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CENTRAL LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY

Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija

College of Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CENGR 520_ STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN


LEARNING MODULE #7

Combined axial and


bending
Introduction

Members subjected to combined axial force and bending moment are called beam-column. The bending
moment can be due to lateral loads or an eccentric load.

AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BENDING


When a member is acted upon by these loads, the stresses produced (axial stress and bending stress) is not
added to obtain the combined stresses. Additional stresses resulting from a secondary moment (caused by P-Δ
effect) must be taken into account, especially when the member is subjected to large axial compressive force.
The secondary moment are known as secondary-order effect. To account for this second-order effects, moment
amplification factors are used.

SMALL AXIAL COMPRESSION (fa/Fa ≤ 0.15)


An axial compressive load on a beam-column is considered “small” when fa/Fa does not exceed 0.15. Such a
member is essentially a beam and a simplified interaction equation is used without the amplification factors.

2
Introduction

LARGE AXIAL COMPRESSION (fa/Fa ≥ 0.15)


An axial compressive load on a beam-column is considered “large” when fa/Fa exceeds 0.15. According to
section 508.2 of NSCP, the member must satisfy the following requirements:

Stability interaction criterion:

Strength interaction criterion:

The terms 1/[1-(f1/F’e)] are the moment amplification factors. F’e is the Euler stress divided by the factor of
safety
.

3
Introduction

The amplification factor is also modified by a reduction coefficient Cm. Its value is taken as follows:

a) For compression members in frames subject to joint translation (sidesway),


Cm=0.85

a) For rotationally restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and not
subjected to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending.
Cm=0.6-0.4(M1/M2)≥0.40

where M1/M2 is the ratio of the smaller to larger moments of the ends of portion of the member
unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration. M1/M2 is positive when the member is bent in
reverse curvature, negative when bent in single curvature.

4
Introduction
P P P

M2 M2 M2

M1 M1
P
P P

M1=0.5M2 M1=M2 M1=0


Cm=0.4 Cm=1.0 Cm=0.6
M1/M2 is positive M1/M2 is negative M1/M2 is negative
5
Reverse curvature Single curvature Single curvature
Introduction

Where:

fa - computed axial stress


fb -computed bending stress
Fa - allowable axial stress if axial force existed
Fb - allowable compressive bending stress if bending moment alone existed
K – effective length factor
Lb – actual unbraced length in the plane of bending
Rb – corresponding radius of gyration

6
Sample Problem

PROBLEM: The A36 steel W6x20 column in Figure is in pin connected at the top and fixed at the bottom (K=0.7)
and is subjected to the eccentric load P. The beam is laterally supported about its weak axis.
The properties of W6x20 relevant to this problem are as follows.
A= 3,790 mm2
Ix= 17,231,980 mm4
d=157 mm
Determine the maximum value of P, the allowable bending stress of the section is Fb=152 mPa

Solve for Fa:

rx= 67.43 mm

Slenderness ratio

SR= KL/r Cc= 126.2 > KL/r


SR= 0.7(4500)/67.43

SR= 46.7
7
Sample Problem

8
Sample Problem

FS=1.8 P=40,760 N

fa=0.0002638 (40,760)
fa=10.75 MPa
Fa= 128.3 Mpa fa/Fa=10.75/128.3
fa/Fa= 0.084<0.15 (OK)
Actual stresses:
Therefore P=40,760 N
fa=P/A fa=P/3,790
fa=0.0002638P

fb=Mc/I M=Pe
M=750P
fb=(750P)(175/2)/17,231,980
fb=0.0034166P
9
Sample Problem

PROBLEM: Determine the adequacy of the W14x120 A36 shape to carry an axial compressive load of 880 kN and
a moment of 330kN-m about its strong axis. The unsupported length is 6m and the member is subjected to joint
translation (sidesway). Use K=1.0
Properties of W14x120
d= 367.80mm Ix=574,399,000 mm4 K=1.0
tw= 15.00 mm Sx=3,123,431 mm3 Cb=1.0
bf=372.60 mm rx=158.81 mm Cm=0.85 (sidesway is permitted)
tf=23.90 mm Iy=206,035,000 mm4
A=22,774.00 mm2 Sy=1,105,931.29 mm3
rt= 102.62 mm ry=95.12 mm

Actual stresses:
Allowable Axial Compressive Stress
Compression
fa=P/A fa=880,000/22,774
Cc=√[{2π^2(200,000)}/249]
fa=38.64Mpa
Cc= 126.16
Bending
KL/r=1(6,000)/95.12
fb=M/Sx
KL/r=63.08<Cc
fb= (330x10^6)/3,123,431
fb= 105.65 MPa 10
Sample Problem

FS=1.84

Fa=117.93 Mpa

Fa/Fa=38.64/117.93
Fa/Fa=0.328>0.15 “large axial compression”

11
Sample Problem
Allowable bending stress Since Lb>Lc

L/rt=6,000/102.62
Lc=smaller value of L/rt=58.47

=53.25
= 4,732 mm
=119.07

=13,463 mm

Fb=larger value of (Fb1 & Fb2)≤0.6Fy


Lc= 4,732 mm

Fb1 =165 MPa


12
Sample Problem

Fb3 = 333.88 Mpa

0.6Fy=148.8 Mpa

Since Fb3>0.6Fy

Fb=148.8 Mpa

F’ex=721.5 MPa Therefore, the section is ADEQUATE

13
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Allowable axial compressive stress:


𝐾𝐿 2
𝐾𝐿 (1)(4000) 𝐹𝑦
= 𝐹𝑎 1− 𝑟 2
𝑟 50.8 = 2𝐶𝑐 𝐹. 𝑆.

