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# STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Basic fundamentals

## WHAT IS A STRENGTH OF MATERIALS?

It is the subject, which deals with the behaviour of solid objects are subjected
to stresses and strains
The strength of a material may be defined as ability, to resist its failure and
behavior, under the action of external forces.
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS
The measurements of physical quantities is one of the most important operations in
engineering.
Every quantity is measured in terms of some arbitrary, but internationally accepted
units, called fundamental units.
1. Length (l)
2. Mass (m)
3. Time (t)
Following are only four systems of units, which are commonly used and universally
recognized
1. C.G.S. units 2. F.P.S. units
3. M.K.S. units 4 S.I. units
S.I. UNITS (INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF
UNITS)
In this system of units, the †fundamental units are meter (m), kilogram (kg) and
second (s) respectively

## Density (or Mass density) = kg/m3

Force (in Newton's) N = kg.m/s2
Pressure (in Pascals) Pa (scalar) = N/m2 = 10-6 N/mm2
Stress (in Pascals) Pa (vector/Tensor) = N/m2 = 10-6 N/mm2
Work done (in Joules) J = N-m
Power (in Watts) W = J/s
BASIC DEFINITIONS
Mass: It is a amount of matter contained in a given body
units: kg
Weight: It is a amount of pull, which the earth exerts upon the body. The pull varies from
the centre of earth to with the distance of the body
W = m*g
Force: It is an external push or pull on object to change its direction
units: N
Inertia: The tendency of an object to resist change to its state of motion
(Simple statement: Object tend to keep an doing what they are doing, More mass >> more inertia)
Moment of inertia: It is a quantity, measure of resistance to bending determined by the cross
sectional shape of beam
I = a*d2
• Decreasing the distance of mass from the axis of the beam decreases the MOI

more bending

• Increasing the distance of mass from the axis of the beam increases the MOI

less bending
LAWS OF MOTION
1. Newton’s 1st law of motion: “An object at rest stays at rest, and an object in motion
stays in motion with the same speed and same direction unless acted upon by an
unbalanced force”
2. Newton’s 2nd law of motion: “ The rate of change of momentum is directly
proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the same direction which
force acts”
Acceleration is based on two factors Force Acceleration Mass Acceleration
i. Acceleration α Force
1 10N Less 3kg More
ii. Acceleration α
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒
20N More 6kg Less
 Acc α
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠
F = ma

3. Newton’s 2nd law of motion: For every action there is equal and opposite reaction
STRESSES AND STRAINS
Stress: The internal resistive force (R) acting per unit area (A)

𝑅 𝑃
Stress(σ) = = (Within elastic limit R=P)
𝐴 𝐴
units: Mpa (or) N/𝑚𝑚2

## Strain: It is the ratio of elongated length to its original length. It is dimensionless

quantity

△𝐿
Strain (ɛ) =
LO
.

Elasticity: The tendency of on object which will regains its original shape after distortion

## Plasticity: The process in which permanent deformation is caused by a sufficient load of

solid object with out getting fracture. It results when stresses are beyond elastic limit
TYPES OF STRESSES
Normal Stress Shear stress
Force is acting in axial direction or Force is acting in parallel to the axis or
perpendicular to the area surface area
Tensile: If the pull force acting in two, Shear stresses are commonly found in nut
equal and opposite direction bolt joints

## Compressive: If the push force acting in

two, equal and opposite direction
TYPES OF STRESSES
Bending stress Torsional stress

## Bending stress is a combination of Torsion is the stress that produces twisting.

compression and tension. The torsion strength of a material is its
resistance to twisting or torque.
The rod has been shortened (compressed)
on the inside of the bend and stretched
on the outside of the bend
HOOK’S LAW
When “a material is loaded within the elastic limit, stress is proportional to strain”.
𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 (σ)
𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 (ɛ)
= E (constant)

## Material Young’s modulus Mpa/KN/mm2

Steel 220
Wrought Iron 200
Cast Iron 160
Copper 110
A HOLLOW CYLINDER 2 M LONG HAS AN OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF 50 MM AND INSIDE DIAMETER OF
30 MM. IF THE CYLINDER IS CARRYING A LOAD OF 25 KN, FIND THE STRESS IN THE CYLINDER.
ALSO FIND THE DEFORMATION OF THE CYLINDER, IF THE VALUE OF MODULUS OF ELAS TICITY FOR
THE CYLINDER MATERIAL IS 100 GPA.
Length (l ) = 2 m = 2 × 103mm2; Outside diameter (D) = 50 mm; Inside diameter (d) = 30 mm;
Load (P) = 25 kN = 25 × 103 N and modulus of elasticity (E) = 100 GPa = 100 × 103 N/mm2
Stress in the cylinder
We know that cross-sectional area of the hollow cylinder
π
A = (D2-d2)
4
π
= (502-302) = 1257mm2
4

2 5× 103
σ= = 19.9 N/mm2
1257

## Deformation of the cylinder

We also know that deformation of the cylinder,
P∗LO (2 × 103)∗(2 × 103)
1257∗100 × 103 = 0.4mm
△𝐿 = =
𝐴∗𝐸