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Training & Consultancy Services

HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)


BASIC AWARENESS TRAINING
CLASS RULES

 Fire alarm / Emergency Exits


 Mobile Phones
 Designated Smoking Areas
 Out of Bound Areas
 NUTC Safety Passports
 Questions
REFERENCES
 ANSI Z390.1-2006 (R2010):
Accepted Practices for Hydrogen Sulfide Training Programs.

 ADNOC COP Volume 4 Part 10:


Management of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S).
COURSE AIM
To make employees aware of How To Save their lives in a
potential H2S release.
COURSE CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
PROPERTIES & CHARACTERISTICS OF H2S

MEASUREMENT & EFFECTS OF H2S

H2S DETECTION AND MONITORING

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

EMERGENCY ESCAPE

FIRST AID AND MEDICAL TREATMENT


INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS H2S?
Hydrogen Sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is colorless,
flammable, heavier than air, soluble in water and has the
smell of rotten eggs at lower concentrations.
At higher concentration H2S can deaden your sense of
smell.

 Chemical Formula : H2S.


 Chemical Name : Hydrogen Sulfide
 Physical Makeup : Gas at Ambient Conditio ns (STP)
 Specific Gravity : 1.19 [Air = 1.0]
SOURCES OF H2S

H2S is a by-product formed when organic matter decays.

Natural Sources

Under low oxygen conditions when sufficient Sulphur and bacteria are
present.
SOURCES OF H2S

Hydrogen Sulfide is generated as a common product or by-product of


industrial and manufacturing processes.

Industrial Sources
SOURCES OF H2S
In Oil and Gas Industries; H2S can be found in:
 Wellheads,
 Piping Systems, Pipelines
 Tanks
 Shale Shakers,
 Pits, cellars or sewers
 Valves
 Flanges
 Instruments
 Equipment Failure

In Gas Plants example:

 Acid Gas Removal


 Sulfur removal systems
 Heater treaters
 Vapor recovery units
COMMON NAMES OF H2S
HYDROGEN SULFIDE
Rotten Egg Gas Dihydrogen Sulfide
Silent Killer Devil’s Breath
Acid Gas Sulphurated Hydrogen
Sewer Gas Sour Gas
TOXICITY
ACCIDENT STATISTICS
WHERE WHEN NO. OF FATALITIES
USA: 1984-1994 (57 Accidents) 80 (Avg. 8 per year)
Saudi Arabia: 1980 (1 Accident) 19
Chongqong, China: 2003 (1 Accident) 243
GASCO, Buhasa, UAE: 2002 (1 Accident) 03
ADGAS, Das Island, UAE: 2008 (1 Accident) 01
ADCO, Shah, UAE: 2009 (1 Accident) 03
PROPERTIES &
CHARACTERISTICS OF
H2S
PROPERTIES OF H2S

 Invisible / Colorless
 Bad Smell (rotten eggs), only at low concentrations
 Paralyzes the sense of smell at higher concentrations
 Extremely toxic / Poisonous
 Heavier than air (specific gravity 1.189)
PROPERTIES OF H2S

 Dispersed by wind movement or air currents


 Flammable (Range from 4.3% LEL – 46% UEL)
 Burns with a BLUE flame and forms SO2
 Corrosive (Iron Sulphide scale)
 Soluble in oil and water
 Extremely toxic for Aquatic Life
MEASUREMENT &
EFFECTS OF H2S
MEASUREMENT OF H2S (PPM)

0.0001% =1 PPM
1% =10,000 PPM
EXPOSURE LIMITS
HSE UK / ADNOC CoP / GASCO
WEL – TWA (08 HOURS per day X 5 times in a week) 05 PPM

WEL – STEL (15 Minutes exposure X 4 times in a day) 10 PPM

OSHA / ACGIH / ADCO


TLV / PEL / OEL 10 PPM
STEL 15 PPM
TWA – Ceiling 20 PPM
ROUTES OF ENTRY
Primary Route of Entry is by
INHALATION
IMMUNE SYSTEM (SELF DEFENCE SYSTEM)
TARGET ORGANS
VARIABLES AFFECTING THE SYMPTOMS OF H2S
EXPOSURE
 Exposure Duration (HOW LONG?)
 Exposure Concentration (HOW MUCH?)
 Exposure Frequency (HOW MANY TIMES?)

