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Estacio, Maria Yloisa Yricka
Pangket, Leani Aginnaya
Saliwan, Rosemarie Anne D.
Sandoval, Elmira
• Materials may be classified by their
Magnetic response to externally applied magnetic
fields as:
Properties • Diamagnetic
from • Paramagnetic
Molecules to • Ferromagnetic
Solids • Antiferromagnetic
• Ferrimagnetic
Who discovered the magnetic
• An understanding of the relationship
between electricity and magnetism began
in 1819 with work by Hans Christian
Ørsted, a professor at the University of
Copenhagen, who discovered by the
accidental twitching of a compass needle
near a wire that an electric current could
create a magnetic field.
Magnetism is one aspect
of the
combined electromagnetic
force. It refers to physical
phenomena arising from
the force caused by
magnets, objects that
produce fields that attract
or repel other objects.
Why magnets
• Magnetism is the force
exerted by
magnets when they
attract or repel each
Magnetism is caused
by the motion of
electric charges. Every
substance is made up
of tiny units called
atoms. Each atom has
electrons, particles that
carry electric charges.
Basic Concepts
• A magnetic dipole is the
limit of either a closed loop
of electric current or a pair
of poles as the size of the
source is reduced to zero
while keeping the
magnetic moment
Magnetic Field Strength
• Magnetic field strength is one of two ways that the intensity of
a magnetic field can be expressed. ... The field
strength corresponds to the density of the field lines. The total
number of magnetic field lines penetrating an area is called
the magnetic flux. The unit of the magnetic flux is the tesla
meter squared (T).
Magnetic Field

• Factors that
can affect a magnet'
s strength include:
Heat. Radiation.
Strong electrical
currents in close
proximity to
the magnet.
Magnetic Flux
• Magnetic flux
density is defined as
the amount
of magnetic flux in
an area taken
perpendicular to
the magnetic
flux's direction. An
example of magnetic
flux density is a
measurement taken
in teslas.
• HUND’S RULE – states that electrons must occupy every orbital singly before any
orbital is doubly occupied.
• Pauli’s Exclusion Principle – states that electrons filling the same orbital must
have different spins because no two electrons can have the exact same quantum
number. This causes the magnetic fields of the electrons to cancel out; thus there
is no net magnetic moment, and the atom cannot be attracted into a magnetic
field. These electrons are called diamagnetic electrons, and an atom containing
on diamagnetic electrons is called diamagnetic atom.

Diamagnetic atoms are not Diamagnetism is a very weak form of magnetism that
attracted to magnetic fields is nonpermanent and persists only while an external
field is being applied and is induced by a change in the
but rather repel them. orbital motion of electrons due to an applied magnetic
• Diamagnetic Materials – materials which are
feebly repelled by a magnet. When placed
between the poles of a strong electromagnet,
diamagnetic materials are attracted toward
regions where the field is weak. When placed in
a magnetic field, the lines of magnetic force tend
to avoid the substance. Diamagnetism is found in
all materials; but because it is so weak, it can be
observed only when other types of magnetism
Fig. : Levitating pyrolytic carbon: A small
are totally absent. This form of magnetism is of
(~6 mm) piece of pyrolytic graphite
no practical importance.
levitating over a permanent neodymium
magnet array

Paramagnetism refers to the magnetic state of an atom with one or more

unpaired electrons.

A paramagnetic electron is an unpaired electron. An atom is considered

paramagnetic if even one orbital has a net spin (the spin of the lone
electron does not get canceled out).

Diamagnetic atoms are slightly attracted to magnetic field, just as

diamagnetic atoms are slightly repelled from it.
• Paramagnetic Materials are those materials which
are feebly attracted by a magnet. The lines of
magnetic force prefer to pass through the material
rather than air. Paramagnetic materials that are
attracted by an externally applied magnetic field
and form internal induced magnetic fields in the
direction of the applied magnetic field
• Both diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials are
considered to be nonmagnetic because they
exhibit magnetization only when in the presence
of an external field.
• Ferromagnetism- is large and
permanent magnetizations may
be established within the
ferromagnetic metals (Fe, Co, Ni).
Atomic magnetic dipole moments
are of spin origin, which are
coupled and mutually aligned
with moments of adjacent atoms.
• The maximum possible magnetization, or saturation magnetization of a
ferromagnetic material represents the magnetization that results when all the
magnetic dipoles in a solid piece are mutually aligned with the external field;
• There is also a corresponding saturation flux density. The saturation
magnetization is equal to the product of the net magnetic moment for each atom
and the number of atoms present.
• Ferrimagnetism-some ceramics
also exhibit a permanent
magnetization, termed
ferrimagnetism. The macroscopic
magnetic characteristics of
ferromagnets and ferrimagnets
are similar; the distinction lies in
the source of the net magnetic
• Antiferromagnetic are like ferromagnets but
their magnetic moments align antiparallel to
the neighboring moments. This alignment
occurs spontaneously below a critical
temperature known as the Neel temperature.
The Neel temperature is named after Louis
Neel who discovered antiferromagnetics.
Above the Neel temperature the material
becomes paramagnetic. Antiferromagnets are
less common compared to the other types of
magnetic behaviours, and are mostly
observed at low temperatures.

• Different magnet materials

react differently with
• Demagnetization resistance
generally decreases with
increasing temperature.
• One exception is ceramic
(ferrite) magnets, which are
easier to demagnetize at low
temperature and harder to
demagnetize at high

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