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 This operation of determining the original

function from its derivative is the inverse


operation of differentiation and is called
antidifferentiation.

 Antidifferentiation is a process or operation


that reverses differentiation.
Differentiation
Integration

The process of The process of


finding a derivative finding the
antiderivative
Tells us the
variable of
Integral integration
Symbols:
Symbols:

dy
dx
, y' , f ' ( x)  f ( x)dx

Integrand
Antiderivatives & Indefinite Integrals

 The antidifferentiation process is also called integration.


Differential
Integral (variable of
sign integration)

 f ( x) dx  F ( x)
Integrand
Indefinite Antiderivative
Integral
The derivative of F is f.

F x  f  x 
General Solution for an Indefinite
Integral

 f ( x)dx  F ( x)  C
You will lose points if Where c is a constant
you forget dx or + C!!!
Antiderivatives & Indefinite Integrals

𝑥 𝑁+1 The Power Rule for Integration


x N 1 , N  1
𝑁+1
 x dx 
N
This absolute value
prevents you from
ln x , N  1 having to find the
natural log of a
negative number.

1
When N  1, x  x  1x
N
You can always check
Find: 6 your answer by

 x dx
5 x differentiating!
  C
6

1

1

x
dx x 2
dx
1
 2x 2  C

 2 x C
Antiderivatives & Indefinite Integrals

 2 xdx  x 2

What if we were to shift the graph up 1 unit?


Antiderivatives & Indefinite Integrals

Do the slopes change?


Antiderivatives & Indefinite Integrals

   2
2 xdx x 1

The slopes stay the same.


Antiderivatives & Indefinite Integrals
   2
2 xdx x C

If a function has an antiderivative,


then it has an infinite number of antiderivates.
Antiderivatives & Indefinite Integrals
   2
2 xdx x C
Constant of
Integration

To capture the fact that there are infinitely


many antiderivatives we add a constant.
Basic Integration Rules

  Number  dx  Number
x C
Evaluate:

 2 dx  2x  C
Basic Integration Rules
Constant Rule for Integration

 cdx  cx  C
Evaluate:

  5 dx  5 x  C
Basic Integration Rules

  
Number  f xdx  Number f xdx
The integral of a function times a
constant is equal to the constant
times the integral of the function.
Basic Integration Rules
Evaluate  5 x3 dx  5  x 3 dx

 x 4 
 5    C
 4 
5
 x 4
 C
4
Basic Integration Rules
Constant Multiple Rule for Integration

 c  f  x  dx  c  f  x  dx
Sum & Difference Rules for Integration

  f  x   g  x  dx   f  x  dx   g  x  dx

  f  x   g  x  dx   f  x  dx   g  x  dx
Evaluate:
 2 1 
  6 x  4 x  x  1  dx
1
 6 x dx4 xdx dx1dx
2

x
 x3   x 2 
 6   4   ln x  x  C
 3  2 

2x 2x lnx xC


3 2
Evaluate:

 3
 2. 5du

t
1. 3t dt  3    C
2
 5u  C
 3 
t C
3

2 4 .  x 3 x  4 dx
3 . 2 x dx  2  x dx
2


  3 x  4 x dx
2

 x 1 
 2   C   3x dx   4 xdx
2

 1 
2  x  2x  C
3 2
 C
x
Evaluate:
 5x x  6 x  4dx
3 2

  5 x dx   x dx   6 xdx   4dx
3 2

 5 x dx   x dx  6 xdx   4dx
3 2

 x4   x3   x2 
 5  C     C   6  C   4 x  C
 4  3   2 
5x 4 x3
   3x  4 x  C
2

4 3
Evaluate:
3
 
5 3
x dx  x 5
dx
8
5
x
  C
8
5
8
5
 x 5
 C
8
Evaluate:

