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UNIT III

Cultural Values and Consumer Behavior


Which Cultural Value? (1 of 2)

Source: Campbell Soup Company


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Which Cultural Value? (2 of 2)

Source: Campbell Soup Company


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Culture and Marketing
• Culture’s continuous evolution
• Cultural beliefs reflect societal needs

• Marketers must always monitor cultural changes to discover


new opportunities and abandon markets that have “dried up”
because of cultural changes.
• Marketers should periodically reconsider
why consumers are doing what they do,
who are the purchasers and the users of their offerings,
when they do their shopping,
how and where they can be reached by the media,
and what new product and service needs are emerging.

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Culture and Marketing…..
• Culture expresses and satisfies the needs of societies. It offers
order, direction, and guidance for problem solving by providing
“tried-and-true” methods of satisfying physiological, personal,
and social needs.
• Culture determines whether a product is a necessity or
discretionary luxury. Culture also dictates which clothes are
suitable for different occasions (such as what to wear around the
house, and what to wear to school, to work, to church, at a fast-
food restaurant, or to a movie theater).
• At times, society’s collective interest contradicts an emerging
custom. For instance, because most young Americans are now
electronically connected all the time and at almost any place,
distracted driving because of texting or calling on mobile phones
is directly causing more car accidents.
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“Levels” of Cultural Norms
• Supranational - level reflects the underlying dimensions of
culture that affect multiple societies (i.e., sub-cultural cross-
national or cross-cultural boundaries).
• National level reflects shared core values, customs, and
personalities that represent the core of the “national
character” of a particular country.
• Group level reflects the subdivisions of a country or society,
such as subcultures, and the influences of various reference
groups.

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Supranational…..
• On the supranational level of culture, which crosses national
boundaries, researchers have developed a lifestyle matrix for four
segments of global youth aged 14 to 24:
• 1. In-crowd: It’s all about privilege and reinforcement. Members of
this group seek approval from others and prefer classic brands like
Nike and Abercrombie & Fitch to uphold tradition.
• 2. Pop mavericks: Word-of-mouth spreads rapidly, and passion,
individuality, and instant gratification are important; members prefer
brands that they can personalize—brands like Diesel and Adidas.
• 3. Networked intelligentsia: They are the hub of online social
networks, and it’s all about revolution, creativity, and
deconstruction; members prefer cult brands, like Vespa (in America)
and Vans, which add to their sense of obscurity.
• 4. Thrill renegades: It’s all about infamy (reputation) and anarchy
(disorder/rebellion) and pretending that law and order do not exist).
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Learning Cultural Values
Cultural values are reflected in the languages, symbols,
communications, and artifacts of a society.
• Formal learning takes place when parents, older siblings, and other
family members teach younger members “how to behave.”
• Informal learning takes place when children imitate the behaviors of
selected others, such as family, friends, or TV and movie heroes and
characters.
• Technical learning happens when teachers instruct children, in
educational environments, about what should be done, how it
should be done, and why it should be done, in social as well as
personal settings. Our ethical values (e.g., the importance of
kindness, honesty, and responsibility) are also formed during
childhood from parents, teachers, and other significant adults.
• Enculturation is learning one’s own culture.
• Acculturation is learning new or foreign cultures.
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Language and Symbols
• Verbal symbols

• Nonverbal symbols
– Product
– Promotion
– Price
– Stores at which product is available
• A symbol is anything that represents something else, and it can be either
verbal or nonverbal. Words are verbal symbols, so the text of any ad is a
composition of symbols. Nonverbal symbols, such as figures, colors, shapes,
and even textures, are cultural cues that appear within advertisements,
trademarks, packaging, and product designs.
• Prices and channels of distribution are symbols and reflect cultural meanings
of products. Ex., the stores where clothes are sold (and also the prices of the
items) symbolize their quality. In fact, all the elements of the marketing mix—
the product, its promotion, price, and the stores at which it is available—are
symbols that communicate the quality, value, and image of the offering.
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Ritual

Defined
A type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps
(multiple behaviors) occurring in a fixed sequence and
repeated periodically.

Rituals can be public, elaborate, or ceremonial (e.g.,


weddings), or mundane routines (e.g., daily grooming).
Typically, ritualized behavior is formal and often scripted
(e.g., a religious service or proper conduct in a court of
law), and occurs repeatedly (e.g., singing the national
anthem before the start of a sports event).

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Ritualistic Behavior

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Ritual Artifacts

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Measuring Cultural Values
• Content analysis - Content analysis can determine what
social and cultural changes have occurred in a specific society
or compare different cultures.
• Field observation - observing the daily behavior of selected
members of a society.
• Depth interviews - to study social and cultural changes
• Focus groups - consumers are apt to reveal attitudes and
behaviors that signal shifts in values that may affect
• Questionnaires - measure individuals’ cultural values, the
Values and Lifestyles VALS.

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Criteria to Select Core Values
• The value must be pervasive - a significant portion of the
Indian people must have accepted the value and used it to
guide their attitudes and actions.
• The value must be enduring - have influenced Indians’
actions over an extended period (as distinguished from fads
and short-lived fashions).
• The value must be related to consumption behavior - it
must provide insights that help us understand’ Indians
consumption habits.

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Ex. American Core Values
• Achievement and Success
• Time and Activity
• Efficiency and Practicality
• Progress
• Materialism
• Individualism and Conformity
• Freedom of Choice
• Humanitarianism
• Youthfulness

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Core Cultural Values (1 of 2)
Core Value Definition Promotional Appeals

Achievement Working hard and excelling in “Fact: Our car members experience more”
and Success other aspects of life. “You’re worth it”
“For people who are in the best shape they’ve
ever been in but still aren’t satisfied”

Time and Being active and busy in one’s “A new challenge daily—Wow, I’m so fortunate”
Activity job and life and expanding one’s “Prepare today, to lead for a lifetime”
horizons.

Efficiency and Saving time and effort and finding “The taste you want, the energy you need”
Practicality pragmatic products and solutions. “So easy, even an adult can open our
Less theory, more practice. container”

Progress Seeking and adopting new “One-step process to a better complexion”


processes that replace less “Only 4 minutes to a great family meal”
advanced ones.

Comfort and Accumulating possessions that “Bring the family together: Create a great
Pleasure enable a more comfortable and backyard”
pleasurable life. “Even more legroom”

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Core Cultural Values (2 of 2)
Individualism and Individualism: Being yourself Individualism: “You answered to your
Conformity and marching to the “beat of own drum in college, now how about a
your own drum,” as opposed to challenging position for your career?”
adhering to group norms and Conformity: “Drive carefully”
being the same as others. “Respect others”
Conformity: Desiring to fit in. “Be included: Vote this November”

Freedom of Choice Having freedom of choice and “Almost more colors than hairs on your
expression. head”
“America is about choice”
Humanitarianism Helping the less fortunate and “No kid should go hungry”
people in need. “We combat natural disasters with human
kindness”

Youthfulness Looking youthful and remaining “Never look your age again”
“young at heart” despite aging “Be Young. It’s a state of open-
chronologically. mindedness”

Fitness and Health Caring about one’s health and “Relax—It’s the good fat”
ability to be physically active. “Create your perfect body”

Environmental Caring about the environment Clorox Green Works cleaner—“Shockingly


Concerns and buying “green” products. Powerful, Naturally”
“Planet’s favorite hybrid”

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Thank You

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