𝐾𝐿 5 3(78.74) 78.74 3
= 78.84 MPa 𝐹. 𝑆. = + −
𝑟 3 8(126.17) 8 126.17 3

2𝜋2𝐸
𝐶𝑐 = 𝐹. 𝑆. = 1.87
𝐹𝑦

2𝜋2(200000) 78.74 2 248


𝐶𝑐 = 𝐹𝑎 1−
248 = 2 126.17 2 1.87

𝐶𝑐 = 126.17 > 78.74 𝑭𝒂 = 𝟏𝟎𝟔. 𝟕𝟗 𝑴𝑷𝒂


Sample Problem
PROBLEM: A W 10 x 45 column carries a central load and a lateral load as shown in figure. Use A 36 Steel
Fy = 248 Mpa. Cm = 1.0 for unrestrained ends. K = 1.0 490 kN
300 mm
Properties of W 10 x 45
A = 8516 mm2
d = 257.05 mm
bf = 203.76 mm
2m
tf = 15.70 mm
tw = 8.89 mm
Sx = 805 x 103
20 kN
Sy = 218 x 103
rx = 109.98 mm
ry = 50.8 mm 2m

Compute the allowable compressive axial stress.


Compute the allowable bending stress.
Is the column safe to carry the load if so, what is the total interaction value for both axial and bending
stress

15
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Allowable axial compressive stress:


𝐾𝐿 2
𝐾𝐿 (1)(4000) 𝐹𝑦
= 𝐹𝑎 1− 𝑟 2
𝑟 50.8 = 2𝐶𝑐 𝐹. 𝑆.

𝐾𝐿 5 3(78.74) 78.74 3
= 78.84 MPa 𝐹. 𝑆. = + −
𝑟 3 8(126.17) 8 126.17 3

2𝜋2𝐸
𝐶𝑐 = 𝐹. 𝑆. = 1.87
𝐹𝑦

2𝜋2(200000) 78.74 2 248


𝐶𝑐 = 𝐹𝑎 1−
248 = 2 126.17 2 1.87

𝐶𝑐 = 126.17 > 78.74 𝑭𝒂 = 𝟏𝟎𝟔. 𝟕𝟗 𝑴𝑷𝒂


Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Allowable bending stress:


Lb= 4000 mm ( 𝑢𝑛𝑏𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ ) L𝑏 > L𝑐
200𝑏𝑓 L𝑏 > L𝑢
𝐿𝑐 =
𝐹𝑦

200(203.76) Use Fb = 0.60 Fy


𝐿𝑐 = 248
Fb = 0.60 Fy
𝐿𝑐 = 2588 mm
Fb = 0.60(248)
137900
𝐿𝑢 = 𝐅𝐛 = 𝟏𝟒𝟖. 𝟖 𝐌𝐏𝐚
𝐹 𝑦𝑑
𝑏𝑓𝑡𝑓
137900
𝐿𝑢 =
248(257.05)
203.76(15.7)

𝐿𝑢 = 6920 mm
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Total interaction value for both axial and bending stresses:

෍ 𝑀𝐴 = 0 490 kN
300 mm
4R2 + 90(0.3) = 20(2)
3.25
R2
R2 = 3.25 kN
R1 = 20 − 3.25
2m 2 2
R1 = 16.75 kN

20 kN 6.5
Max. M = 16.75(2) 33.50
3.25
Max. M = 33.50 kN.m
2m 2 2

R1
16.75
A
Sample Problem #1
f𝑎 C𝑚𝑓𝑏𝑥 12𝜋2(200000)
𝑃 Use: + ≤ 1.0 F𝑒 ′ x =
𝑓𝑎 = F𝑎 f𝑎 23 36.37 2
𝐴 1− F
F𝑒′x 𝑏𝑥
(450000 + 90000) 𝐅𝒆′ 𝐱 =778.57 Mpa
𝑓𝑎 = 𝑀
8516 𝑓𝑏𝑥 =
𝑆𝑥
𝑓𝑎 = 63.41 Mpa
33.50 x 106
𝑓𝑏𝑥 =
𝐹𝑎 = 106.79 Mpa 805 x 103

