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DESIGN OF OPEN WEB

GIRDER BRIDGE

ATUL KUMAR VERMA


XEN/SB-I/RDSO
INTRODUCTION
Truss bridge:
 Used for spans greater than what can be spanned
economically by a plate girder bridge.
 In general truss bridges are used for spans
greater than 30 m.
INTRODUCTION (Cont...)
 Forms Of Open Web Girder Bridges
 Through Type
 Deck Type (Underslung)
 Semi Through Type
COMPONENTS OF THROUGH TYPE
BRIDGE
 Floor System:
 Cross girder (Bending)
 Rail bearers or Stringers(Bending)
 Primary Members:
 Bottom chord members (Tension members)
 Top chord members (Compression members)
 End rackers (Compression & Bending members)
 Diagonals (Reversible stress members)
 Verticals (Tension members & redundant members)
COMPONENTS (Cont...)
 Secondary members:
 Bottom lateral bracings (Axial force)
 Top lateral bracings (Axial force)
 Sway bracings & knee sway (Axial force & Bending)
 Portal bracings & knee portal (Axial force & Bending)
 Main gussets
 Bearings
GENERAL CONFIGRUATION
 Type of truss
 Warren truss with verticals for standard railway spans
 Other forms may be adopted as per different conditions
 Number of panels
 Weight of truss Vs Floor system
 Optimum number is 6 to 10
 Length of panel
 Weight of truss Vs Floor system
 Optimum length is 6 m. to 9 m.
 Inclination of diagonals
 Between 45° and 60° with the horizontal
GENERAL CONFIGRUATION (Cont…)
 Height of truss
 Through type Vs Deck type
 Between 1/8 and 1/5 of span length
 Spacing of trusses
 Sufficient to prevent overturning due to lateral loads
 > 1/3 of height of truss & > 1/20 of span
ESTIMATION OF LOADS
 Dead load
 Live load
 Dynamic effects
 Longitudinal force
 Racking force
 Wind pressure effect
 Forces and effect due to earthquake
DEAD LOAD
 Dead load of truss is assumed before design on the
basis of experience & earlier designs
 After design of truss the actual dead load of truss is
compare with assumed dead load
 If there is difference between two, then assumed
dead load is revised and structure is designed with
revised dead load
LIVE LOAD
 Clause 2.3 of bridge rule.
 Estimated on the basis of loading standard.
 EUDL(equivalent uniformly distributed loads ) are
given in appendix of bridge rules for different loading
standards.
 EUDL is given for bending moment and shear force
 EUDL for Bending Moment:
 For Maximum forces in elements resisting bending
(Bottom chords & top chords)

 EUDL for Shear Force:


 For Maximum forces in elements resisting shear at section
(end racker, diagonals, verticals)
DYNAMIC EFFECTS
 Clause 2.4 of bridge rule
 Augmentation in load due to dynamic effects is
considered by adding a load equivalent to a
coefficient of dynamic augment(CDA) multiplied by
the live load giving the maximum stress in member
under consideration.
 For single track spans:
 CDA=0.15+(8/(6+L)) subject to a maximum of 1.0
Where L= loaded length of span in meters for the position
of the train giving the maximum stress in the member
under consideration
LONGITUDINAL FORCES
 Clause 2.8 of bridge rule
 Value of longitudinal force due to either tractive
effort or braking force shall be obtained from
appendices.
 Values depend on loaded length and standard of
loading.
 Maximum of tractive effort or braking force is taken
as longitudinal force.
RACKING FORCE
 Clause 2.9 of bridge rule.
 Lateral bracings of loaded deck of spans to be
designed for a lateral load due to racking force of 600
kg/m. treated as moving load.
 Racking force not to be considered for calculating
stresses in chords or flanges of main girders.
WIND PRESSURE EFFECT
 Clause 2.11 of bridge rules.
 Wind pressure expressed as a equivalent static
pressure in windward direction
 Wind pressure shall apply to all loaded or unloaded
bridges.
 But bridge shall not considered to carry any live load
when wind pressure at deck level exceeds 150 kg/m2
for B.G.
 Wind force calculated for loaded spans with wind
pressure 150 kg/m2.
WIND PRESSURE EFFECT (Cont…)
 Wind Force = wind pressure*exposed area
 Exposed area = area of moving load + exposed area
of truss members.
 Full area of truss members on windward side +50%
area of truss members on Leeward side.
SEISMIC FORCE
 Clause 2.12 of bridge rule
 Seismic forces:
 Horizontal seismic force
 Vertical seismic force
 Seismic forces calculated taking into consideration
seismic zone, importance of structure and its soil
foundation system.
 Design seismic coefficients:
α =βIα
h 0

