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ORGANIZATIONAL

CULTURE
ORGANIZATION
A social unit of people that is
structured and managed to meet a
need or to pursue collective goal
 In simple words, different
individuals come together, form a
group for a collective or objective.
CULTURE
 Something made-up of the Beliefs,
Ideologies, Principles and Values of
people living in the society
 It determines the direction of the
“thinking and the Action” of the
people.
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
 It determines through the organization’s
Rituals, Beliefs, Values, Means, Norms,
and Language.
 As a result the culture of an organization
is a sense of identity – ‘who we are’, ‘what
we stand for’, and ‘what we do’
 In short, Organizational culture is the
way in which ‘things are done in the
organization
ROLE OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE

 Culture provides a sense of identity


 Culture helps to create a
commitment to the vision and
mission of the organization
 Culture clarifies and reinforces
standards of behaviour.
IMPORTANCE OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE

 It is the culture that decides the way employees


interact at their workplace
 It also promotes healthy relationships at
workplace (among the employees)
 It represents certain predefined guidelines which
guide the employees and give them a sense of
direction at the workplace
 No 2 organization can have the same culture. It
is the culture of an organization which make it
distinct from others.
TYPES OF CULTURE
1. hierarchy culture - it is systematic
culture in which every things has its own
level and importance. In it every things
is done in a systematic process.
2. Market culture – in such a
organizational culture the organizational
total depend upon the outside or the
external environment. In this culture the
main focused in stability and order with
an external orientation in mind.
3. Clan culture – a culture which is
flexible and discrete. Here the members
as employees share the vision, mission
and values of the organization and an
atmosphere is created for fun and
adventure with the spirits of work for the
employees.
4. Adhocracy culture – organization that
have and adhocracy culture emphasize
an orientation towards the external
environment with an internal flexibility
and discretion.
HANDY’S 4 TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE

1. A Power Culture – is one based on the


dominance of one or small number of
individuals within an organization. They
make the key decision for the
organization.
2. A Role Culture – exists in large
hierarchical organizations in which
individuals have clear roles (jobs) to
perform which are closely specified.
3. A Task Culture – it exists when teams
are formed to complete particular tasks. A
different teams have distinct culture which
make it more creative.

4. A Person Culture – is the most


individualistic form of culture and exist
when individuals are fully allowed to
express themselves and make decisions for
themselves. It only exists in a very loose
form of organization.
IMPORTANT CLASSIFICATION OF
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE.

 1. Strong vs. Weak Culture – strong culture is


said to exist where staff respond to Stimulus
because of their alignment to organizational
values. Whereas, in weak culture there is a little
alignment with organizational values and control
must be exercised through extensive procedures
and bureaucracy.
2. Soft vs. Hard Culture – in a soft culture the
employees pursue their own personal goals and
give less importance to the organizational goals.
Whereas, in a hard culture the employees consider
more on organizational goal than of their own
goals.

3. Formal vs. Informal Culture – in formal


organizational culture there is more emphasis on
roles, responsibility, rules and regulations.
Whereas, in informal culture there is no such think
like rules and regulations, etc. employees are free
to do there works as they like
ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
 Values – reflect what we feel is important.
Organizations may have core values that reflect
what is important in the organization. These
values may be guiding principles of behaviour for
all members in the organization.
 Beliefs – are about the best ways to achieve
certain goals such as increasing productivity and
job motivation.
 Norms – reflect the typical and accepted
behaviours in an organization. They may reflect
the values and beliefs of the organization.
FEW OTHER ELEMENTS
 Rites and Rituals – celebrations, performances,
and activities that foster and reinforce teamwork
 Stories, Myths, and Legends – the
organizational history and other stories that
embody the organizational culture and
emphasize what the organization values.
 Organization/communication climate – the
atmosphere of either supportiveness or
defensiveness that people feel within the
organization itself.
ORGANIZATIONAL
SOCIALIZATION
Organizational Socialization is
the process of getting a new
member of an organization
settled into their new role within
the organization.
This process includes training
the employee on formal rules,
policies, and procedures.
 It also includes getting the employee
acclimated to the culture of the
organization.
 It is also the process by which a
person learns the values, norms, and
required behaviours which permit
him to participate as a member of
the organization.
STAGES OF ORGANIZATIONAL
SOCIALIZATION

 Stages of socialization
 Choice: Anticipatory Socialization – before
joining the organization
 Entry/Encounter – after entering the
organization
 Change: Metamorphosis – late stage featuring
a new self-image.
 Individual perspective – experiences at each
stage.
 Management perspective – each stage helps
the socialization process its goals
CHOICE: ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION
 Happens before joining an organization or
taking a new job
 Prepares the person for organizational
entry
 First glimpse of the organization’s culture

 Develops a person’s expectation or beliefs


about the organization.
ENTRY/ENCOUNTER STAGE
 Crosses the boundary of the
organization and enters this second
stage of socialization.
 Brings expectations from the
anticipatory stage.
 Compares expectations to the reality
of the organizations
 Often eagers to “learn the ropes”
CHANGE: METAMORPHOSIS (SETTLING IN)
 Change in new employee as the
entry/encounter stage flows into the
metamorphosis stage
 Often clear separation from
entry/encounter stage with rites and
rituals (graduation)
 The word metamorphosis emphasizes the
extraordinary changes that can happen
SOCIALIZATION TACTICS
 This type of socialization refers to where
or not you entered into the organization in
a group or by yourself.
 This process of socialization can be
applied to more than just starting at a
new application.
COLLECTIVE VS. INDIVIDUAL
 Collectivesocialization consists of
grouping newcomers and exposing them to
a common set of experiences
 Rather than treating each new comer
individually and exposing them to more or
less unique experiences.
FORMAL VS. INFORMAL
 Formal socialization is the practice of
segregating a newcomer from regular
organization members during a defined
socialization period
 Versus not distinguishing a newcomer
from more experienced members
SEQUENTIAL VS. RANDOM
 Sequentialsocialization refers to a fixed
progression of steps that culminate in the
new role compared to an ambiguous or
dynamic progression
FIXED VS. VARIABLE
 Fixed socialization provides a timetable
for the assumption of the role
 Whereas a variable process does not
SERIAL VS. DISJUNCTIVE
 Serial process is one in which the
newcomer is socialized by an experienced
member
 Whereas a disjunctive process does not
use a role model.
INVESTITURE VS. DIVESTITURE
 Investiture refers to the affirmation of
newcomers incoming global an specific
role identities
 Divestitures is the denial and stripping
away of the newcomers existing sense of
self.
ETHICAL ISSUES IN ORGANIZATIONAL
SOCIALIZATION

 Debase experiences – most organizations


use mild forms of debasement
 Sororities, fraternities, basic military
training, military academies use strong
forms of debasement
 Can create feelings of fear and intimidation

 Debasement experiences pose a clear


ethical dilemma for organizations and
managers
ETHICAL ISSUES IN ORGANIZATIONAL
SOCIALIZATION

 Anticipatory Socialization –
importance of having accurate
expectations about working for a
particular organizations
 Withholding negative information from
potential employees: an ethical issue
 At what point does an organization
behave unethically by not giving a
balanced view of itself?
ETHICAL ISSUES IN ORGANIZATIONAL
SOCIALIZATION

 Anticipatory Socialization
 Potential employee knowingly withholds
information about self
 Could affect performance or retention by
an organization
 At what point do people behave
unethically by not giving a balanced view
of self?