𝑓𝑎 63.41 𝑓𝑏𝑥 = 41.61 MPa


=
𝐹𝑎 106.79
12𝜋2𝐸
F𝑒 ′ x =
𝑓𝑎 𝐾𝐿
= 0.593 > 0.15 23 𝑟 𝑥2
𝐹𝑎
𝐾𝐿 (1)(4000)
=
𝑟 109.98
𝑲𝑳
= 𝟑𝟔. 𝟑𝟕
𝒓 19
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Magnification Factor:

C𝑚 1.0 f𝑎 C𝑚 f𝑏𝑥
= + ≤ 1.0
f𝑎 63.41 F𝑎 f𝑎 F𝑏𝑥
1−F ′ 1− 1−F ′
𝑒𝑥 778.57 𝑒 𝑥

C𝑚 63.41 1.09(41.61)
= 1.09 + = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟗𝟖 < 𝟏. 𝟎 ( 𝒔𝒂𝒇𝒆 )
f𝑎
1−F ′ 106.79 148.8
𝑒𝑥
Sample Problem
PROBLEM: A 4.8m column is acted upon by an axial gravity loaded of 76 kN and a uniform load of W
kN/m as shown in the figure. The column section is W 12 x 58, A36 steel with lower end built in.
Assume Kx = 0.80, Ky = 2.1, Fy = 248MPa, E = 200000MPa, Cm = 0.85 76 kN

Properties of W 12 x 58
A = 11032 mm2
d = 309.63 mm
bf = 254.36 mm
tf = 16.28 mm
tw = 9.12 mm W kN 4.8m
Sx = 1280 x 103
Sy = 351 x 103
rx = 134.11 mm
ry = 63.75 mm

Compute the allowable axial stress.


Compute the required spacing of lateral bracing for maximum uniform lateral loading.
Compute the maximum uniform lateral loading allowed using the calculated spacing of lateral bracing.

21
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Allowable axial compressive stress:


2𝜋2𝐸
𝐾𝑥𝐿 (0.8)(4800) 𝐶𝑐 =
= 𝐹𝑦
𝑟𝑥 134.11

𝐾𝑥𝐿 2𝜋2(200000)
= 28.63 MPa 𝐶𝑐 =
𝑟𝑥 248

𝐾𝑦𝐿 (2.1)(4800) 𝐶𝑐 = 126.17 > 158.12


=
𝑟𝑦 63.75
12π2E
𝐾 𝑥𝐿 F𝑎 =
= 158.12 MPa KL
𝑟𝑥 23 r 2

12𝜋2(200000)
F𝑎 =
23 158.12 2
𝑭𝒂 = 𝟒𝟏. 𝟏𝟗 𝑴𝑷𝒂
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Allowable lateral bracing for maximum lateral loading:

200𝑏𝑓
𝐿𝑐 =
𝐹𝑦
200(254.36)
𝐿𝑐 = 248
𝐿𝑐 = 3230mm

Use 𝑳𝒄 = 𝟑𝟐𝟑𝟎mm ( spacing of lateral bracing )


Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Maximum uniform lateral loading:

𝑃 f𝑎 C𝑚 f𝑏
𝑓𝑎 = + ≤ 1.0
𝐴 F𝑎 f F𝑏
1 − F 𝑎′
𝑒
76000
𝑓𝑎 =
11032

12𝜋2(200000)
𝑓𝑎 = 6.89 Fe =
23 158.12 2

𝑓𝑎 6.89 𝐅𝒆’=41.19 Mpa


=
𝐹𝑎 41.19
b𝑓 170
𝑓𝑎 = 7.81 < = 10.8 ( 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 )
= 0.17 > 0.15 2𝑡𝑓 248
𝐹𝑎
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

Use Fb = 0.66Fy M
f𝑏 =
S𝑥
Fb = 0.66(248) M
133.50 =
1280 x 103
Fb = 163.68 MPa

M = 170.88 x 106 N. mm
f𝑎 C𝑚 f𝑏
+ ≤ 1.0
F𝑎 f F𝑏 M = 170.88 kN. m
1 − F 𝑎′
𝑒
WL2
M =
6.89 0.85 f𝑏 8
+ = 1.0
41.19 6.89 163.68 2
1 − 41.19 W 4.8
170.88 =
8

f𝑏 = 133.5 MPa 𝐖 = 𝟓𝟗. 𝟑𝟑 𝐤𝐍/𝐦


Sample Problem

W shape columns are used to support a crane rail as shown in the figure. The top of the columns are braced
against sideway in the direction along the crane rail (K=0.80) but sideway is not prevented in the direction
perpendicular to the crane rail (k=2.10). Use NSCP Specification.

e
crane rail
Properties of Section
A 11419 mm2 bf 255.91 mm
Fy 250 Mpa tf 17.35 mm
d 260.35 mm Sy 10.54 mm
Sx 1100 x 103 rx 112 mm
Sy 379 x 103 ry 35.28 mm

y
x
1. Which of the following gives the allowable axial stress?
2. Which of the following gives the allowable bending stress?
3. Which of the following gives the allowable max. eccentricity the crane rails could be placed on top of the
W shaped columns if the max. expected reaction on the rails is 75 kN?

