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Derived from the greek word “historia”

which means knowledge acquired

through inquiry or investigation.
Became know as the account of the
past of a person or group of people
Through written documents and historical
Traditional historians.
-needs documents.
Recent historians.
-documents, gov. records,
personal letter, chroniclers, etc.
Giving premium written documents
invalidates the history of other
civilization that do not keep written
• Word of mouth
• Victims of war
• Other social class
The loophole was recognize by the
• Started using other historical resources

Example: Oral traditions, artifacts,

architecture, and memory.
History became more inclusive:
Archeologist on Artifacts
Linguist on Language
Question and Issues in History
 What is history?
 Why study history?
-History of history
-Study the past
-History itself
Example: how and who, historical method,
context, and resources.
History played various roles
-unite a nation
-use to legitimize regime
-forge sense of collective identity
-learn from the past
-inspire people to keep their good
practice and move forward.
Positivism (18th – 19th century)
-requires empirical and observable
-entails objective means of arriving at a
-historian are required to present written
documents to write a particular historical
narrative. No document, no history.
Positivist historian
-impartial not just in arguments and
also on their conduct of historical
History that has been taught and
written is always intended for certain
-El filibusterismo
-Noli me tangere
Post colonialism ( Early 20 th century)
Colonized nations struggle with the
idea of creating their identities and
understand their societies against the
shadow of their colonial past.
It highlight their identity free from
the colonial disclosure and knowledge.
To criticize the methods, affect and idea
of colonialism.
Post colonial history is a reaction to the
colonial history.
Problems confronted in history
The accusation that the history is written
by the victors. Written by bias of the
dominant player.
Villain vs Hero
-Japanese and Americans
History and Historian
Exact and accurate account of
the past is impossible.
Historian get to access representation
of the past through sources and
Historian’s job not to seek historical
evidence and facts but also to interpret
He is a person of his own influenced by
his own context, environment, ideology,
education, and influences among
His subjectivity will inevitably influence
the process of his historical research.
Historical research requires rigor.
Despite historians cannot ascertain
absolute objectivity.
Historical Methodology
Comprises certain techniques and rules
in order to properly utilize resources and
historical evidences.
-conflicting accounts
-oral resources
Historian inclination, can still be
validated by using reliable evidences
and employing correct and correct
meticulous historical methodology.
Historical Resources
Classified between primary resources
and secondary resources.
The classification depend on the
historical subject being studied.
Primary resources
Resources produced at the same time
as the event, period or subject being
Example: Commonwealth Constitution
of 1935.
-Eye witness
In historical study
Archival documents, artifacts,
Memorabilia, letters, census, and
government records.
Secondary Resources
Resources produced by an author.

Example: books
History should conduct a an
external and internal criticism of the
External Criticism
The practice of verifying the authenticity
of evidence.
-Consistency with historical characteristics
-Time it was produced
-Quality of paper
-Language and words
Internal criticism
Examination of the truthfulness of
the evidence.
-Content of the resources
-Truthfulness and factuality of the
evidences by looking the author of the
-Purpose and agenda
Validating historical evidences is
important. Without thorough criticisms
of historical evidences, historical
deceptions and lies will be highly
The task of the historians is to look at
the available historical resources and
select the most relevant and
The task of the historians is to
organize the past that is being created
so that it offers lessons for nation,
societies, and civilization.
It is the historians job to seek for
meaning of recovering the past to
let people see the continuing
relevance and historical
understanding for both the present
and the past.
Philippine Historiography
Ancient Filipino narrated their history
through communal songs and epics that
they passed orally from generation to
Spaniard started recording their
observation in a bipartite view. They
believed that the age
before colonization as a dark period,
Until they brought light through western
thought and Christianity.
Early nationalist refuted this
perspective and argued the tripartite.
Precolonial – luminous age.
Dark age – during colonizers era.
Light period – when the colonizers were
evicted from the Philippines.
Zeus Salazar
Introduced new guiding philosophy in
writing and teaching history.
The Pantayong Pananaw it highlights the
importance of facilitating an internal
conversation and discourse among Filipino
about our own history.