of the vestibular apparatus.
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Learning Outcomes 3

7.16 Explain how equilibrium is perceived.


7.17 Describe the pathway for equilibrium.
8.18 Describe the anatomy of the eye.
7.19 Explain how vision is perceived.
7.20 Describe the pathway for vision.
7.21 Describe the effects of aging on the senses.
7.22 Describe common diagnostic tests used to
diagnose disorders of the senses.
7.23 Describe disorders of the senses and relate
abnormal function to the pathology.
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Overview 1

Word Roots and Combining Forms


• audi/o: hearing
• aur/o: ear
• cochle/o: cochlea
• corne/o: cornea
• lacrim/o: tears
• lith/o: stone
• ocul/o: eye
• opt/o: eye, vision
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Overview 2

Word Roots and Combining Forms


• opthalm/o: eye
• ot/o: ear
• presby/o: old age
• propri/o: own
• retin/o: retina
• scler/o: sclera
• tympan/o: eardrum
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Overview 3

General senses are touch, pressure, stretch,


heat, cold, and pain. Receptors for general
senses are located throughout the body.
Special senses are taste, smell, hearing,
equilibrium, and vision. Special sense
organs are located in the head.

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General Senses 1

General Senses are Detected by:


• Thermoreceptors - temperature
• Mechanoreceptors – touch, vibration, stretch,
and pressure
• Nociceptors – tissue injury

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Receptors in the Skin

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General Senses 2

Physiology of General Senses in the Skin


• The neurons for general senses send messages
on the type, location, intensity, and duration of
the sensation.
• Cranial nerves if the general sense is located in the
head
• Spinal nerves and spinal cord if the general sense is
located below the head
• Messages sent to the hypothalamus and
amygdala may initiate visceral and emotional
responses.
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Receptive Fields

Jump to long description


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General Senses 3

Physiology of General Senses in the Skin


• Pathway for pain
• The pathway can be the same as any other sensory
input from the skin
Unipolar neuron ⇒ spinal cord ⇒ medulla oblongata⇒
pons ⇒ midbrain ⇒ thalamus ⇒ parietal lobe
• The signal may take a different pathway
Unipolar neuron ⇒ spinal cord ⇒ reticular formation ⇒
parietal lobe

hypothalamus and limbic system
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Pathways for Pain

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Taste 1

Anatomy of Receptors for Taste


• The special sense organ for taste is the taste
bud.
• Taste buds are located mostly on the tongue and
contain different cells:
• Taste cells have taste hairs that are chemoreceptors.
• Basal cells are stem cells that replace dead taste
cells.
• Support cells physically support the 50-150 taste cells
in each taste bud.
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The Tongue

Jump to long description


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Taste 2

Physiology of Taste
• There are five primary tastes: salt, sweet, sour,
bitter, and umami.
• Other sensory inputs are used to produce the
sensations of flavors.

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Taste 3

Physiology of Taste
• The pathway for taste uses three cranial nerves and
ends in the parietal lobe.
Cranial nerve → medulla oblongata → hypothalamus/amygdala

pons → midbrain → thalamus → parietal lobe

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Smell 1

Anatomy of Receptors for Smell


• Olfactory cells are bipolar neurons.
• Olfactory cells access the olfactory mucosa of
the roof of the nasal cavity through the foramen
of the cribriform plate.
• Olfactory hairs are chemoreceptors.

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Olfactory Receptors

Jump to long description


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Smell 2

Physiology of Smell
• The pathway for smell involves the olfactory
nerve and does not go through the thalamus on
its way to the frontal lobe.
frontal lobe (association area)

Bipolar neuron → CN I → temporal lobe (general sensory area)

frontal lobe (association area) hypothalamus and amygdala

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Hearing 1

Anatomy of the Ear


• Frequency of sound waves, measured in hertz,
determines pitch.
• Volume is measured in decibels.
• The ear can be divided into three sections: the
outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear.