  3  
2 2
x dx 
  9  6x  x dx
2 4

5
x
 9x  2x  3
C
5
5
x
  2x  9x  C
3

5
Evaluate the following indefinite integrals:

 
1. 5t 3  10t 6  4 dt  
2. x 8  x 8 dx

 4 3 7 1 
3.  3 x  5  dx
 x 6 x

 
4. w  3 w 4  w2 dw 

4 x10  2 x 4  15 x 2
5. 3
dx
x
Solutions:

 t4   t 5 
 
1. 5t 3  10t 6  4 dt  5   10   4t  C
4  5
5 4 5
 t  2t  4t  C
4


2. x  x 8 8
dx 1 9 1 7
 x  x C
9 7
1 9 1
 x  7 C
9 7x
 4 3 7 1   3
1 2

1
3.  3 x  5  dx    3x  7 x  x dx
4 5

 x 6 x  6 
 7   1 
 x4  7 1  x2 
 3   x 4   C
 7  4 6 1 
   
 4   2 
7 1
12 7 4 1
 x  x  x C
4 2
7 4 3
    
1 7
4. w  3 w 4  w2 dw   4w  w3  4w  w dw
  3 3


4 10
1 4 3
 2w  w  3w  w  C
2 3 3
4 10

4 x  2 x  15 x
10 4 2
 4 x10 2 x 4 15x 2 
5. dx    3  3  3 dx
 x x 
3 x
x
 7 15 
   4 x  2 x  dx
 x
1 8
 x  x 2  15 ln x  C
2
Logarithmic and
Exponential Functions
Log Rule Integration

Let u be a differentiable function of x.

1 1
 x dx  ln x  C  u du  ln u  C
2 1
1. dx  2  dx  2 ln x  C
x x

1
2. 1 1
  1 1 1
4dx   ln 4 x  1  C
4x 1
dx 
 4 x  1  4  4 dx  
4 4x 1 4
let : u  4x 1
du  4dx
x
3. 2 dx   2 2 xdx  ln x 2  1  C
1 1 1
x 1 2 x 1 2

let : u  x 2  1
du  2xdx
3x 2  1
4. 3
x x
dx  1
3 x 2

 x3  x  1 dx   ln x 3  x  C

let : u  x 3  x
 
du  3x 2  1 dx

x2  x 1  x 

x
5. 2 dx   1   dx   dx   dx let : u  x 2  1
 x 1 x 1
2
x 1
2
du  2xdx
1
 x
1

1
2 xdx  x  ln x 2
1  C
2 x 1
2
2
Integration Guidelines
1. Learn your rules (Power rule, trig rules, log
rules, etc.).
2. Find an integration formula that resembles
the integral you are trying to solve (u-
substitution should accomplish this goal).
3. If u-substitution does not work, you may
need to alter the integrand (long division,
factor, multiply by the conjugate, separate
the fraction, or other algebraic techniques).
Find the integral of the following:

x 1 2.
1
1. 2 dx dx
x x 3x  2

1  2 5
3. dx 4. 4 x x  2 dx
x ln x  x 

x3 x2  x  2
5. 2 dx 6. dx
x  5x  6 x 3

x2
2x  7x  3
2
8. 2 dx
7. dx x  4x 1
x2
x 1 x 1 1
1. 2 dx   dx   dx  ln x  C
x x xx  1 x

1
2.
1 1
dx  
1
3dx   ln 3x  2  C
3x  2 3 3x  2 3
let : u  3x  2
du  3dx
1 1 1 
3. dx    dx   ln ln x  C
x ln x ln x  x 
let : u  ln x
1
du  dx
x
 2 5
4. 4 x x  2 dx
20
  4 x dx   dx
3
 x 4  20 ln x  C
 x  x
x3 x3
5. 2 dx   dx 
1
dx
x  5x  6 x  3x  2 x2
 ln x  2  C
x2  x  2  4  x2
6. dx    x  2  dx   2 x  4 ln x  3  C
x 3  x 3 2

2 x  7 x  3   2 x  11  19 dx
2
7. dx   x2
x2
 x 2  11x  19 ln x  2  C
x2
8. 2 2 x  4dx 
1 1 1
dx  
2 x  4x 1 ln x 2  4 x  1  C
x  4x 1
2

2
let : u  x 2  4 x  1
du  2x  4dx
Indefinite Integral of Exponentials
If a>0, then

1
 a dx  ln a  a  C
x x

If a = e, then

 e dx  e C
x x
1 3 x 2 1
 xe 6 xdx  e  C
3 x 2 1 1 3 x 2 1
dx  e
6 6
let : u  3 x 2  1
du  32xdx  6xdx

1 x6
x e
5 x6
dx 1 x6

  e 6 x 5 dx
6
  e C
6
let : u  x 6
du  6 x 5 dx

  7 2dx   1  1 7 2 x 3  C
7
2 x 3 1 2 x 3
dx
2 2  ln 7 
let : u  2x  3
7 2 x 3
du  2dx  2
C
ln 7
Integrate the following:
1
1 
1. 2 xe x 2
2. 3 e
2
dx x2
dx
x
1 3 x 4 1
3.  x e dx 4. xe dx
 x2
2

5. e e dx
x ex
 e 2x
3 
6. e 
5x
 3 x dx
 7 e 

7.
3x  4 x
x
dx 8.