26
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

1. Allowable axial compressive stress:


𝐾𝐿 2.10(8000) 12𝜋2𝐸
= = 150 𝐹𝑎
𝑟 𝑥 112 =
23 𝐾𝐿ൗ𝑟 2.

𝐾𝐿 0.80(8000) 12𝜋2(200000)
= = 98.04 𝐹𝑎
𝑟 𝑥
65.28 = 23 150 2.

𝑭𝒂 = 𝟒𝟓. 𝟕𝟕 𝑴𝑷𝒂
𝐾𝐿 2𝜋2𝐸
𝑈𝑠𝑒 = 150 > 𝐶𝑐 =
𝑟 𝐹𝑦

2𝜋2(200000)
𝐶𝑐 =
250

𝐶𝑐 = 125.66 < 150


Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

2. Allowable bending stress:


200𝑏𝑓 L𝑏 > L𝑐
𝐿𝑐 =
𝐹𝑦 L𝑏 < L𝑢
200(255.91)
𝐿𝑐 =
248 Use Fb = 0.60 Fy

𝐿𝑐 = 3237 mm Fb = 0.60 Fy

Fb = 0.60(250)
137900
𝐿𝑢 =
𝐹𝑦𝑑 𝐅𝐛 = 𝟏𝟓𝟎 𝐌𝐏𝐚
𝑏𝑓𝑡𝑓
137900
𝐿𝑢 =
250 (260.35)
255.91 (17.35)

𝐿𝑢 = 9409 mm
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

3. Allowable maximum eccentricity

𝑃 𝑓𝑎 6.568
𝑓𝑎 = =
𝐴 𝐹𝑎 45.77
75000 𝑓𝑎
𝑓𝑎 = = 0.1435 < 0.15
11419 𝐹𝑎
𝑓𝑎 = 6.598
𝑓𝑎 𝑓𝑏
𝑈𝑠𝑒 + ≤ 1.0
𝑀 𝐹𝑎 𝐹𝑏
𝑓𝑏 =
𝑆𝑥 75000 𝑒
6.568
+ 11000 𝑥 103 = 1.0
75000 𝑒 45.77 150
𝑓𝑏 =
11000 𝑥 103
𝒆 = 𝟏𝟖𝟖𝟒. 𝟑 𝒎𝒎
Sample Problem
A W 250 x 58 A 36 steel column is pin connected at the top and bottom with sideways being prevented.
The upper hinge is eccentric by 25mm causing bending by the major axis. The column is 5.4 m. high
without any lateral bracing column. Using NSCP Specification.
P
y x

Properties of W 10 x 45
A = 7420 mm2 Sx = 693 x 103 mm2
d = 252 mm Sy = 186 x 103 mm2 x y
bf = 203 mm rx = 108 mm
tf = 8 mm ry = 50.4 mm
tw = 13.5 m e = 25mm 5.4m

1. Which of the following gives the allowable axial stress for the column?
2. Which of the following gives the allowable bending stress for the column?
3. Which of the following gives the maximum safe axial load P?
30
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

1. Allowable axial compressive stress:


𝐾 = 1 (𝑝𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑) 𝐾𝐿 2
𝐹𝑦
𝐾𝐿 (1)(5400) 𝐹𝑎 1− 𝑟 2
= = 2𝐶𝑐 𝐹. 𝑆.
𝑟 50.4
5 3(𝐾𝐿/𝑟) 𝐾𝐿/𝑟 3
𝐾𝐿 𝐹. 𝑆. = + −
= 107.4 MPa 3 8(𝐶𝑐) 8 𝐶𝑐 3
𝑟
5 3(107.14) 107.14 3
𝐹. 𝑆. = + −
2𝜋2𝐸 3 8(125.66) 8 125.66 3
𝐶𝑐 =
𝐹𝑦
𝐹. 𝑆. = 1.696

2𝜋2(200000) 107.14 2 248


𝐶𝑐 = 𝐹𝑎 1−
250 = 2 125.66 2 1.87

𝐶𝑐 = 125.66 > 107.4 𝑭𝒂 = 𝟗𝟑. 𝟖𝟑𝑴𝑷𝒂


Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

2. Allowable bending stress:


200𝑏𝑓 L𝑏 > L𝑐
𝐿𝑐 =
𝐹𝑦
L𝑏 > L𝑢
200(203)
𝐿𝑐 =
248 Use Fb = 0.60 Fy

𝐿𝑐 = 2568 mm Fb = 0.60 Fy

Fb = 0.60(248)
138000
𝐿𝑢 =
𝐹𝑦𝑑 𝐅𝐛 = 𝟏𝟒𝟖. 𝟖 𝐌𝐏𝐚
𝑏𝑓𝑡𝑓
138000
𝐿𝑢 =
248(252)
203 (13.5)