 Individual Susceptibility (IMMUNE SYSTEM)


HEALTH EFFECTS OF H2S
ACUTE EFFECTS CHRONIC EFFECTS

 Eye irritation  Sleep problems


 Headaches  Anorexia (Loss of appetite)
 Nausea
 Pulmonary oedema
 Irritation respiratory tract
 Dizziness  Corneal disease
 Confusion  Brain damage
 Olfactory fatigue
 Excitement  Hypertension
 Pulmonary oedema
 Respiratory arrest
 Cardiac arrest
 Death
CLASSIFICATION OF H2S AREAS

LOW RISK

MEDIUM RISK

HIGH RISK
REQUIREMENTS

 Access Control / T-Card system


 Permit To Work
 Training (H2S and SO2 hazard awareness)
 Buddy System
 Use of H2S detectors and personal monitors
 Location of Wind Socks
 Facial Hair Policy if using SCBA / Airline breathing Apparatus
 Familiarisation of Muster points and Escape Routes
H2S DETECTION &
MONITORING
REMEMBER

Never rely on your NOSE to detect


H2S
TYPES OF H2S DETECTORS

 Fixed detectors
 Wireless detectors
 Portable detectors
 Personal detectors
FIXED DETECTORS

 Recommended when hazard assessment indicates a potentially high


H2S risk.
 Not substitute for normal entry precautions to H2S classified area.
WIRELESS DETECTORS
 Recommended for remote areas
 Powered by Solar Panels
 Two-way data transmission up to 3 km distance
PORTABLE DETECTOR

 Normally detects 3 gases. (H2S, O2 , SO2/CO) & LEL


 Used for Gas Testing purpose.
 Only Authorized Gas Testers (AGT) does monitoring surveys
PERSONAL DETECTOR

 Mandatory for entering in the H2S classified zone.


 Used to ALERT the individual worker.
 Needs “Daily Self Test”
RESPIRATORY
PROTECTION
TYPES OF RESPIRATORS

 Air Purifying Respirators (APR)


 Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus (SABA)
 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
 Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus (EEBA)
AIR PURIFYING RESPIRATORS (APR)
 Chemical cartridge respirators
 Protection against different kinds of contaminants in the air.
SUPPLIED AIR BREATHING APPARATUS (SABA)
SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS (SCBA)

Used for prolonged activities


Duration: 30 Minutes (If 200 Bar pressure in 7 Litre Cylinder)
Full Face Mask
Need to follow Facial Hair Policy and Fit Testing
EMERGENCY ESCAPE BREATHING APPARATUS

EMERGENCY ESCAPE BREATHING APPARATUS (EEBA)


Duration: 15 Minutes (If 200 Bar pressure)
Only For Emergency Escape
EMERGENCY ESCAPE
HOW TO ESCAPE?

 Don’t panic & Don’t Run


 Hold your breath (No Inhalation / No Exhalation)
 Wear your EEBA
THEN….. CHECK WIND DIRECTION

 WIND SOCK

 FLARE (SMOKE OR FIRE)

 SAND

 PAPER / TISSUE PAPER

 HAIR

 WET FINGER
ESCAPE CROSSWIND OR UPWIND
WIND
SOCK

H 2S
SOURCE

BEACON LIGHT
WITH ALARM
IF THERE IS NO WIND….

LEAVE THE LOWER AREA


&
MOVE UPHILL.
FIRST AID AND
MEDICAL TREATMENT
FIRST AID
In case of Eye Contamination; Flush eyes with fresh water (10min)

If Heart has stopped; perform CPR (If trained)

Avoid Mouth To Mouth Resuscitation

Obtain Medical Treatment


SUMMARY

 H2S is an Extremely Poisonous Gas.


 H2S is heavier than air; Accumulates in Low / poorly ventilated areas
 H2S Smells like Rotten Eggs but Only at very low concentrations
 Personal H2S Detectors must be working properly
 Be aware of your Contingency Plan

REMEMBER H2S TRAINING – IT WOULD REMIND YOU

“HOW 2 SURVIVE”