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 A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or

more people that

a) Functions on a relatively permanent basis to
b) Achieve a common goal or set of goal
 There are a variety of organisations
1) College
2) Sports Team
3) Musical/Theatrical Group
4) Religious or Civic Association
5555555) a branch of the armed forces )
5) a business
6) a branch of armed forces
 Some organisations may be organised very
formally like, army
 Others may be more casually structured like,
football team

 But regardless of how they differ, all Organisations

have some basic things in common :
A. Goal or purpose :
to cater to the needs of education
Sports Team
to win league championship
Musical/Theatrical Group
to entertain audience
Religious or Civic Association
to disseminate teachings of God
a business
to sell a product and earn profit
a branch of armed forces
to defend
B. Programme or method for achieving their goals

 football team
to practice playing skills to win games
 musical group
to rehearse frequently
 business
to manufacture products
C. Must have a plan for what it must do
D. It must acquire and allocate the resources necessary to
achieve its goal
 football team
a playing field must be available
 musical group
a rehearsal hall
 business –
Money must be budgeted for wages.......

E. Will have Managers responsible for helping

organisations achieve their Goals
• Manager is the person who gets things done by

• Management is the art of getting things done

through people

• Management is the process of planning, organising,

leading and controlling the efforts of organisation
members and of using all other organisational
resources to achieve stated organisational goals.
 Process is a systematic way of doing things or
doing things stepwise

 We define management as a process because

all managers, irrespective of their particular
aptitudes or skills are engaged in certain
interrelated activities which are to be
accomplished in systematic way , not
haphazardly, in order to achieve desired goals
 Planning : implies that Managers think through
their goals and actions in advance. These actions
are usually based on some methods , plans and
logic rather than haunch
 Organising: means that Managers coordinate
the material and human resources. The
effectiveness of an organisation depends on its
ability to marshal its resources for its goal.
Obviously, the more integrated and
coordinated the work, the more effective it will
 Leading: describes how Managers direct and
influence subordinates, getting others to to perform
essential tasks. By establishing the proper atmos-
phere, they help their subordinates to do their best

 Controlling: means that Managers attempt to

assure that the Organisation is moving towards its
If some part of their Organisation is on the
wrong track, Managers try to find out why and set
things right
 First line Managers :
 Lowest level in an organisation at which individuals are
responsible for the work of others.
 They direct the operating employees
 Often called the Supervisors
 Other nomenclatures are...’foreman’ for manufacturing
industries, technical Supervisor in a Research Organisation
 Clerical Supervisor in a large Office
 Middle level Managers :
 refers more than one level
 Direct the activities of other Managers and sometimes
also of operating employees
 Principal responsibilities are to direct the activities that
implement organisation’s policies and
 To balance the demands of their supervisors with the
capacities of their subordinates
 Top Managers:
 Responsible for overall management
 Establish operating policies
 Guides organisation’s interaction with environment
 Typical titles : CEO, President, Sr. Vice President
 The other major classification of managers depend
on the scope of activities they manage
 Functional manager is responsible for only one
organizational activity such as, production, finance,
human resource etc. The people and activities under
a functional manager are engaged in a common set
of activities
 General manager on the other hand, oversees a
complex unit, such as a company’s subsidiary or an
independent operating unit
 Skill: : The ability to apply specialised knowledge or

 Technical Skill
 It means the competence to use the tools, procedures and
techniques of a specialised field
 Human Skill : The ability to work with,
 understand and motivate other people
 both individually and in groups
 Conceptual Skill : The mental ability to
 analyse and
 diagnose complex situation

 It involves the Manager’s ability to view the

Organisation as a whole and
 To understand how its parts depend on each
 Ist Line Middle Top