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Range of Human Hearing

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Hearing 2

Anatomy of the Ear


• The ear is the organ of hearing.
• It is made up of 3 major parts:
• External ear
• Middle ear
• Inner ear

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Internal Anatomy of the Ear

Jump to long description


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Hearing 3

External Ear Consists of Two Parts:


• Pinna
• Funnel-like structure made of cartilage and skin
• Attached to side of head

• External auditory canal


• Short tube extending from pinna to eardrum
• Contains ceruminous glands

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Hearing 4

External Ear
• Sound waves hitting the pinna enter the
auditory canal.
• Cerumen and hairs in the auditory canal keep
foreign particles from reaching the eardrum.

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Hearing 5

Middle Ear is Composed of 4 Parts:


• Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
• Closes the interior to the external auditory canal
• Externally covered in skin, internally covered in
mucous membrane
• Sound waves cause the membrane to vibrate in and
out at the same frequency.

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Hearing 6

Middle Ear Parts, continued:


• Tympanic cavity
• Air-filled space in temporal bone separated from
external auditory canal by the tympanic membrane

• Auditory tube
• Connects tympanic cavity with the pharynx
• Allows for air pressure in the tympanic cavity to equal
external air pressure
• Essential for eardrum to function properly

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Hearing 7

Middle Ear Parts, concluded:


• Ear ossicles
• Three tiny bones forming a lever system between
tympanic membrane and inner ear
• Malleus

• Incus

• Stapes

• Vibrations from tympanic membrane pass from


malleus to incus to stapes.
• Stapes vibrates on the oval window of inner ear.
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A tube inserted in the tympanic 32

membrane to drain fluid

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Hearing 8

Inner Ear
• Two series of conducting tubes and chambers
embedded, one inside the other
• Outer bony labyrinth
• Inner membranous labyrinth

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Hearing 9

Inner Ear
• Functional fluids in the inner ear
• Space between the two labyrinths is filled with
perilymph.
• The membranous labyrinth is filled with endolymph.

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Hearing 10

Inner Ear
• Inner ear consists of three major parts:
• Cochlea
• Vestibule
• Semicircular canals

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Hearing 11

Inner Ear
• Cochlea
• Coiled portion
• 3 chambers separated by membranes:
• Scala vestibuli
• Scala tympani
• Vestibule

• Oval window
• Round window

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The Cochlea, Unwound

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Hearing 12

Inner Ear
• Cochlear duct extends almost to apex of
cochlea.
• Separated from scala vestibuli by the vestibular
membrane
• Separated from scala tympani by basilar membrane

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Anatomy of the Cochlea

Jump to long description


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Hearing 13

Inner Ear
• Basilar membrane contains 20,000 cross hairs
• Cross hairs increase in length from the base to apex
of the cochlea.
• Fibers attach to bony center of cochlea.
• Can vibrate when activated by vibrations made from
sound

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Hearing 14

Inner Ear
• Organ of Corti is in upper surface of basilar
membrane.
• It contains sound receptors called hair cells.
• Hair cells extend cilia towards overlying tectorial
membrane.
• Nerve fibers for the cochlear branch of the
vestibulocochlear nerve exit each hair cell.

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Hearing 15

Physiology of Hearing
• The human ear can detect sound waves
ranging from 30 to 20,000 vibrations per
second.
• Most acute between 2,000 and 3,000 vibrations per
second

• Sound waves must be transmitted to the hair


cells of the organ of Corti.

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Hearing 16

Physiology of Hearing
1. Sounds waves cause vibrations of the same
frequency in the tympanic membrane.
2. Vibrations lead to vibration of stapes on the
oval window.
3. Vibrations of the oval window cause:
4. Oscillatory movement in perilymph of scala
vestibuli and scala tympani.

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Hearing 17

Physiology of Hearing
5. Perilymph movement causes movement of
vestibular and basilar membranes.
6. Vibration of the basilar membrane causes hair
cells to contact the tectorial membrane.
• Hair cell contact triggers impulse formation by the
hair cells.

7. Movement then occurs in the round window.

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Effects of Sound Waves on the Cochlea

Jump to long description


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Hearing 18

Pitch and Loudness


• Different portions of the basilar membrane
vibrate in accordance with different frequencies
(pitch) of sound waves
• Low pitch vibrates longer basilar fibers
• High pitch vibrates shorter basilar fibers

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Hearing 19

Pitch is determined by:


• Portion of basilar membrane and organ of Corti
activated by a sound frequency
• The hearing centers receiving the impulses

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Hearing 20

Loudness depends on the intensity of the


vibration of the basilar membrane and organ
of Corti.
• Intensity determines frequency of impulse
formation.
• Greater frequency means louder sound
sensations.

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Frequency Response of the Basilar 49

Membrane in the Cochlea

Jump to long description


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Hearing 21

Pathway for Hearing


Bipolar neurons of CN VIII → pons → midbrain
(inferior colliculi) → thalamus → temporal lobe

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Equilibrium 1

Several sensory receptors are involved


• Receptors in joints and muscles
• Receptors in the eyes
• Receptors in the inner ear
There are two types of equilibrium:
• Static equilibrium: when the head is motionless
• Dynamic equilibrium: when the head is moving

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Dynamic Equilibrium

Jump to long description


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Equilibrium 2

Anatomy of the Vestibular Apparatus


• Static equilibrium
• The macula is the organ of static equilibrium.
• Inside the utricle and saccule
• Contains thousands of hair cells
• Hair cell cilia are embedded in a gelatinous mass
containing otoliths.
• Otoliths accomplish two tasks:
• Increase the weight of the gelatinous mass
• Make it more responsive to the force of gravity

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The Saccule and Utricle

Jump to long description


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Equilibrium 3

Anatomy of the Vestibular Apparatus


• Dynamic equilibrium
• Semicircular canals contain receptors that detect
motion of the head.
• Canals are oriented at 90 degrees to each other.

• Each canal is attached to utricle by an ampulla.

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Equilibrium 4

Anatomy of the Vestibular Apparatus


• Each ampulla possesses a crista ampullaris.
• Sensory organ for dynamic equilibrium
• Contains hair cells with processes extending into a
cupula
• Connected to fibers from vestibulocochlear nerve

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Semicircular Canals

Jump to long description


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Equilibrium 5

Physiology of Equilibrium
• Mechanism of static equilibrium
• Pull of gravity on gelatinous mass causes hair cells to
form impulses.

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The Effect of Gravity on the Macula

Jump to long description


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Equilibrium 6

Physiology of Equilibrium
• Mechanism of dynamic equilibrium
• When heads turns, endolymph pushes on the cupula.
• Hair cells bend, causing impulses to form.

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Equilibrium 7

Pathway for Equilibrium

• The cerebellum uses this information to


subconsciously maintain static equilibrium.
• Conscious awareness only occurs when
interpretation occurs in the cerebrum.
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Vision 1

Anatomy of the Eye


• The eye uses photoreceptors to detect light.
• Rectus and oblique muscles stimulated by CN
III, IV, and VI move the eye.
• The wall of the eye has three layers: the sclera,
the uvea, and the retina.

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Vision 2

Anatomy of the Eye


• The Orbital Region
• Protected by surrounding bones
• Supported by connective tissues
• Cushioned by fatty tissues behind the eyes

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Orbital Region

Jump to long description


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Vision 3

Anatomy of the Eye


• Eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrows
• Eyelids keep the eyes moist by spreading tears and
mucus.
• Conjunctiva

• Eyelashes keep out airborne particles and protect


from excessive light.
• Eyebrows shield the eyes from overhead light.

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Vision 4

Anatomy of the Eye


• Lacrimal apparatus
• Tear production
• Lacrimal gland produces tears.

• Lacrimal ducts carry tears to eye surface.

