Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19


 A micrometer is a precision measuring instrument, used to obtain very fine
measurements and available in metric and imperial versions.
 Metric micrometers typically measure in 0.01mm increments and imperial
versions in 0.001 inches.
 The measurements they provide can be more accurate than those given by
other measuring devices such as dial calipers or vernier calipers, but
depend very much on the user's care.
 They are widely used in mechanical engineering for precisely measuring
 Micrometers have two scales: a primary scale, on the barrel or sleeve, and
a secondary scale, on the thimble.
 Values are taken from each of these scales and combined to make the total

 A micrometer uses a calibrated screw or thread (found internally on the
spindle) for measurement.
 Every time the spindle makes a complete revolution, the space between
the measuring faces of the instrument (the spindle and the anvil) is
adjusted by 0.5mm for metric versions and by 0.025 inch for imperial
 These are the smallest values that can be represented on the primary
sleeve scale.
 Although micrometers are highly accurate measuring devices, they are
limited in their range.
 Micrometers typically have a measuring range of 25mm and 1 inch. For
instance, metric versions measure 0-25mm, 25-50mm, 50-75mm etc, and
imperial versions measure 0-1 inches, 1-2 inches, 2-3 inches etc.
 The word micrometer is a neoclassical coinage from Greek micros, meaning
'small', and metron , meaning 'measure'.
 The first ever micrometric screw was invented by William Gascoigne in the
17th century, as an enhancement of the vernier ; it was used in a telescope
to measure angular distances between stars and the relative sizes of
celestial objects.
 Henry Maudslay built a bench micrometer in the early 19th century that
was jocularly nicknamed "the Lord Chancellor" among his staff because it
was the final judge on measurement accuracy and precision in the firm's
work. In 1844, details of Whitworth's workshop micrometer were
published.This was described as having a strong frame of cast iron, the
opposite ends of which were two highly finished steel cylinders, which
traversed longitudinally by action of screws. The ends of the cylinders
where they met was of hemispherical shape. One screw was fitted with a.
wheel graduated to measure to the ten thousandth of an inch. His object
was to furnish ordinary mechanics with an instrument which, while it
afforded very accurate indications, was yet not very liable to be deranged
by the rough handling of the workshop.

 The first documented development of handheld micrometer

screw calipers was by Jean Laurent Palmer of Paris in 1848; the device is
therefore often called palmer in French, tornilol de Palmer ("Palmer
screw") in Spanish, and calibro Palmer ("Palmer caliper") in Italian. (Those
languages also use the micrometer cognates: micromètre The micrometer
caliper was introduced to the mass market in anglophone countries
by Brown & Sharpe in 1867, allowing the penetration of the instrument's
use into the average machine shop. Brown & Sharpe were inspired by
several earlier devices, one of them being Palmer's design. In 1888, Edward
W. Morley added to the precision of micrometric measurements and
proved their accuracy in a complex series of experiments
Micrometer measuring faces
 Objects to be measured are placed between the measuring faces; the
anvil and the spindle.
 The anvil is the stationary measuring face against which parts are held until
the spindle makes contact with the work.
 The threaded spindle is the moving measuring face of the micrometer.

Micrometer sleeve scale

 The scale on the sleeve of the micrometer is the instrument's primary
measuring scale.
 Together with the thimble scale, the sleeve scale displays the
measurement taken.
 The first significant figure of a measurement is taken from this scale. This
part of the measurement is the first value immediately to the left of the
Micrometer thimble scale
 The secondary measuring scale, the thimble scale, provides the two
remaining significant figures of a measurement.
 This part of the measurement is the value on the scale that aligns with the
index line on the sleeve scale.
Micrometer index line
 The index line, which runs along the sleeve of the micrometer, is used to
indicate the value shown on the thimble scale.
Micrometer thimble
 When the thimble is turned, the spindle rotates and alters the distance
between the measuring faces of the micrometer.
 Some micrometer thimbles incorporate a friction drive. This allows for a
more accurate reading particularly when used by the inexperienced user.
Micrometer ratchet speeder
 The ratchet speeder increases the speed at which the spindle rotates, so
the space between the anvil and the spindle is reduced more quickly than
it would be if the thimble were used.
 Using the ratchet speeder reduces the time it takes to use the micrometer.
 The ratchet incorporates a slipping clutch mechanism that prevents over
tightening and aids the user to apply a constant measuring force to the
spindle, helping to ensure reliable measurements.
Micrometer locking device
 The locking device secures the spindle and preserves the measurement so
that the micrometer can be removed from the workpiece before taking the
 Some micrometers have a lock nut , whilst others may have a locking lever
Outside micrometer
 The outside micrometer is the most commonly used type of micrometer.
 It is used to measure external dimensions such as the outside diameter of
an object.
Inside micrometer

Inside micrometers are used to measure inside dimensions like the inside
diameter of a hole or tube.
 There are two types of inside micrometer: caliper-type inside micrometers
and tubular and rod inside micrometers.
Depth Micrometer
 Depth micrometers are used to measure the depths of holes, slots and
 They come with a variety of interchangeable rods of different lengths so
that they can be used to measure a range of depths.
 The amount of rotation of an accurately made screw can be directly and
precisely correlated to a certain amount of axial movement (and vice
versa), through the constant known as the screw's lead . A screw's lead is
the distance it moves forward axially with one complete turn (360°). (In
most threads [that is, in all single-start threads], lead and pitch refer to
essentially the same concept.)
 With an appropriate lead and major diameter of the screw, a given amount
of axial movement will be amplified in the resulting circumferential
 Familiarize yourself with the anatomy of a micrometer
 Clean the anvil and spindle before beginning
 Hold the object in your left hand and place it against the
 Hold the micrometer with your right hand.
 Spin the ratchet counter clockwise.
 Twist until the spindle is against the object
 Set the thimble lock while the micrometer is still on the
 Slide out the object carefully.
 Write down the measurements before unlocking the spindle