Technical Human

 Every organisation exists to achieve a specific goal
 Line Managers may be defined as those in the organisation
directly responsible for achieving these goals
 Line authority is represented by the standard chain of
command, starting with the board of directors and
extending down through various levels in the hierarchy to
the point where the basic activities are carried out
 Since Line activities are identified in terms of company’s
goals, the activities classified as line will differ with each
 For e.g., a manufacturing company may limit line functions
to production and sales
 In a department store, in which buying is a key element, will
include the purchasing department as well as the sales
department in its line activities
 When an organisation is small, all positions may be line roles;
 Staff roles are added as the organisation grows and it
becomes useful to hire specialists to assist the line members
in doing their primary jobs
 Staff includes individuals and groups in an organisation who
provide varied types of expert advices, help and services to
 Staff can offer planning advice through research, analysis
and options development; assist in policy implementation,
monitoring and control in legal and financial matter, in the
design and operation of data processing system
 The distinction between line and staff can often be made
with reasonable ease and accuracy
 Sometimes, however, clarity is lacking
 Line managers seem to be performing , staff functions and
staff members seem to have some line responbibilities
 Staff personnel, however, will devote most of their time to
providing services and advices to line managers
 Line managers will tend to focus their efforts directly on
producing the organisation’s product or services
 Line managers have formal authority (legitimate power) to
tell others what to do
 Line have a great deal of reward and coercive power due to
their hierarchical relationship to subordinates
 Staff members do not have such formal authorities
 Painting or poetry requires three things
1) Artistic vision
2) Knowledge of craft and
3) Successful communication
 In these respects management is an Art as it
requires the same components. Therefore
 Just as artistic skill can be developed through
 So managerial skill can be developed in ways
similar to those used in training artists
 The laws of aerodynamics enable the Engineers to
predict accurately the effects of a proposed change
in airplane design.
 Unfortunately, there is no verified general theory or
set of laws for management that we can apply to all
 For e.g., a management theory that emphasizes the
importance of good working environment may be
more helpful in dealing with high turnover rate than
with production delays
 However, now the management as a subject
meets the requirements for a field of
knowledge for it has been organised in to a
series of theories
 But we are at present a long way from
possessing the body of theory and accuracy
of prediction that belong to science
 It seems likely that for some time to come the
field of management will more closely
resemble art than science
 Efficiency :
 The ability to get things done correctly
 Input – output concept
 Efficient manager is one who achieves output or
results that measure up to inputs (labour, material
and time ) used
 Ability to minimise the cost of resources used for
achieving goals
 Effectiveness :
 Ability to choose appropriate objective
 Effective Managers are those who select the right
things to get done
 Selecting to produce only large cars when demand for
small cars is soaring is an example of in-effective
 such a manager would be in-effective even if large
cars were produced with maximum efficiency
 No amount of efficiency can compensate for lack of
 “effectiveness rather than efficiency is essential
business. The pertinent question is not how to do
things right but how to find the right things to do
and to concentrate resources and effort on them”
 How successfully an organisation
 achieves its objectives and
 Meets society’s needs
 Depends on
 How effectively the organisation’s Managers
doing their job
 Collection of two or more people interacting
being aware of each others presence having a
common goal or objective

 The people inside a bank waiting to collect

draft, cash etc. can not be thought of as a
social unit
 Plan – the process of setting objectives and chalking
suitable course of action for achieving the objectives
before taking action
 Policy – is a general guideline for decision
making. It sets up the boundaries around
decisions, including those that can be made
and shutting out those that can not
 For e.g., a company may have a policy of
filling up higher posts by promotion from
among internal/ existing employees only
 Standard Procedure – policies are carried out by
means of more detailed guidelines called standard
procedures or standard methods
A procedure provides a detailed set of instruction
for performing sequence of action that occurs often
or regularly
For e.g., the refund department of a large
departmental store may have a policy of “refunds
made with a smile on all merchandise returned
within seven days of purchase”
 Rules – are statements that a specific action
must or must not be taken in a given situation
 Strategy can be defined from two perspectives
 1. It is the broad programme for defining and
achieving an organisation’s objectives and
implementing its missions
 2. the pattern of an organisation’s response to its
environment over time