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The Number System

Topic 1.2.1

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Topic
The Number System
1.2.1

California Standard: What it means for you:


1.0 Students identify and use You’ll learn some of the rules that
the arithmetic properties of subsets the real numbers always follow.
of integers and rational, irrational,
and real numbers, including
closure properties for the four
basic arithmetic operations
where applicable.
Key words:
• binary operation
• equality
• real numbers
• substitution

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Topic
The Number System
1.2.1

You’ve already met the real numbers in Section 1.1.

Real numbers, —


The set of all positive and negative numbers and zero.

Now it’s time to look at the properties of the real


numbers in detail.

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Topic
The Number System
1.2.1

The Real Number System is Based on Simple Rules

The rules of the real number system are based on the


existence of a set of numbers, plus two binary operations.

A binary operation allows you to combine two numbers


in some way to produce a third number.

In Algebra I, the set of numbers used is the real numbers, ,


and the two binary operations are addition and multiplication.

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Topic
The Number System
1.2.1

The Properties of Equality Always Hold


The following statements about equality hold
true for any real numbers a, b, and c:

For any number a  : a = a


This is the reflexive property of equality.

For any numbers a, b  : if a = b then b = a


This is the symmetric property of equality.

For any numbers a, b, c  : if a = b and b = c, then a = c


This is the transitive property of equality.

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Topic
The Number System
1.2.1
Guided Practice
Name the property of equality being used in each statement.

1. If a = 3 then 3 = a. symmetric property

2. If a = 3 and 3 = b, then a = b. transitive property

3. 3 = 3 reflexive property

4. If 3x = 2 and 2 = 2y, then 3x = 2y. transitive property

5. If 3x = 2y then 2y = 3x. symmetric property

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Solution follows…
Topic
The Number System
1.2.1

Addition and Multiplication are Binary Operations


The operations of addition and multiplication are called
binary operations.
In order to carry either of them out you need to have
two “inputs”. What this basically means is that you
can combine two numbers to produce a third number.

2 + 3 = 5
input 1 input 2
operation

Addition — the inputs are called addends


Multiplication — the inputs are called factors7
Topic
The Number System
1.2.1

A set of numbers is said to be closed under a given binary


operation if, when you perform that operation on any two
members of the set, the result is also a member of the set.

The set of real numbers, , is closed under both addition


and multiplication — adding and multiplying real numbers
always produces other real numbers.

If a   and b  , then (a + b)   and (a × b)  .

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Topic
The Number System
1.2.1
Example 1

Use the fact that 10   and 6   to


explain why 16   and 60  .

Solution
10   and 6  , so you can add the two numbers to
produce another number that is a member of .
So 10 + 6 = 16  .
You can also multiply the two numbers to produce another
number that is a member of .
So 10 × 6 = 60  .
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Solution follows…
Topic
The Number System
1.2.1

The Substitution Principle (or Substitution Property)

For any real numbers a and b, the number a


may be substituted for the number b if a = b.

This principle means that if two expressions have the


same value, then one expression can be substituted for
(written instead of) the other.

For example, the expression 23 can be replaced by the


expression (10 + 13) or by (17 + 6).

Similarly, the expression 2.3 × 4.5 can be replaced with 10.35.


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Topic
The Number System
1.2.1
Independent Practice
Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false.
If false, rewrite the statement so that it is true.
1. If k = l then l = k. This is the symmetric property. True

2. If k = l then l = 3, then k = 3. This is the reflexive property.


False — transitive property

In Exercises 3–6, demonstrate the closed nature of the set under


both addition and multiplication using the numbers given.
3.  using 3 and 5 3 + 5 = 8, 8  … 3 × 5 = 15, 15 

4.  using –10 and 11 –10 + 11 = 1, 1  … –10 × 11 = –110, –110 

5.  using 6 and 8 6 + 8 = 14, 14  … 6 × 8 = 48, 48 

6.  using 1.5 and 0.3 1.5 + 0.3 = 1.8, 1.8  … 1.5 × 0.3 = 0.45, 0.45 
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Solution follows…
Topic
The Number System
1.2.1

Round Up
These rules are a bit abstract at the moment, but don’t worry.

You’ll see how useful the real number properties are in the rest
of the Section, and you’ll use them all the way through Algebra I.

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