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Null & Deflection Type Instruments

 Pressure Gauge is a
Deflection Type
Instrument
 Value of quantity
measured displayed in
terms of movement of
pointer
 Accuracy depends upon
Bourdon tube and spring

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Null & Deflection Type Instruments
 Calibration of Bourdon
tube and spring is
difficult therefore
Deflection type
instrument is less
accurate
 More convenient to use

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Null & Deflection Type Instruments
 Dead Weight Pressure
Gauge is a Null Type
Instrument, works on
the principle that P= F/A
 Weights are put on top of
piston until the
downward force
balances the fluid
pressure

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Null & Deflection Type Instruments
 Weights are added until
the piston reaches a
datum level known as
the null point
 Accuracy depends upon
calibration of weights
 Calibration of weights is
easier therefore null type
instruments are more
accurate

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Null & Deflection Type Instruments
 Inconvenient to use, for
calibration purposes
only

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Analogue and Digital Instruments
 Analogue Instruments
give a continuously
varying output as the
quantity being measured
changes
 Deflection Type
pressure Gauge
 Digital Instruments give
output that varies in
discrete quantities

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Static & Dynamic Characteristics
 Static Characteristics deal with steady state or slowly
varying inputs
 Dynamic Characteristics refers to the performance of
the instrument when the input variable is changing
rapidly with time

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Static Characteristics
 Characteristics of an instrument at Steady State
 Accuracy
 Precision (Repeatability and Reproducibility)
 Range or Span
 Linearity
 Sensitivity
 Threshold
 Resolution

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Accuracy (Measurement
Uncertainty)
 Accuracy of an instrument is a measure of how close
the output reading of an instrument is to the actual
value
 In practice the inaccuracy figure is quoted
 Inaccuracy quoted as percentage of the full scale (f.s.)
reading of an instrument
 Pressure gauge of range 0 – 10 bar has quoted
inaccuracy of ±1.0% f.s.
 Maximum error to be expected in any reading is 0.1 bar

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Accuracy (Measurement
Uncertainty)
 When instrumentation is reading 1.0 bar the
maximum error which is 0.1 bar gives an error of 10%
 Important Instrument Design Rule
 Instrument Range should be appropriate to the spread
of values to be measured
 Never use an instrument having 0 – 10 bar range to
measure values between 0 and 1 bar

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Precision (Repeatability/
Reproducibility)
 Precision of an instrument describes its degree of
freedom from random errors
 If large number of readings are taken of the same
quantity then the spread of readings should be very
small
 A high precision instrument may have low accuracy

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Accuracy Vs. Precision

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Repeatability vs. Reproducibility
 Repeatability
 Closeness of output readings when same input is
applied repeatability over a short period of time
 With the same measurement conditions
 Same instrument and observer
 Same location
 Same conditions of use maintained throughout

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Repeatability vs. Reproducibility
 Reproducibility
 Closeness of output readings for same input when
there are changes in
 Method of measurement
 Observer
 Measuring instrument
 Location
 Conditions of use and time of measurement

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Accuracy vs. Repeatability

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Range or Span
 Maximum and Minimum values of a quantity that the
instrument is designed to measure

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Linearity
 It is desirable that the output reading of an instrument
is linearly proportional to the quantity being measured
 Non-Linearity defined as the maximum deviation of
any of the output readings from the best-fit straight
line output

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Linearity
 Non-linearity is expressed as a percentage of full scale
reading

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Sensitivity
 It is a measure of the change in instrument output that
occurs when the quantity being measured changes by
a given amount
 Scale Deflection/Value of measurand producing
deflection
 1 V/Ω

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Threshold
 The minimum input to an instrument at which the
output is detectable
 Car speedometer typically has a threshold of 15 kmph
 Manufacturers vary in which they specify threshold
 Threshold quoted as an Absolute Value
 Threshold quoted as a percentage of full-scale reading

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