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SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY

Claude Jean Regala


MICROSCOPY TOOLS IN
NANOTECHNOLOGY

Essential tools for nanotechnology research, providing the


necessary resolution for the visualization and measurement
of nanostructures including nanoparticles, DNA, thin films,
polymers, and much more.
When great precision in the microscopy tools was achieved;
there was a great expansion and development on nanotech.
Nano Structures

At the left is a 500 nm X 500 nm vibrating mode image of 1 nm


and 3 nm nanoparticles measured with a 50 x 50 x 15 µm
scanner. At the right is a 20µm x 20µm image of self assembled
lipid nanotubes.
Structured Surfaces

On the left is a 40 X 40 µm non-vibrating mode image of a gear


fabricated by MEMS. On the right is a 50 x 50 µm image of
structures on a patterned wafter after CMP.
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

The electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses


electrons to create an image of the target.
It has much higher magnification or resolving power than a
normal light microscope.
Although modern electron microscopes can magnify
objects up to two million times, they are still based upon
Ruska's prototype and his correlation between wavelength
and resolution.
The electron microscope is an integral part of many
laboratories.
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

Researchers use it to examine biological materials (such


as microorganisms and cells), a variety of large
molecules, medical biopsy samples, metals and
crystalline structures, and the characteristics of various
surfaces.
TYPES OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

Scanning Electron Microscopy With Energy-Dispersive X-Ray


Spectroscopy
SEM can offer a clear, high-resolution images of the size and
surface texture of plastic-like particles, allowing researchers
to discriminate MPs from interfering particles in the
environment matrices (Cooper and Corcoran, 2010; Remy et
al., 2015). In addition, SEM or environmental SEM equipped
with EDX can determine the main atomic composition of
putative plastic particles, which is useful for identifying
carbon-dominant plastics from inorganic particles (Eriksen
et al., 2013; Vianello et al., 2013). Inorganic plastic additives,
such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles, barium, sulfur, and
zinc, were identified by SEM/EDX (Fries et al., 2013).
However, particle colors cannot be determined by
SEM. SEM/ESEM-EDX instrumentation and sample
preparation (e.g., precious coating materials) are
expensive and not conducive to processing large
sample quantities. SEM/EDX analysis should be
applied on selective particles based on the results of
other identification methods such as
vibrational spectroscopy.

The image shows red blood cells, taken using a


scanning electron microscpe.
TYPES OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

Transmission Electron Microscopy


Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of dried
suspensions has often been used to detect or confirm the
presence of palygorskite or sepiolite, based on the typical
fibrous morphology of these minerals (Yaalon, 1955;
Barshad et al., 1956; Elgabaly, 1962; Elgabaly & Khadr, 1962;
Al-Rawi & Sys, 1967; Altaie et al., 1969; Abtahi, 1977; Viani et al.,
1983; Güzel & Wilson, 1985; Heidari et al., 2008).
It can therefore also be used to determine relative
abundances of these minerals (e.g. Abtahi, 1980; Abtahi
et al., 1980; Shadfan et al., 1985), although the good
imaging characteristics of fibrous particles may lead to
an overestimation of their concentration (Hillier &
Pharande, 2008).

The image shows the cross section of a capillary with a red


blood cell present, taken using a transmission electron
microscope.
TYPES OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

Reflection electron microscope (REM)


The reflection electron microscope involves the detection of
a beam of elastically scattered electrons that is reflected
off of the specimen that is being examined. The reflection
high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and reflection high-
energy loss spectroscopy (RHELS) techniques are often used
in this type of microscopy.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

RESEARCH STUDIES of Tong et al. in 2007 have shown that low


concentration of buckyballs can interact or associate with
water in nature. Scientists have presumably thought that
buckyballs do not dissolve in water, so these cannot pose
any imminent threat to most natural systems. But the
researchers at the Rice University in Texas have founf that
buckyballs are about 10 orders of magnitude more soluble
in water than the other individual carbon molecules and
when combine,
They produce unusual nano-sized clumps. When exposed to
soil bacteria, the particles can inhibit both the growth and
respiration of the bacteria, the particles even at very low
concentrations. The research showed that buckyball could
harm soil bacteria. It may have good antibacterial
properties but could also impacts on ecosystem.
SAMPLE VIDEO

SAMPLE VIDEO
MICROSCOPY TOOLS IN
NANOTECHNOLOGY

Essential tools for nanotechnology research, providing the


necessary resolution for the visualization and measurement
of nanostructures including nanoparticles, DNA, thin films,
polymers, and much more.
When great precision in the microscopy tools was achieved;
there was a great expansion and development on nanotech.
NANOPARTICLE TIO2 IN COMMERCIAL
PAINT
NANOPARTICLE TIO2 IN COMMERCIAL
PAINT