• Tear functions
• Keep eyes moist

• Wash away foreign particles

• Contain lysozyme to reduce infection chances

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The Lacrimal Gland and Ducts

Jump to long description


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Vision 5

Anatomy of the Eye


• Tear removal
• Collect at inner corner of eye
• Drain into superior and inferior canaliculi, into
lacrimal sac, and into nasolacrimal duct

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Vision 6

Anatomy of the Eye


• Muscles of the Eye
• 6 muscles that originate on the back of the eye orbit
and insert on the eyeball
• Function as a coordinated group to enable eye
movements

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The Accessory Structures of the Eye

Jump to long description


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Muscles of the Eye

Jump to long description


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Vision 7

Anatomy of the Eye


• The Eyeball: sclera, uvea, and retina
• Hollow and spherical, roughly 2.5cm in diameter
• Wall is composed of three layers
• Interior spaces are filled with fluids to support and
maintain eye shape. These fluids include the
aqueous humor and vitreous body.

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Vision 8

Anatomy of the Eye


• Sclera
• Tough, fibrous, opaque, white portion of the eye
• Provides protection for delicate internal portions of eye and
optic nerve

• Cornea is the anterior, convex, clear window of the eye


• Bends light rays as they pass through it
• Lacks blood vessels and nerves

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Vision 9

Anatomy of the Eye


• Uvea
• Choroid coat
• Has large blood vessels to nourish the eye
• Has melanin to prevent backscattering of light
• Ciliary body
• Has ciliary muscles that surround the lens
• Can change shape of lens
• Suspensory ligaments between ciliary body and lens hold
the lens in place

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Vision 10

Anatomy of the Eye


• Uvea
• Iris is the colored portion of the eye.
• It controls the amount of light entering the eye by controlling
the size of the pupil.

• Pupil is the opening in the center of the iris that allows light to
pass into the eye.

• Constricted in bright light

• Dilated in dim light

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Vision 11

Anatomy of the Eye


• Retina
• Lines the interior of the eye posterior to the ciliary
body
• Possesses rods for black and white vision
• Sensitive only to presence of light

• Possesses cones for color vision


• Requires bright light to function

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Sagittal View of the Eye

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The Neurons of the Retina

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Vision 12

Anatomy of the Eye


• Optic disc
• Blood vessels enter and exit the eye.
• Axons exit the eye.
• No receptor cells = blind spot.

• Macula Lutea
• Yellowish disc on the retina
• Contains the fovea centralis, which contains only
cones; is the area of sharpest vision
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The Retina as Seen through an
Ophthalmoscope

Jump to long description


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Vision 13

Anatomy of the Eye


• Photoreceptor distribution in the retina
• Cones are most concentrated at the fovea centralis.
• Density decreases with distance from the fovea.

• Rods are least concentrated at the fovea centralis.


• Density increases with distance from fovea.

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Vision 14

Physiology of Vision
• Light must be refracted precisely so it is
focused on the retina.
• Cornea does the largest refraction.
• Lens perform accommodation to provide fine
adjustment.

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Vision 15

Physiology of Vision
• Accommodation helps to focus light on the
retina.
• Involves adjusting the shape of the lens for distance,
intermediate, and near vision
• For distant vision:
• Ciliary muscles relax.

• Tension on suspensory ligaments is high.

• Lens flattens.

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Accommodation of the Eye for
Distant Vision

Jump to long description


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Vision 16

Physiology of Vision
• Accommodation
• For near vision:
• Ciliary muscles contract.
• Suspensory ligaments have low tension.
• Lens thickens.

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Accommodation of the 86

Eye for Near Vision

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Vision 17

Pathway for Vision


• Photoreceptor impulses are transmitted along
the optic nerve to the brain.
• The two optic nerves meet at the optic chiasm.
• Fibers from the medial half of the retina cross to
the opposite side.

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Vision 18

Pathway for Vision

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The Pathway for Binocular Vision

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Effects of Aging on the Senses 1

In general, the senses are affected by aging,


but it is not always clear if it is aging itself or
lifestyle choices, environmental exposures,
and/or diseases that are actually
responsible. Most sensory ability decreases
with age, with some senses being more
affected than others.

© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education


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Effects of Aging on the Senses 2

Pain sensitivity usually reduces after 50.