8e x 3  e x  dx
5
e  6e  1
2x x
1. 2 xe x2 2
dx   e x2 2
2 xdx e x 2 2
C
let : u  x 2  2
du  2xdx
1
1  1
1  x2  2 
2. 3 e
1
x2
dx   e  3 dx  1
 e

x2
C
x 2 x  2
let : u   x 2
2
du  3
dx
x

3.  x e dx  1  1   e x 4 x dx   e  C
1 3 x 4 1 4
1 3 1 x 4 1
2 24 8
let : u  x 4  1
du  4 x 3 dx
4. xe dx   1  e  x  2 xdx   1 e  x  C
 x2 2 2

2 2
let : u   x 2

du  2xdx

5. e e dx   e e dx 
x ex ex x
 e C
ex

let : u  e x
du  e x dx
 e 2x
3  7x
6. e   3 x dx  e
 
5x
dx  3e 2x
dx
 7 e  7
1  1  7x  1  2x
    e 7 dx   3   e 2dx 
77 2

1 7x 3 2x
 e  e C
49 2
3 4
x x x x
3 4 1  3 1 4
x x
7. dx     dx     dx       C
5 5 ln  5  ln  5 
x
5 3 4
5 5
x x
3 3 4 4
   ln    ln
5 5 5 5


8e x 3  e x 
  2e 
1
8. 

dx  4 e 2 x  6e x  1  6e x dx
2 2x

e  6e  1
2x x

  1 
1
let : u  e  6e  1  (e 2 x  6e x  1) 2 
2x x

du  (2e 2 x  6e x )dx  4 C


 
1
1 
 
 2 

 8 e2 x  6e x  1  C
Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric Functions:

1. sin udu   cos u  C 6. csc udu  ln csc u  cot u  C

2. cos udu  sin u  C 7. sec 2 udu  tan u  C

3. tan udu  ln sec u  C 8. csc 2 udu   cot u  C

 tan udu   ln cos u  C 9. sec u tan udu  sec u  C

4. cot udu  ln sin u  C 10. csc u cot udu   csc u  C

5. sec udu  ln sec u  tan u  C


 x sin x 2
dx 
1
 sin x 2
2 xdx  
1
cos x 2
C
2 2
let : u  x 2
du  2xdx

 sin x  2

 sin x tan xdx 


 sin x
sin x   dx  dx
 cos x  cos x
1  cos 2 x
2
1 cos x
 dx   dx   dx
cos x cos x cos x

  sec xdx   cos xdx  ln sec x  tan x  sin x  C


 cos 3
xdx   
1  sin 2
x cos xdx   cos xdx   x cos xdx
sin 2

sin x 3 let : u  sin x


 sin x   sin xcos xdx  sin x 
2
C du  cos xdx
3


 x  dx
 1  cos 2 x 
2


2

4
 
2
sin xdx sin  dx
 2 
1
  
  1  2 cos 2 x  cos 2 2 x dx  1 dx  cos 2 x2dx   cos 2 2 xdx
4 4    
1 1  cos 4 x
 x   sin 2 x  
1 1
dx  x  sin 2 x  1  dx  1  cos 4 xdx
4 4 4 2 4 4 8 8

x sin 2 x x sin 4 x 3x sin 2 x sin 4 x


    C
4 4 8 32    C
8 4 32
Evaluate: ‫ ׬‬sin3 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