𝐿𝑢 = 6003 mm
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

3. Maximum safe axial load 𝑃 𝑀


𝑓𝑎 𝑓𝑎 = 𝑓𝑏 =
𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 > 0.15 𝐴 𝑆𝑥
𝐹𝑎
𝑃 𝑃
𝑓𝑎 = 𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑓𝑏 = 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑓𝑎 𝐶𝑚 𝑓 𝑏 7420 27720
+ ≤ 1.0
𝐹𝑎 𝑓
1 − 𝑎′ 𝐹𝑏 𝑃 𝑃
𝐹𝑒 0.60
7420 + 27720 = 1.0
𝑀1 93.83 𝑃 Τ7420
𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 − 0.40 1−
𝑀2 412

0 𝑃 = 618000 𝑁
𝐶𝑚 = 0.60 − 0.40 = 0.60
𝑀2
𝑷 = 𝟔𝟏𝟖 𝒌𝑵
Sample Problem
An eccentric load P is placed at an eccentricity of 180 mm from the x-axis and 290 mm from the y-axis.
The W 10 x 60 column has an unsupported height of 4.5 m. Fy = 345 MPa, E = 200000 MPa. Assume Kx =
1.0 and Ky = 1.0
P
180 mm
290 mm y y
x
Properties of W 10 x 60
P
A = 11419 mm2 Sx = 1100 x 103 290
mm2 mm
d = 260.35 180
bf = 255.91 mm Sy = 378.5 x 103
mm2mm
tf = 17.35 x x
tw = 10.54 m rx = 112.01 mm y x
ry = 65.28 mm

1. Compute the allowable compressive axial stress that would be permitted if axial force alone
existed.
2. Compute the allowable bending stress about the strong axis that would be permitted if bending
moment alone existed.
34
3. Compute the safe value of P.
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

1. Allowable axial compressive stress:


𝐾𝑥 𝐿 (1)(4500) 𝐾𝑦 𝐿 (1)(4500) 𝐾𝐿 2
𝐹𝑦
𝑟𝑥
=
112.01 𝑟𝑦
=
65.28 𝐹𝑎 1− 𝑟 2
= 2𝐶𝑐 𝐹. 𝑆.
𝐾𝑥 𝐿 𝐾𝑦 𝐿
= 40.17 MPa = 68.93 MPa 5 3(𝐾𝐿/𝑟) 𝐾𝐿/𝑟 3
𝑟𝑥 𝑟𝑦 𝐹. 𝑆. = + −
3 8(𝐶𝑐) 8 𝐶𝑐 3
𝐾𝐿 5 3(68.93) 68.93 3
𝑈𝑠𝑒 = 68.93 MPa 𝐹. 𝑆. = + −
𝑟 3 8(106.67) 8 106.67 3

2𝜋2𝐸 𝐹. 𝑆. = 1.87
𝐶𝑐 =
𝐹𝑦 68.93 2 345
𝐹𝑎 1−
= 2 106.97 2 1.87
2𝜋2(200000)
𝐶𝑐 = 𝑭𝒂 = 𝟏𝟒𝟔. 𝟏𝟗 𝑴𝑷𝒂
345

𝐶𝑐 = 106.97 > 68.93


Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

2. Allowable bending stress:


Lb = 4500 mm L𝑏 > L𝑐
200𝑏𝑓
𝐿𝑐 = L𝑏 < L𝑢
𝐹𝑦
200(255.91) Use Fb = 0.60 Fy
𝐿𝑐 =
345
Fb = 0.60 Fy
𝐿𝑐 = 2756 mm
Fb = 0.60(345)
137900
𝐿𝑢 = 𝐅𝐛 = 𝟐𝟎𝟕 𝐌𝐏𝐚
𝐹𝑦𝑑
𝑏𝑓𝑡𝑓
137900
𝐿𝑢 =
345(260.35)
255.91 (17.35)

𝐿𝑢 = 6817 mm
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
3. Value of P𝑓𝑎 𝑀𝑥 𝑓𝑎
𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 < 0.15 𝑓𝑏𝑥 = 𝐶ℎ𝑒𝑐𝑘:
𝐹𝑎 𝑆𝑥 𝐹𝑎
𝑓𝑎 𝑓𝑏𝑥 𝑓𝑏𝑦 𝑃(180) 𝑃
+ + ≤ 1.0 𝑓𝑏𝑥 = 𝑓𝑎 =
𝐹𝑎 𝐹𝑏𝑥 𝐹𝑏𝑦 1100 𝑥 103 𝐴
𝑓𝑏𝑥 = 0.000164 𝑃 229786
𝐹𝑎 = 146.19 𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑓𝑎 =
11419
𝐹𝑏𝑥 = 207 𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑀𝑦
𝑓𝑏𝑦 = 𝑓𝑎 = 20.12 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑆𝑦
𝐹𝑏𝑦 = 0.75𝐹𝑦
𝑃(290)
𝐹𝑏𝑦 = 0.75(345) 𝑓𝑏𝑦 = 𝑓𝑎 20.12
378.5 𝑥 103 = = 0.14 < 0.15 (𝑜𝑘!)
𝐹𝑎 146.19
𝐹𝑏𝑦 = 258.75 𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑓𝑏𝑦 = 0.0000766 𝑃
𝑈𝑠𝑒: 𝑃 = 229786 𝑁
𝑃 𝑓𝑎 𝑓𝑏𝑥 𝑓𝑏𝑦
𝑓𝑎 = + + = 1.0 𝑷 = 𝟐𝟐𝟗. 𝟖 𝒌𝑵
𝐴 𝐹𝑎 𝐹𝑏𝑥 𝐹𝑏𝑦
𝑃
𝑓𝑎 = 0.0000876𝑃 0.000164𝑃 0.0000766𝑃
11419 + + = 1.0
146.19 207 258.75
𝑓𝑎 = 0.0000876 𝑃
𝑃 = 229786 𝑁
Sample Problem
A W 200 x 46 is used as continuous top chord member from joint A to joint B of a truss shown in the
figure. It carries a purlin load of 44 kN and a compression stress of 550 kN. Use NSCP Specifications . Fy =
345 MPa
4m D