α = α /2
v h
SEISMIC FORCE (Cont…)
 F=Wm*αh (or αv)
F = Seismic force
Wm=Weight of mass under consideration
ignoring reduction due to buoyancy
 Horizontal seismic force due to live load on the
bridge shall be ignored when acting in the direction
of traffic
 When acting in the direction perpendicular to traffic,
this is to be considered for 50% of design live load
without impact.
ANALYSIS OF FORCES
 To find out the forces in members of truss due to
various loads.
 Forces can be found out either by suitable computer
program or by hand calculation.
 Hand calculation is done by using influence line
diagrams(ILD) for various members of truss.
 ILD are prepared for a member of truss by calculating
force in member as a unit load moves across the deck
of the truss.
 Area of ILD calculated and multiplied by the force
intensity to get force in a particular member.
DEAD LOAD ANALYSIS
 Dead load intensity is same for all the members of
truss.
 Dead load intensity (per truss per unit length)
= total assumed dead load/(2*span length)
 Force due to dead load in each member of truss are
calculated by multiplying dead load intensity with
area of ILD.
LIVE LOAD ANALYSIS
 Bottom chord members have tension in ILD. Loaded
length is length of span.
 Top chord members have compression in ILD.
Loaded length is length of span.
 Live load intensity for chord members
=EUDL bending/(2*loaded length)
 CDA for chord members is calculated taking L as span
length.
 End racker have compression in ILD. Loaded length is
length of span.
 Live load intensity for end racker
=EUDL shear/(2*loaded length)
LIVE LOAD ANALYSIS (Cont…)
 CDA for end racker is calculated taking L as span
length.
 Diagonal members have both tension & compression
in ILD. loaded length for tension & compression is
found from ILD.
 Live load intensity & CDA for diagonals are
calculated for tension & compression both based on
their respective loaded lengths.
 Force due to live load = ILD area*live load intensity
 Force due to dynamic effect = CDA*force due to live
load
LONGITUDINAL FORCE
 Longitudinal force taken for only bottom chord
members.
 This depends on position of different bottom chord
members.
 For bottom chord member in end panel loaded
length for longitudinal force is full span.
 Loaded length reduces by one panel length as we
take bottom chords of other panels starting from end
to centre.
 Based on loaded length longitudinal force is found in
bottom chord members.
WIND LOAD ANALYSIS
 General concept of load transfer and how the wind
forces are distributed among the members
Wind Load = Wind pressure X exposed area
Exposed Area = Area of moving load + exposed area
of truss member
636
610 610

4670

10500
3505
620

100
1676
265
940

75
1440

620
610 610
5500
INCLINATION FACTOR = 13128 /10500 = 1.25
DEPTH OF BC = 620 mm
DEPTH OF TC = 620 + 16 = 636 mm
WIDTH OF ER = 630 + 20 = 640 mm
WIDTH OF VERT. = 280
WIDTH OF DIAGONAL = 400 mm
1440+265
LA 1 = = 85.3 Cm
2
LA 2 = 407.8 Cm
LA 3 = 1081 Cm
WIND LOAD ANALYSIS (Cont…)
Through Type Truss
EXPOSED AREA TC BC
1. Between RL and bottom of B1
B.C.
2. Between Moving load and RL B2
of stringer
ER, Vertical ,Diagonal
(l x b x No.)
3. Moving load B3
4. TC and top of moving load T1

5. Top Chord T2
6. Gusset Top T2
Total AT=T1+T2+T3 AB=B1+B2+B3
WIND LOAD ANALYSIS (Cont…)
 Wind force on top chord = Wind pressurexATX1.5=WT
 Wind force on bottom chord= W P[1.5(AB-
B3)+B3]=WB
 Nodal force at top chord:
 At intermediate nodes = WT/No. of top panel=Tint.
 At end nodes = Tint/2

 Nodal force at bottom chord:


