Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Null & Deflection Type Instruments

 Pressure Gauge is a
Deflection Type
 Value of quantity
measured displayed in
terms of movement of
 Accuracy depends upon
Bourdon tube and spring

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 1

Null & Deflection Type Instruments
 Calibration of Bourdon
tube and spring is
difficult therefore
Deflection type
instrument is less
 More convenient to use

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 2

Null & Deflection Type Instruments
 Dead Weight Pressure
Gauge is a Null Type
Instrument, works on
the principle that P= F/A
 Weights are put on top of
piston until the
downward force
balances the fluid

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 3

Null & Deflection Type Instruments
 Weights are added until
the piston reaches a
datum level known as
the null point
 Accuracy depends upon
calibration of weights
 Calibration of weights is
easier therefore null type
instruments are more

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 4

Null & Deflection Type Instruments
 Inconvenient to use, for
calibration purposes

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 5

Analogue and Digital Instruments
 Analogue Instruments
give a continuously
varying output as the
quantity being measured
 Deflection Type
pressure Gauge
 Digital Instruments give
output that varies in
discrete quantities

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 6

Static & Dynamic Characteristics
 Static Characteristics deal with steady state or slowly
varying inputs
 Dynamic Characteristics refers to the performance of
the instrument when the input variable is changing
rapidly with time

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 7

Static Characteristics
 Characteristics of an instrument at Steady State
 Accuracy
 Precision (Repeatability and Reproducibility)
 Range or Span
 Linearity
 Sensitivity
 Threshold
 Resolution

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 8

Accuracy (Measurement
 Accuracy of an instrument is a measure of how close
the output reading of an instrument is to the actual
 In practice the inaccuracy figure is quoted
 Inaccuracy quoted as percentage of the full scale (f.s.)
reading of an instrument
 Pressure gauge of range 0 – 10 bar has quoted
inaccuracy of ±1.0% f.s.
 Maximum error to be expected in any reading is 0.1 bar

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 9

Accuracy (Measurement
 When instrumentation is reading 1.0 bar the
maximum error which is 0.1 bar gives an error of 10%
 Important Instrument Design Rule
 Instrument Range should be appropriate to the spread
of values to be measured
 Never use an instrument having 0 – 10 bar range to
measure values between 0 and 1 bar

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 10

Precision (Repeatability/
 Precision of an instrument describes its degree of
freedom from random errors
 If large number of readings are taken of the same
quantity then the spread of readings should be very
 A high precision instrument may have low accuracy

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 11

Accuracy Vs. Precision

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 12

Repeatability vs. Reproducibility
 Repeatability
 Closeness of output readings when same input is
applied repeatability over a short period of time
 With the same measurement conditions
 Same instrument and observer
 Same location
 Same conditions of use maintained throughout

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 13

Repeatability vs. Reproducibility
 Reproducibility
 Closeness of output readings for same input when
there are changes in
 Method of measurement
 Observer
 Measuring instrument
 Location
 Conditions of use and time of measurement

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 14

Accuracy vs. Repeatability

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 15

Range or Span
 Maximum and Minimum values of a quantity that the
instrument is designed to measure

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 16

 It is desirable that the output reading of an instrument
is linearly proportional to the quantity being measured
 Non-Linearity defined as the maximum deviation of
any of the output readings from the best-fit straight
line output

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 17

 Non-linearity is expressed as a percentage of full scale

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 18

 It is a measure of the change in instrument output that
occurs when the quantity being measured changes by
a given amount
 Scale Deflection/Value of measurand producing
 1 V/Ω

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 19

 The minimum input to an instrument at which the
output is detectable
 Car speedometer typically has a threshold of 15 kmph
 Manufacturers vary in which they specify threshold
 Threshold quoted as an Absolute Value
 Threshold quoted as a percentage of full-scale reading

EE220 Instrumentation & Measurement 20