Properties of W 200 x 46
4m C E
w = 46 kg/m
A = 5860 mm2 4m B F
d = 203 mm
tf = 11.0 mm
bf = 203 mm A
H I J K L
G

tw = 7.2 mm
rx = 88.1 mm 44 kN B
550 kN

ry = 51.2 mm 2m
Sx = 448 x 103 mm3 Assume to be
Sy = 151 x 103 mm3 fixed ended.
A
550 kN
1. Which of the following gives the value of Cm.
2. Which of the following gives the value of the permissible axial stress if axial force alone existed
3. Which of the following gives the interaction value due to axial and bending.

38
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

1. Value of Cm

𝑃 𝑀
𝑓𝑎 = 𝑓𝑏 =
𝐴 𝑆𝑥

55000 22 𝑥 106
𝑓𝑎 = 𝑓𝑏 = 𝐿 = 2000 𝑚𝑚
5860 448 𝑥 103

𝑓𝑏 = 49.11 𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝐿𝑐 = 2186 𝑚𝑚


𝑓𝑎 = 93.86 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝐿𝑢 = 4397 𝑚𝑚
𝑃𝐿 200𝑏𝑓
𝑀= 𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝐿𝑐 =
8 𝐹𝑦
𝐿 < 𝐿𝑐 < 𝐿𝑢
44(4) 𝐿𝑐 = 2186 𝑚𝑚
𝑀=
8

𝑀 = 22 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚 200(203)
𝐿𝑢 =
345
𝑀 = 22 𝑥 106 𝑁. 𝑚
𝐿𝑢 = 4397 𝑚𝑚 39
Sample Problem

Use 𝐹𝑏 = 0.66 𝐹𝑦 For loadings as shown

𝑓𝑎
12π2𝐸 𝐶𝑚 = 1 − 0.2
𝐹𝑒 = 𝐹𝑒
𝐾𝐿 2
23 𝑟
𝑏 (93.86)
𝐶𝑚 = 1 − 0.2
499.66
𝐾𝐿 (1)(400) 𝑪𝒎 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟔𝟐
=
𝑟𝑏 88.1

𝐾𝐿
= 45.40
𝑟𝑏

12π2(200000)
𝐹𝑒 =
23 45.40 2

𝐹𝑒 = 499.66 𝑀𝑃𝑎
40
Sample Problem
2. Value of the permissible axial stress:
𝐾𝐿 2
𝐾𝐿 (1)(2000) 2π2𝐸 𝐹𝑦
𝑦 = 𝐶= 𝐹𝑎 = [1 − 𝑟 ]
𝑟 51.2 𝐹𝑦 2𝐶2 𝐹. 𝑆
𝐾𝐿 𝑭𝒂 = 𝟏𝟕𝟎. 𝟔𝟏 𝑴𝑷𝒂
𝑦 = 39.06
𝑟 2π2(200000)
𝐶=
345

𝐾𝐿 (1)(2000) 𝐶 = 106.97
𝑥 =
𝑟 51.2

𝐾𝐿 𝐾𝐿 2
𝐹𝑦
𝑟 𝑥 = 45.40 𝐹𝑎 = [1 − 𝑟 2 ]
2𝐶 𝐹. 𝑆

𝐾𝐿 𝐾𝐿 3
5 3( 𝑟 )
𝐾𝐿 𝐹. 𝑆 = + − 𝑟 3
Use = 45.40 < 𝐶 3 8𝐶 8𝐶
𝑟
5 3(45.40) 45.40 3
𝐹. 𝑆 = + − 41
3 8(106.97) 8(106.97)3
Sample Problem
3. Interaction value due to axial and bending

𝑓𝑎 93.86
= 93.86 0.962(49.11)
𝐹𝑎 170.61 + ≤ 1.0
170. . 61 93.86
1 − 499.66 (227.7)
𝑓𝑎
= 0.55 > 0.15
𝐹𝑎 𝟎. 𝟓𝟓 + 𝟎. 𝟐𝟔 = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟏 < 𝟏. 𝟎 𝒔𝒂𝒇𝒆