  
3 2
sin x dx sin x sin x dx
  1  cos x  sin x dx
2

   sin x  cos x sin x  dx


2

  sin x dx   cos x sin x dx


2

  cos x  cos x  C
1
3
3
 
1. 5 csc x  3 sec x dx  5  csc 2 x dx  3 sec 2 xdx
2 2

 5 cot x  3 tan x  C

2. cos 3 xdx   cos 3x3dx   sin 3 x  C


1 1
3 3
2
 2

3. tan xdx   sec x  1 dx   sec xdx   1dx 2

 tan x  x  C
 2

4. 2 x cos x  5 dx   cos x  5 2 xdx  2

u  x 5
 
2

du  2xdx  sin x  5  C
2
Evaluate:
1. 12  csc xsin x  csc x dx
x
2. 2 sin dx
3

3. sin x  cos x  dx


2

4. tan xdx


3

sin x
5. 2
dx
cos x
1. 12  csc xsin x  csc x dx

 
  12  csc x sin x  csc 2 x dx   13  csc 2 x dx

 13x  cot x  C
x  x  1  x
2. 2 sin dx  2 3 sin 3  3 dx    6 cos  C
3    3
3. sin x  cos x  dx
2


  sin x  2 sin x cos x  cos x dx
2 2

  1  2 sin x cos xdx  x  sin x  C
2
4. tan xdx
3

sin x  
5. 2
dx 
1

sin x
dx
cos x cos x  cos x 
  sec x tan xdx  sec x  C
2 1

 cos 2 x dx   cos x sin xdx    2  1  C


sin x 2 cos x

1
 C  sec x  C
cos x
 sin 3x dx
2

2 sin 2 A  1  cos 2 A

1 1
sin 2 A   cos 2 A
2 2

1 1 
    cos 6 x dx
2 2 

1 11  1 1
 x   sin 6 x   C  x  sin 6 x  C
2 26  2 12

2
tan 3 x dx
tan A  1  sec A
2 2

Use the formula


tan A  sec A  1
2 2


  sec 3x  1 dx 2

1
 tan 3x  x  c
3
Assignment:

1. (6 cos2 x  3  e 2 x 1
)dx
cos x
2. 2 dx 6. sin 2 x cos 2 x dx
4
sin x

3. tan 3x dx
2
7. tan 4 x dx
4. sin 3x dx
2

5. sin 5 x cos 2 x dx


Inverse Trigonometry
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
If u(x) is a differentiable function and a > 0, then


1 u
du
 sin a C
a 2 u 2


1 u
du
a u
2 2  tan1
a a C


1 u
du
 sec
1
a a C
u u 2 a2
Examples:

u=x,a=2
du = dx

du = 3dx

du = 2dx
Evaluate: 6dx
 x 2  16
a4
Rewrite the
6dx dx
integral to
resemble the
Rule
 x 2  16  6 x 2  42 Use the Rule

 1  4 dx
 6  2
 4  x  4
2

1 x
 6  arctan    C
4 4
3 x
 arctan    C
2 4
dx
Evaluate:
x 4 x 2  25 u  2x
Rewrite the
du  2  dx
dx dx
integral to x  
4 x  25  2x  52 a5
2 2
resemble the x
Rule
1
du
 2
1
2 u u 2  52
du

u u 2  52
1 1  u  1 1  2 x 
 sec    C  sec  C
5 5 5  5 
Example – Completing the
Square

Solution: You can write the denominator as the sum of two


squares, as follows.

 
x 2  4 x  7  x 2  4 x  4  4  7  x  22  3
let u = x - 2 and a  3
dx
  x  2    3 
2 2
2 x  5
 x 2  2 x  2 dx
Evaluate: Manipulate the
Numerator so
it contains the
derivative of
2x  5 2x  2  7 the base.
 x 2  2 x  2 dx   x 2  2 x  2 dx
2x  2 7
 2 dx   2 dx
x  2x  2 x  2x  2 Complete the
square.
1
 ln x  2 x  2  C  7 
2
dx
 x  1 1
2

 ln x  2 x  2  7 arctan  x  1  C
2
Evaluate the following:

1
ex
2. dx
1. dx x 1  x 
 e equation here.
2
1=Type x

= arctan 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝐶 = 2𝑎𝑟𝑐 tan 𝑥 + 𝐶

2 3x
x e
3. dx 4. dx
1 x 2
1 e 2x

𝑒 𝑥
1
=න 1− 2
𝑑𝑥 = න 𝑒𝑥 − 2𝑥
𝑑𝑥
1+𝑥 1+𝑒

= 𝑥 + arctan 𝑥 + 𝐶 = 𝑒 𝑥 − arctan 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝐶
1
= 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ2 3𝑥 + 𝐶
6

𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ 𝑙𝑛𝑥
= +𝐶
𝑥