 At intermediate nodes = WB/No. of bottom panel=Bint.
 At end nodes = Bint/2
WIND LOAD ANALYSIS (Cont…)
 Wind load analysis is done for following situations:
 Horizontal bending of bottom chord due to wind force on
bottom chord & moving load
 Vertical bending of span due to wind force on bottom
chord & moving load
 Horizontal bending of bottom chord due to wind force on
top chord transmitted through sway bracings
 Vertical bending of span due to wind force on top chord
transmitted through sway bracings
 Horizontal bending of top chord due to wind load on top
chord
 Overturning effect of portal
SEISMIC FORCE ANALYSIS
 Seismic force calculated in horizontal & vertical
direction
 In horizontal direction seismic force calculated for
bottom chord & top chord
 On bottom chord seismic force is due to dead load as
well as live load & on top chord seismic force is due
to dead load only
 In vertical direction seismic force is due to dead load
as well as live load
 Analysis of seismic force for forces in members is
same as that of wind force
FORCE IN TRUSS MEMBERS
 Force in truss members found by adding forces due
to dead load, live load with dynamic effect,
longitudinal loads, wind load or seismic loads
DESIGN OF STRINGER
 Loaded length for stringer = length of one panel
 Bending moment & shear force calculated by getting
EUDL bending or EUDL shear as per case
 Dead load of stringer & track also considered
 Section assumed for stringer
 Actual stresses calculated for bending moment &
shear force
 Permissible stresses for bending is minimum of :
 Basic permissible stress (clause 3.7of SBC)
 Permissible stress in fatigue (clause 3.6 of SBC)
 Permissible stress in bending compression (clause 3.9 of
SBC)
DESIGN OF STRINGER (Cont…)
 Permissible shear stress (Table II of SBC)
 Actual stress < permissible stress then assumed
section is safe otherwise revise the section
 Design of connection between web & flange of
stringer:
 Calculation of horizontal shear at the level of weld
 Permissible stress in weld (Appendix-G of SBC & clause
13.4 of welded bridge code)
 Size of weld calculated (Subject to clause 6.2 of welded
bridge code)
DESIGN OF STRINGER (Cont…)
 Provision of stiffeners (Clause 5.10 of SBC)
 Design of stringer bracings:
 Calculation of lateral load (Clause 2.9.2 of bridge rule)
 Analysis for force in stringer bracings.
 Design of stringer bracings (Clause 6.2.3 & 3.8 of SBC)
DESIGN OF CROSS GIRDER
 Loaded length for cross girder for EUDL
= 2*centre to centre distance of cross girder
 L for CDA = 2.5*cross girder spacing
 Bending moment & shear force calculated by getting
EUDL
 Dead load of stringer, track & cross girder also
considered
 Section assumed for cross girder
 Design process for cross girder is same as stringer
DESIGN OF CROSS GIRDER (Cont…)
 Connection of cross girder with stringer
 Calculate number of rivets for:
-one span loaded
-both span loaded
 Connection of cross girder with vertical & Bottom
chord
 Find rivet value & calculate number of rivets required for
connection
DESIGN OF BOTTOM CHORD
 Bottom chord members are tension member
 Section assumed for Bottom chord members (Taking
into consideration clause 4.5 & clause 6.7 of SBC)
 Effective area of the section calculated (clause 4.3.2
of SBC)
 Actual stresses calculated for axial tension for:
 Without longitudinal & seismic or wind forces
 With longitudinal & seismic or wind forces
 Permissible stress for axial tension is minimum of:
 Basic permissible stress (clause 3.7of SBC)
 Permissible stress in fatigue (clause 3.6 of SBC)
DESIGN OF BOTTOM CHORD (Cont…)
 Permissible stress for wind or seismic case is
increased by 16.667% (Table 1 of SBC )
 Actual stress < permissible stress for both cases then
assumed section is safe otherwise revise the section
 Design of stitching weld:
 Calculation of force at the level of weld
 Permissible stress in weld ( appendix-G of SBC & clause
13.4 of welded bridge code)
 Size of weld calculated (subject to clause 6.2 of welded
bridge code)
 Design of lacing & battening of tension members
(Clause 6.9 & 6.10 of SBC)
 Design of diaphragms (Clause 6.16 of SBC)
DESIGN OF TOP CHORD
 Top chord members are compression member
 Section assumed for top chord members (taking into
consideration clause 4.5 & clause 6.2 of SBC)
 Effective area of the section (clause 6.2.2 of SBC)
 Actual stresses calculated for axial compression for :
 Without seismic or wind forces
 With seismic or wind forces
 Permissible stress in axial compression is minimum
of:
 Basic permissible stress (clause 3.7of SBC)
 Stress in axial compression (clause 3.7of SBC)
 Permissible stress in fatigue (clause 3.6 of SBC)