𝑓𝑎 𝐶𝑚𝑓𝑏
Use: + 𝑓 ≤ 1.0 Check also:
𝐹𝑎 1−𝐹𝑎 𝐹𝑏
𝑒

𝑓𝑎 𝑓𝑏
+ ≤ 1.0
𝐹𝑏 = 0.66𝐹𝑦 0.6𝐹𝑦 𝐹𝑏
𝐹𝑏 = 0.66 345
93.86 49.11
+ ≤ 1.0
𝐹𝑏 = 227.70 𝑀𝑃𝑎 170.61 227.70

𝟎. 𝟓𝟓 + 𝟎. 𝟐𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟕 < 𝟏. 𝟎 𝒔𝒂𝒇𝒆

42
Sample Problem
A W 12 x 161 is used as a column to support an axial load of 1784 kN and moments about the x-axis equal
to 180 kN.m and a moment about y-axis of 60 kN.m. The column section has an unsupported height of
3.6 m. consisting of A 36 steel with Fy = 248 Mpa which is braced against sidesway. There is no transverse
loads and Kx = 1.0 and Ky = 1.0. The column is bent in reverse curvature about both axis with equal end
moments.
Properties of W 12 x 161

A = 305080.6 mm2
d = 352.55 mm
bf = 317.88 mm
tw = 22.99 mm
Sx = 3638 x 103
Sy = 1273 x 103
rx = 144.78 mm
ry = 81.28 mm

1. Compute the allowable axial stress if only axial stress occurs.


2. Compute the allowable bending stress about x-axis.
3. Compute the allowable bending stress about y-axis.
4. Determine the adequacy of the column section by computing the interactions value of axial and
bending stress.
43
Sample Problem
SOLUTION:

1. Allowable axial stress

𝐾𝑥𝐿𝑥 1.0(3600) 2π2𝐸𝑠


= 𝐶𝑐 =
𝑟𝑥 144.78 𝐹𝑦

𝐾𝑥𝐿𝑥
= 24.87
𝑟𝑥 2π2(200000)
𝐶𝑐 =
248 44.29 2 248
𝐹𝑎 = 1 −
2(126.17)2 1.76
𝐾𝑦𝐿𝑦 1.0(3600)
= 𝐶𝑐 = 126.17 > 44.29
𝑟𝑦 81.28 𝑭𝒂 = 𝟏𝟑𝟐. 𝟐𝟑 𝑴𝑷𝒂
𝐾 𝑦𝐿 𝑦 𝐾𝐿 2
= 44.29 𝐹𝑦
𝑟𝑦 Use: 𝐹𝑎 = 1 − 𝑟
2𝐶𝑐2 𝐹.𝑆

𝐾𝐿 𝐾𝐿 3
Use:
𝐾𝐿
= 44.29 5 3( )
𝑟 𝐹. 𝑆. = + 𝑟 + 𝑟
3 8𝐶𝑐 8𝐶𝑐3

5 3(44.29 44.29 3 44
𝐹. 𝑆. = + + 3
Introduction (Axial Tension and Bending)

AXIAL TENSION AND BENDING

Members subject to both axial tension and bending stresses must satisfy the following equation:

Where:
fb is the computed bending stress,
fa is the computed axial tensile stresses,
Fb is the allowable bending stress and,
Ft is the governing allowable tensile stress

45
Introduction (Axial Tension and Bending)

Members subjected to both axial and tension and bending shall be proportioned at all points along their length
to satisfy the following equation:

a. Bending in one axis only.


(fa/Fa )+ (fbx/Fbx)≤ 1.0
fa=actual axial stress
fa= T/A
fb=actual bending stress
Ft= allowable tensile stress
Ft= 0.6Fy
Fbx=allowable bending stress about the x-axis

b. Bending in bith axis


(fa/Ft) + (fbx/Fbx) + (fby/Fby) ≤ 1.0
Ft=0.6 Fy
Fbx=0.66 Fy for compact section
Fbx=0.6 Fy for non-compact section
46
Fby=0.75 Fy
Sample Problem

A W16x50 is used as a beam to carry a uniform live load and dead load including its own weight of 37.5 kN/m
and an axial tension load T acting through the centroid of the member. It has a simple span of 6m. The
compression flange of the member is laterally supported against local buckling. Use A36 steel, Fy=248 Mpa.