A decrease in number and size of taste
occurs after 50.
Taste sensitivity decreases after 60.
Number of olfactory nerve endings
decreases by 70.
30% of people over 65 have significant
hearing loss.
Presbyopia and presbycusis can occur.
© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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Diagnostic Tests for Disorders
of the Senses
The Ishihara test is a test for color blindness.
The Rinne test and Weber test are tests in
which a tuning fork is used to test for hearing
loss.
The Snellen test uses an eye chart to
measure visual acuity.
Tonometry is a procedure that measures the
pressure inside the eye.

© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education


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Disorders of the Senses 1

Hearing Loss
• Conductive hearing loss is caused by a lesion in
the outer or middle ear that prevents the proper
conduction of vibrations to the inner ear.
• Sensorineural hearing loss is a problem with the
organ of Corti or the auditory nerve.

© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education


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Disorders of the Senses 2

Cataracts
• A cataract is a progressive, painless loss of vision due
to the clouding of the lens of the eye.
• Cataracts can be treated by surgically removing the
lens and replacing it with an artificial lens.

© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education ©Dr. P. Marazzi/Science Source


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Other Disorders of the Senses 1

Age-related Macular Degeneration is a disease


in which cells in the central part of the retina
degenerate.
Color blindness is a genetic disorder that results
in the inability to see certain colors.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the
conjunctiva.
Glaucoma is an increase in intraocular pressure.

© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education


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Other Disorders of the Senses 2

Myopia/ Hyperopia/Astigmatism occur because of


abnormal variations in eye shape that affect vision.
Presbyopia is an inability of the eye to
accommodate for near and far vision that occurs
with aging.
Otitis externa is an infection of the outer ear.
Otitis media is an infection of the middle ear.
Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by a
problem with the organ of Corti or the auditory
nerve.
© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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Appendix of Image
Long Descriptions

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Receptive Fields - Appendix

Part (a) shows that touching the back with two points in the
same receptive field will be perceived as one touch. The
back has a low density of sensory neuronal fibers. Part (b)
shows that touching the fingertip with two points will be
perceived as two touches. The fingertip has a higher
density of sensory neuronal fibers.

Jump to the image


© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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The Tongue - Appendix

Part (a) is an illustration of the superior surface of the


tongue, showing papillae locations. Part (b) is an illustration
of a papilla, with emphasis on the taste buds. Part (c) is an
illustration of a taste bud, showing the taste cells, taste
hairs, and taste pores, along with the supporting cells of the
tongue epithelium.

Jump to the image


© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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Olfactory Receptors - Appendix

The outer ear is comprised of the pinna and other


structures. It is supported by elastic cartilage. The middle
ear begins at the eardrum (tympanic membrane). It
contains three small bones: malleus, incus, and stapes.
The inner ear contains the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular
canals and other structures.

Jump to the image


© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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Internal Anatomy of the Ear - Appendix

The outer ear is comprised of the pinna and other


structures. It is supported by elastic cartilage. The middle
ear begins at the eardrum (tympanic membrane). It
contains three small bones: malleus, incus, and stapes.
The inner ear contains the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular
canals and other structures.

Jump to the image


© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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Anatomy of the Cochlea - Appendix

Part (a) is a three dimensional illustration of the cochlea


showing the round window, oval window, vestibule, and
semilunar canals. Part (b) is a cross section of a cochlear
duct showing its anatomical components along with the
locations of perilymph and endolymph. Part (c) is a detailed
description of the spiral organ showing the basilar
membrane, inner and outer hair cells, and supporting cells.
Part (d) is a detailed view of a hair cell along with the nerve
endings of the cochlear branch of the auditory nerve.

Jump to the image


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Effects of Sound Waves on the Cochlea -
Appendix
Step (1) involves sound waves causing the tympanic membrane
to vibrate. During step (2) the middle ear’s small bones (malleus,
incus, and stapes) vibrate and amplify the vibrations. Step (3)
involves the stapes pushing on the oval window causing it to
vibrate. During step (4) vibrations of the oval window create
waves in the perilymph that cannot be compressed. These
waves created in step (4) cause in step (5) pushing on the
vestibular membrane, which cause waves in the endolymph of
the cochlea duct. Step (6) involves the endolymph waves
causing a push on the basilar membrane. The basilar membrane
vibrates, resulting in a bending of the hair cells. In step (7) the
hair cells release neurotransmitters to bipolar neurons of the
cochlear branch and then the wave pushes against the round
window.

