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CLASS: X D

MADE BY : S.V.SREE KUMAR


SCHOOL: ARMY PUBLIC SCHOOL
1. EFFECT OF ADDING WASTE TO THE
ENVIRONMENT :-
Human activities produce a lot of waste materials which
are thrown away into the environment. These wastes cause
pollution of air, water and soil.
The waste materials produced are of two main types. They
are biodegradable wastes and non biodegradable wastes.
i) Biodegradable wastes :- are wastes which are
decomposed into harmless substances by microorganisms.
Eg :- vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, cotton, jute, wool,
wood, leather, paper, animal dung, animal bones etc.
ii) Non biodegradable wastes :- are wastes which are not
decomposed by microorganisms.
Eg :- polythene bags, plastics, synthetic fibres, glass,
metals, synthetic rubber, insecticides, pesticides etc.
2. ECOSYSTEM AND ITS COMPONENTS :-
a) Ecosystem :- An ecosystem consists of all the living organisms in an
area along with the non living components and their interaction.
There are different types of ecosystems. They are :-
i) Natural ecosystems :- like forests, deserts, grass lands, mountains,
ponds, lakes, rivers, oceans etc.
ii) Artificial ecosystems :- like gardens, parks, crop fields, aquarium, zoo etc.

b) Components of an ecosystem :-
An ecosystem consists of two main components. They are biotic and abiotic
components.
i) Biotic components :- are the living components like plants, animals and
microorganisms. They consist of producers, consumers and decomposers.
Producers :- are green plants which produce food by photosynthesis.
Consumers :- are herbivores which get their food directly from plants,
carnivores which get their food indirectly from plants and omnivores which
get their food directly or indirectly from plants.
Decomposers :- are microorganisms which decompose dead plants and
animals. They decompose complex organic substances into simple inorganic
substances in the soil which are again used by plants.
ii) Abiotic components :- are the non living components like air, water, soil,
minerals, sunlight , temperature, wind etc.
3A) FOOD CHAIN :-

A food chain is the flow of food energy from one


organism to the next and to the next and so on.
They usually start with a producer (plants) and
end with a carnivore. In a food chain an organism
gets food from one group of organisms.
eaten by eaten by
Eg:- Grass Deer Lion
(producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer)
eaten by eaten by eaten by
Grass Insects Frog Snake
(producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer) (tertiary consumer)
eaten by eaten by eaten by eaten by
Grass Moth Frog Snake Hawk
(producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer) (tertiary consumer) (quarternary consumer)
B) FOOD WEB :-

Food web is a group of several interconnected food chains. In a


food web an organism gets food from more than one group of
organisms.
4) TROPHIC LEVELS :-

Each step in a food chain where transfer of food energy takes place is called trophic
level.
The first trophic level consists of producers.
The second trophic level consists of primary consumers.
The third trophic level consists of secondary consumers.
The fourth trophic level consists of tertiary consumers.
Since the transfer of food energy decreases at every trophic level, the number of
trophic levels are limited and do not exceed four or five.
5) ENERGY FLOW IN TROPHIC LEVELS :-

Green plants (producers) absorb about 1% of solar energy falling on the leaves
and stores it as food energy during photosynthesis.
During the transfer of food energy from one trophic level to the next, 90% of
the energy is lost to the environment and only 10% is transferred to the next
trophic level. So there is a decrease in the amount of food energy transferred at
every trophic level by 10%. This is known as the 10% law.
6) BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION
(BIOMAGNIFICATION) :-

Harmful chemicals like insecticides and pesticides


which are used to protect crops from insects and
pests are absorbed by plants and enter the food
chain. Since these chemicals are non biodegradable,
they get accumulated at every trophic level and their
concentration increases. Since human beings occupy
the highest trophic level, the concentration of these
harmful chemicals is maximum in our bodies.
The increase in concentration of harmful chemicals
in the bodies of organisms at higher trophic levels is
called biological magnification.
7) HUMAN ACTIVITIES AFFECT THE
ENVIRONMENT :-

a) Depletion of ozone layer in the atmosphere :-


Ozone molecule contains three oxygen atoms (O3). At higher levels in the
atmosphere the UV radiation splits some oxygen molecules (O2) into free oxygen
atoms which combines with oxygen molecules (O2) to form ozone. It is highly
poisonous.
UV radiation

O2 O + O
O2 + O O3

The ozone layer present in the higher layer of the atmosphere protects the
earth from the harmful UV radiation from the sun. UV radiation causes skin
cancer in humans.
The ozone layer is being damaged by the use of chemicals like chloro fluoro
carbons (CFCs) used in refrigerators and fire extinguishers. So the use of CFCs is
now being reduced to protect the ozone layer.
B) MANAGING THE GARBAGE WE PRODUCE :-

The household waste is called garbage. Some of the


garbage is biodegradable and some are non
biodegradable. Garbage causes pollution of air, water and
soil. So it should be disposed properly.
Some of the methods of garbage disposal are :-
i) Land fills
ii) Recycling
iii) Production of biogas and manure
iv) Preparation of compost
v) Incineration
vi) Sewage treatment
Land fills Recycling

Production of biogas and manure Preparation of compost


Incinerator
Sewage treatment
MCQ QUESTION
 1. Which of the following is a biodegradable substance?
 I. Glass
 II. Plants
 III. Plastics
 IV. Polythene
 2. Which of the following is a non-biodegradable substance?
 I. Virgin plastic
 II. Plastic
 III. Plants
 IV. Plant producers
 3. The constituents which do not form eco-system are
 I. Biotic constituents
 II. Plastic bags
 III. Abiotic constituents
 IV. All of these
 4. The functional unit of environment is
 I. Ecosystem
 II. Nitrogen
 III. Carbon
 IV. Oxygen
 5. Which of the following is an example of producers?
 I. Plastic pens
 II. Plastic cans
 III. Polythene
 IV. Green plants
 6. Which of the following is an example of herbivores?
 I. Cow
 II. Shark
 III. Lion
 IV. Tiger
 7. Which of the following is an not example of abiotic
factors?
 I. Light
 II. Plants
 III. Heat
 IV. Temperature
 8. _______ is not a biodegradable pollutant.
 I. Paper
 II. Cotton cloth
 III. Cotton
 IV. DDT
 9. Which of the following is terrestrial ecosystem?
 I. A natural forest
 II. A lake
 III. A pond
 IV. An aquarium
 10. _______ is an omnivore animal.
 I. Lion
 II. Hawk
 III. Jackal
 IV. Man
 11. The formula of Ozone is _______
 I. O3
 II. O2
 III. O4
 IV. O6
 12. The number of atoms of oxygen present in ozone are
 I. 3
 II. 4
 III. 2
 IV. 1