Properties of W16x50
A=9483.85 mm2 W=37.5 kN/m
d=412.75 mm
bf=179.65 mm
tf=15.95 mm
tw=9.65 mm
Sx=1324x10^3 mm3
L=6m
Sy=172x10^3 mm3

1. Compute the allowable axial stress.


2. Compute the allowable bending stress.
3. Compute the safe axial load T that the beam could carry.

47
Sample Problem

Solution:

1. Allowable axial stress fb=M/Sx


(fa/Fa) + (fb/Fb) ≤ 1.0 fb=(168.75x10^6)/(1324x10^3)
fa=T/A fb= 127.45 MPa
fa=T/9483.85
Fa=0.60Fy bf/2tf = (179.65)/(2*15.95)
Fa=0.60 (248) bf= 5.63< 170/√Fy = 10.8 (compact)
Fa=148.8 Mpa

2. Allowable bending stress Allowable bending stress


fb=M/Sx Fb=0.66 Fy
M=WL^2/8 Fb=0.66(248)
M=(37.5)(6^2)/8 Fb=163.68 MPa
M=168.75 kN.m

48
Sample Problem

Solution:

3. Safe axial load T that the beam could carry.


(fa/Fa) + (fb/Fb) =1.0
(fa/148.8) + (127.45/163.68) =1.0
fa=32.94 Mpa

fa=T/9483.85
32.94=T/9483.85
T=312364 N
T=312.4 kN

49
Sample Problem

A simple beam 4.5 in span carries a concentrated load of 300 kN at midspan and is subjected to an
axial tensile force of 250 kN. Fy=248 Mpa.
Three sections are being considered as follows with their corresponding properties relevant to this
problem.

Section Area Beam Depth Moment of Inertia


W 24 X 55 0.01 m2 0.598 m 0.000558 m4
W 21 X 62 0.012 m2 0.533 m 0.000554 m4
W 21 X 68 0.013 m2 0.537 m 0.000616 m4

1. Which of the following gives the lowest axial stress. 300 kN


2. Which of the following gives the lowest bending stress.
3. Which of the following gives the safest section.

Use the formula (fa/0.6Fy)+(fb/0.66Fy) <1.0


4.5 m
50
Sample Problem

Solution

Lowest axial stress: Lowest bending stress:


For W 24 x 55 For W 24 x 55 For W 21 x 68
fa=T/A M=PL/4 fb=(337.5*0.537)/(0.000616*2)
fa=250/0.01 M=(300*4.5)/4 fb=147108 kPa
fa=25000 kPa M=337.5 kN.m fb=147.1 MPa Lowest bending
fa=25 MPa stress
fb=M/S
For W 21 x 62 fb=MC/I
fa=T/A fb=(337.5*0.598)/(0.000558*2) For W 21 x 62
fa=250/0.012 fb=180847 kPa fb=(337.5*0.533)/(0.000554*2)
fa=20833 kPa fb=180.8 MPa fb=162353 kPa
fa=20.83 MPa fb=162.4 MPa

For W 21 x 68
fa=T/A
fa=250/0.013
fa=19231 kPa
fa=19.231 MPa Lowest axial stress
51
Sample Problem

Solution

Safest Section
For W 24 x 55
(fa/0.6Fy) + (fb/0.66Fy) ≤ 1.0

(25/0.6*248) + (180.8/0.66*248)=1.27 Unsafe

For W 21 x 68
(fa/0.6Fy) + (fb/0.66Fy) ≤ 1.0

(19.23/0.6*248) + (147.1/0.66*248)=1.028 Unsafe

For W 21 x 68
(fa/0.6Fy) + (fb/0.66Fy) ≤ 1.0

(20.83/0.6*248) + (162.4/0.66*248)=1.132 Unsafe

Therefore, all sections were not safe 52


Sample Problem

A simply supported beam has a span 0f 4.5 m. The beam is subjected to an axial tensile force of 250 kN. and a
vertical concentrated load P acting at its midspan. The member is fully laterally supported for its entire length.
The effect of any bolts can be neglected. The beam consists of 2-150 x 90 x 12 mm angles with long legs back to
back spaced at 10 mm apart. For this problem the properties of one 150 x 90 x 12 mm angles are:

A=2751 mm2
Sx=0.000063 m3
Fy=248 Mpa
Fa=0.60Fy
Fb=0.66Fy

Neglecting the weight of the beam, which of the following most nearly gives the maximum value of the load P
that the member can support. 12
P

N.A.
250 kN 250 kN 150

2.25 2.25 90 90
53
10
Sample Problem
Solution:

(fa/Fa) + (fb/Fb)=1.0 Fa=0.60(248)

fa=T/a Fa=148.8 Mpa

fa=250000/(2751*2) Fb=0.66 (248)

fa=45.44 MPa Fb=163.68 Mpa


(fa/Fa) + (fb/Fb) =1

fb=M/Sx (45.44/148.8) + (8.93P/163.68)=1

Sx=63000 mm3 P=12.73 kN

M=P(4.5)/4
M=1.125P kN.m
fb=(1.125P x10^6)/(63000*2)
fb= 8.93P

54
End of MODULE#7

References:
• NATIONAL STRUCTURAL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (NSCP 5th edition).
• NATIONAL STRUCTURAL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (NSCP 6th edition).
• FUNDAMENTALS OF STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN (ASD 2001 NSCP). DIT Gillesania
•SIMPLIFIED STEEL DESIGN. VI Besavilla
55