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History of

Engineering
Egypt, Indus
Valley
3000-600 BC
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Sadd el Kafara Dam
• A dam at Helwan
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Cairo, Egypt
• Dam of “Pagans”
• Built by ancient
Egyptians
• Water reservoir
• 14 m height and 113
m length along the
crest and is considered
today the oldest dam
of such size known in
the world.
2 Step
Pyramid●● Saqqara,
Imhotep
Egypt

● Served as King’s palace


in the after life or  During
Egypt’s Early Dynastic Period and
Old Kingdom, rectangular
structures with a flat roof and
outward sloping sides were used
to mark the tombs of the elite
members of society. 
●  made of mud-brick or
stone,
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Great Pyramid of Khufu
• Giza, Egypt
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• Religious, scientific and
geographical
contribution
• The pyramids were built
by Pharaohs Khufu
(tallest), Khafre
(background), and
Menkaure (front).
• Hemiunu is believed to
be the architect of the 
Great Pyramid.
4 Great Ziggurat of
Ur ● Located in present-
day Dhi Qar
Province, Iraq
● Built by summerian
King Ur-Nammu of
the Third Dynasty
of Ur
● Its religious belief,
they built them to
make temples closer
to heaven and
therefore closer to 6
God.
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Sexagesimal
System
Sexagesimal (base 60) is
a numeral system . It
originated with the ancient 
Summerians  in the 3rd
millennium BC, was passed
down to the
ancient Babylonians and is
still used—in a modified
form—for
measuring time, angles,
and geographic
coordinates.
Babylonian
Engineers

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• Primitive Arches
used in moving
water
• Bridges were
built with stones
piers carrying
wooden stringers
• Roads were
surfaced with a
naturally
occuring asphalt
• Irrigation
systems
• Gardens of 9

References:
https://
www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-africa/magnificent-step-pyramid-djo
ser-saqqara-002434

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/archaeology/gi
za-pyramids/#/
giza-plateau-pyramids.jpg

http://www.hydriaproject.info/en/egypt-sadd-al-kafara-dam/relevance9

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexagesimal

https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/great-ziggurat-ur-001767

https://slideplayer.com/slide/5939166/

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Group 4 CE-1D Angha
g
Lavarias

Colanggo
Balan
i
Garcia

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