DESIGN OF TOP CHORD (Cont…)
 Permissible stress for wind or seismic case is
increased by 16.667% (Table 1 of SBC )
 Actual stress < permissible stress for both cases then
assumed section is safe otherwise revise the section
 Design of stitching weld:
 Calculation of force at the level of weld
 Permissible stress in weld (Appendix-G of SBC & clause
13.4 of welded bridge code)
 Size of weld calculated (Subject to clause 6.2 of welded
bridge code)
 Design of lacing & battening of compression
members (Clause 6.5 & 6.6 of SBC)
 Design of diaphragms (Clause 6.16 of SBC)
DESIGN OF END RACKER
 End racker subjected to axial compression & bending
(Clause 6.19 of SBC)
 Section assumed for end racker (taking into
consideration clause 4.5 & clause 6.2 of SBC)
 Effective area of the section (Clause 6.2.2 of SBC)
 Actual stresses calculated for axial compression &
bending for :
 Without seismic or wind forces
 With seismic or wind forces
 Permissible stress in compression is minimum of:
 Basic permissible stress (Clause 3.7of SBC)
 stress in axial compression (Clause 3.7of SBC)
 permissible stress in fatigue (Clause 3.6 of SBC)
DESIGN OF END RACKER (Cont…)
 Permissible stress in bending (Table 2 of SBC)
 Permissible stress for wind or seismic case is
increased by 16.667% for axial compression &
bending both (Table 1 of SBC )
 Adequacy of section is checked for combined
stresses for both cases (Clause 3.11.1 of SBC )
 Design of stitching weld, design of lacing & battening
and design of diaphragms same as compression
member
DESIGN OF DIAGONALS & VERTICALS
 Diagonals are reversible stress members
 Section of diagonals have to be checked for both
tension & compression
 Verticals are tension members
 Design done similar to bottom chord
DESIGN OF PORTAL BRACINGS SYSTEM
 Force analysis in members of portal system done for
forces: (Clause 6.19 of SBC)
 50% of lateral forces on top chord
 Lateral shear equal to1.25% of total force in two end
racker or in two top chords in end panel whichever is
greater
 Top member of portal subjected to axial compression
& bending moment both
 Design of top member is similar to that of end racker
 Knee portal is tension or compression member as per
the direction of application of nodal force
 Knee portal is designed for both axial tension &
compression
DESIGN OF TOP LATERAL BRACINGS
 Force analysis in top lateral bracing system done for
forces: (Clause 6.17 of SBC)
 Lateral force on top chord
 2.5% of force in top chord members
 Bracing members are tension or compression
member depending upon the direction of application
of nodal force
 Bracing members are designed for both axial tension
& compression
DESIGN OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACINGS
 Force analysis in bottom lateral bracing system done
for forces: (Clause 6.17 of SBC)
 Lateral force on bottom chord & moving load
 50% of lateral force in top chord transmitted through sway
bracings
 Racking force
 Longitudinal force
 Bracing members are tension or compression
member depending upon the direction of application
of nodal force
 Bracing members are designed for both axial tension
& compression
DESIGN OF JOINTS
 Connection at intersection is done as per clause 6.12
of SBC
 Rivet value is calculated for rivets to be used
 Number of rivets = force in member/rivet value
 Arrangement of rivets at a joint is done as per clause
7.1 to 7.9 of SBC
 Splicing of members is done as per clause 6.11 of
SBC
CAMBER
 Camber diagram is prepared as per clause 4.16 &
appendix-A of SBC
 Camber calculated for dead load & full live load
including impact
 Forces in members are calculated for these loads
 Change in length of members due to forces in
members = FL/AE
 In tension members increase in length & for
compression members decrease in length
 Strain correction is applied in nominal length equal
to change in length of members
 For tension members it is negative & for compression
members it is positive
CAMBER (Cont…)
 To avoid changes in the length of floor system further
change in length done in length of all members
 This change equal to ((loaded chord extension or
contraction/loaded chord length)*length of member)
 For through spans this change is increase in length of
members & for deck type it will be decrease
 Nominal lengths altered as above give a girder
correctly stressed camber
 Nominal lengths and cambered length rounded off to
nearest 0.5 mm.
DEFLECTION
 Deflection < length of girder/600 (Clause 4.17 of SBC)
 Vertical deflection at the centre of span is calculated
by applying unit load at the centre of truss
 Deflection at centre=∑((FL/AE)*U)
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