Jump to the image


© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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Frequency Response of the Basilar Membrane in
the Cochlea - Appendix
The base of the basilar membrane near the oval window
responds to higher-pitched sounds and apex, near the end
of the cochlear duct, responds to lowest-pitched sounds.

Jump to the image


© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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Dynamic Equilibrium - Appendix

Part (a) shows an individual swiveling in an office chair to


illustrate rotation in a transverse plane. Part (b) shows an
individual performing a cartwheel in order to illustrate
rotation in the coronal plane. Part (c) shows an individual
moving into the hand stand position in order to illustrate
rotation in the sagittal plane.

Jump to the image


© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
106

The Saccule and Utricle - Appendix

Part (a) illustrates the location of the saccule and utricle


within the vestibular apparatus. These structures are
medial between the semicircular canals and the cochlea.
Part (b) illustrates the anatomical features of the macula.
The hair cells and supporting cells are shown along with
branches of the vestibular nerve. The otoliths within the
otolithic membrane are illustrated. Part (c) illustrates the
anatomy of a hair cell, showing its microvilli and synapsed
vestibular nerve.

Jump to the image


© 2019 McGraw-Hill Education
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Semicircular Canals - Appendix

Part (a) illustrates the anatomy of the semicircular canals.


They are three bony channels filled with fluid positioned at
right angles to one another. Part (b) shows detail of the
crista ampullaris and hair cell. Shown are the cupula,
cupula ampullaris, and microvilli on the hair cell. Part (c)
illustrates the action of the endolymph on the crista
ampullaris and cupula during the rotational maneuver seen
in part (d). Part (d) illustrates a gymnast rotating in the
sagittal plane.

Jump to the image


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The Effect of Gravity on the Macula - Appendix

Part (a) shows that in an upright position, the otoliths press


equally on the hair cells. Shown in part (b) is a tilt of the
head resulting in otoliths bending; this causes
neurotransmitter release, which stimulates the vestibular
branch of the auditory nerve.

Jump to the image


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Orbital Region - Appendix

The orbital region contains the eyebrow, eye lashes, tarsal


plate, pupil of the eye, upper eyelid, iris, sclera, and lower
eyelid.

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110

The Lacrimal Gland and Ducts - Appendix

The lacrimal apparatus includes the lacrimal gland, lacrimal


ducts, lacrimal punctum, lacrimal canals, lacrimal sac, and
nasolacrimal duct.

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The Accessory Structures of the Eye - Appendix

The accessory structures of the eye include the orbicularis


oculi muscle, superior rectus muscle, tarsal plate, lateral
rectus muscle, and inferior rectus muscle.

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Muscles of the Eye - Appendix

Part (a) is a lateral eye view showing the superior oblique,


inferior oblique, superior rectus, and inferior rectus
muscles. Part (b) is an anterior eye view showing the same
muscles. The superior oblique muscle is controlled by
cranial nerve four (trochlear). The lateral rectus muscle is
controlled by cranial nerve six (abducens). The superior
rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique
muscles are controlled by cranial nerve three
(occulomotor).

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Sagittal View of the Eye - Appendix

This view shows the vitreous chamber, vitreous humor,


retina, choroid layer, sclera, retinal artery and vein, along
with the optic nerve.

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The Retina as Seen through an Ophthalmoscope
- Appendix
Part (a) is a photo of an ophthalmoscopic view of the retina.
Part (b) is an illustration of the same view showing retinal
arteries, veins, and the optic disc.

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Accommodation of the Eye for
Distant Vision - Appendix
Part (a) shows changes in the lens’ shape during
accommodation to view a distant object. The ciliary
muscles relax causing the suspensory ligaments to get
tight, thus pulling out on the lens, making it thinner. Part (b)
shows changes in the lens’ shape during accommodation
to view a near object. The ciliary muscles contract, relaxing
the tension on the suspensory ligaments, thus allowing the
lens to get thicker.

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