In general terms paint depicts a liquid that is used to coat a


solid surface in order to protect, seal or colour it. For this
purpose pigments such as solid particulates play an
important role and have been used since millennia e.g. for
cave painting. Today, nanomaterials are being used in order
to improve the efficiency and to provide new functionalities
to the paints. There are already several nano-enhanced
paints on the market.
Recent studies have investigated the benefits and
risks of paints containing nanomaterials. Exploring
the benefits and risks during early stages of
innovation will help to avoid risks and maximise
opportunities of nano-paints. Paints are complex
mixtures of substances (pigments, resins/binders,
solvents and additives). They are usually applied on
walls (indoor), facades (outdoor), vehicles and
furniture, among other purposes. Depending on the
surface type, e.g. concrete, bricks, stone, wood, metal
or glass, they are developed to meet particular
requirements: decorative appearance; protection
against radiation, humidity/water, microorganisms;
fire protection and thermal insulation.
There are water- and oil-based paints, which
can have additional functionalities depending
on the necessities of the consumer.
Nanomaterials are thought to improve these
functionalities, i.e. water/dirt repellent "easy to
clean", UV-protection, antimicrobial resistance,
scratch resistance or extending the paints'
lifespan.

SAMPLE VIDEO
EFFECTS OF NANOMATERIALS IN
PAINTS

Effects of nanomaterials in paints


Nano titanium dioxide is used in paint to exploit two of its
excellent properties:
(i) photocatalytic activity and (ii) UV-protection.
The combination of the photocatalytic effect, along
with hydrophilic properties results in a paints' self-cleaning
effect. The surface will no longer need regular cleaning as the
water and dirt will no longer stick on it. However, studies have
shown that the use of photocatalytic nano titanium dioxide in
organic paints leads to the degradation of the binder by UV
irradiation. For this reason, the rutile type is preferred in
organic facade coatings for UV-protection.
The addition of nano silicon dioxide to paints can improve
the macro- and micro-hardness, abrasion, scratch and
weather resistance. Adding nano silicon dioxide to
polymeric resins creates paints with excellent abrasion
properties. However, it decreases the elasticity of the
paints, which is needed to resist the swelling and shrinking
associated with temperature and humidity changes.
Surfaces coated with nano silver containing paint provide
excellent antimicrobial properties against bacteria and
human pathogens.
However, in contrast to indoor paint, the bactericidal
efficiency of nano silver in paints for outdoor application
seems to be insufficient due to the exposure to external
conditions. Studies have shown that nano silver as well as
nano titanium dioxide, are not able to fully prevent
microbial and algal growth on test substrates in addition to
being a poor deterrent from possible fungal colonisation.
HEALTH CONCERN IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
NANOMATERIAL AND CURRENT HEALTH CONCERN
APPLICATION

-SILVER NANOPARTICLE -CAN ENTER THE BLOOD STREAMS AND


REACH ALL ORGANS OF THE BODY
INCLUDING THE HEART, BRAIN AND LIVER
-INCREASE THE PROBLEM OF ANTIBIOTIC
RESISTANT SUPERBUGS

USED AS ADDITIVE IN BABY BOTTLE, FOOD


CONTAINER, PACKAGING, AND CUTTING BOARDS
NANOMATERIAL AND CURRENT HEALTH CONCERN
APPLICATION

-TITANIUM DIOXIDE -CAN DAMAGE THE DNA, DISCRUPT THE


FUNCTION OF CELL, INTERFERE WITH THE
DEFENSE ACTIVITIES OF IMMUNE CELLS
AND PROVOKE INFLAMMATION

USED AS WHITENER AND BRIGHTENER -TOXIC WHEN INGESTEDAND FOUND TO


-ZINC OXIDE CAUSE LESIONS IN THE LIVER, PANCREAS,
HEART AND STOMACH

USED AS SURFACE COATING


NANOMATERIAL AND CURRENT HEALTH CONCERN
APPLICATION

-NANOHYDROXYAPATITE -FOUND TO BE POTENTIALLY TOXIC,


COULDBE ABSORBED AND ENTER CELLS

-CAN BE HARMFUL AS ASBESTOS IF


USED AS STABILIZER IN FOODS INHALED IN SUFFECIENT QUANTITIES, CAN
-CARBON-BASED NANOMATERIALS CAUSE OF MESOTHELIOMA
-CAN CROSS THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
AND ALTER CELL FUNCTION.
FABIAN DAYRIT
THE CHAIR OF THE NANOTECHNOLOGY
TECHNICAL PANEL OF THE DOST
NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN
THE COUNTRY
NANOSTRUCTURED SOLAR ENERGY
DEVICES
NANOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY TO FOOD,
AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL REMENDIATION AND
WATER
NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS USING
LOCAL MINERALS ANG BIOLOGICAL
RESOURCES
NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN THE
PHILIPPINES

NANOSTRUCTURED SOLAR DEVICES

NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS