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MS7400:

Analysing
Qualitative and
Quantitative Data
Dr. Kaitlynn Mendes
Lecture 10
Module Evaluation
 Pleasecomplete in the break or at the
end of class
Announcements
 SPSS tutorial available online:
https://www.youtube.com/user/patrickkw
hite
Assignment 2 Questions
 Focus of assessment is the study design. DO NOT carry
out the analysis.
 The assignment assesses the extent to which you have
thought about various design decisions and
explain/justify them to the marker
 Make sure your research question is linked to your
major in some way.
 You don’t have to submit an ethics form – BUT, we want
to see evidence you have thought about it.
 E.g. if you are doing a survey, include a paragraph
where you indicate what the survey is for, how it will be
used, and by completing the survey, participants
consent to being part of the study
Assignment 2
 Remember to speak about the
advantages/disadvantages of your
method more generally AND
specifics relating to your design.
 E.g. If doing a survey, tell us if you
use open vs. close ended questions.
Multiple choice, likert scales, free
text responses – what are the
advantages/disadvantages of these?
Marking Criteria at Leicester
1. Knowledge,comprehension, and
application of topic/subject matter

2. Analysis and argument

3. Use of appropriate literature and research

4. Presentation, structure and academic


practice

5. Transferable/ employability skills


Grade Band Assessment Criteria
Distinction Knowledge, comprehension, and application of topic/subject matter
   Demonstrates excellent knowledge and exemplary grasp of subject
 Demonstrates an excellent comprehension of theory and evidence/data collected
 Demonstrates exceptional originality in terms of critical thinking and research
 
 Thischanges depending on the
Analysis and argument
 Fluent, authoritative, flowing expression that supports a convincing and balanced
assignment

argument
Excellent coverage of relevant issues
 
Use of appropriate literature and research
 Excellent synthesis or evaluation of relevant materials and associated texts
 Draws on a wide selection of material with emphasis on the most appropriate and
relevant texts
 
Presentation, structure and academic practice
 Correct referencing style
 Excellent structure with focus on clearly identified relevant issues
 
Transferable/ employability skills
 Demonstrates excellent analytical and critical evaluation skills
 Excellent overall presentation and style
Merit Knowledge, comprehension, and application of topic/subject matter
   Good knowledge and sound grasp of subject
 Good comprehension of theory and use of evidence, though some minor
inconsistencies or inaccuracies may be evident
 Demonstrates some degree of originality in terms of critical thinking and
research
 
Analysis and argument
 Clear demonstration of analytical and critical evaluation skills
 Development of a convincing and balanced argument
 
Use of appropriate literature and research
 Good evidence of the use of relevant literature, though the selection or
integration may be in some part limited
 Good use of other relevant sources
 
Presentation, structure and academic practice
 Correct referencing style
 Good structure with focus on clearly identified relevant issues
 Good introduction and conclusion
 
Transferable/ employability skills
 Demonstrates good analytical and critical evaluation skills
 Good overall presentation and style
Pass Knowledge, comprehension, and application of topic/subject matter
   Evidence of adequate knowledge and grasp of subject
 Satisfactory theoretical comprehension and use of evidence, though with some evident
limitations, inaccuracies or inconsistencies
 Competent coverage of relevant issues
 Limited evidence of originality
 
Analysis and argument
 A competent attempt at analysis and argument though somewhat limited, inconsistent
or unbalanced (e.g. theory not well-linked to evidence)
 
Use of appropriate literature and research
 Evidence of reading some relevant and appropriate materials
 Content drawn from a satisfactory range of primary and secondary sources, with
competent use of this research
 Selection of material perhaps somewhat limited in scope, or too reliant on a small
number of sources
 
Presentation, structure and academic practice
 Correct (or generally-correct) referencing style
 Evidence of planning, though with some problems with presentation or structure
 Competent use of introduction and conclusion
 
Transferable/ employability skills
 Passable analysis and presentation skills
 Some clear spelling, grammar or presentation errors
Fail Knowledge, comprehension, and application of topic/subject matter
   Coursework does not address directly the set question, or answers only in
  cursory depth
 Content largely description or regurgitation, with limited evidence of ability to
evaluate critically
 Demonstrates only a limited grasp of subject, and may demonstrate inaccurate
or limited knowledge and/or unfocused or irrelevant material
 
Analysis and argument
 Argument appears significantly underdeveloped or unbalanced, with limited
evidence of comprehension of theory or evidence
 Evaluation may be illogical, irrelevant, contradictory, and/or unsupported in
places
 
Use of appropriate literature and research
 Very narrow selection of material, or use of inappropriate or irrelevant sources
 Work does not show any real comprehension of the source materials, or make
competent use of the available appropriate evidence
 
Presentation, structure and academic practice
 Poorly or inconsistently referenced
 Coursework may be significantly too short
 Lack of structural planning with weak introduction and/or conclusion
 
Transferable/ employability skills
 Demonstrates limited analytical and critical evaluation skills
 Spelling, grammar, or presentation errors throughout
 
Fail Knowledge, comprehension, and application of topic/subject matter
   Failure to address and answer the question, or the answer provided is
fundamentally incorrect, evincing little comprehension
 Content largely description or regurgitation, with minimal application of
knowledge
 Little or no accuracy in factual knowledge/grasp of topic
 Shows little evidence of comprehension of theory or evidence
 
Analysis and argument
 Failure to demonstrate critical analysis, likely because it is overly reliant on
uncritical description or unsupported opinion
 Evaluation is often illogical, irrelevant, contradictory, and/or unsupported in
places
 Failure to identify and discuss relevant issues
 
Use of appropriate literature and research
 Failure to engage with academic material
 
Presentation, structure and academic practice
 Coursework may be too short
 Incoherent presentation
 Little or no evidence of structural planning
 Little or no evidence of referencing
 
Transferable/ employability skills
 Spelling, grammar, or presentation errors throughout
 Unsatisfactory communication at this level
Overview
1. A few more words about analysing
quantitatve data

2. Methods of analysing qualitative data

3. Ways to visually represent your data


By the end of this lecture, you
should…
1. Understand different techniques to
analyse quantitative and qualitative data

2. Understand ways to write up your


research

3. Be aware of different ways to visually


present your work (which you can
discuss in assignment 2)
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Data
 Using statistics  Looking for deeper
 Objective in meaning
 Patterns are often
nature
 Interested in identified through
‘hunches’
patterns, what is
 Subjective in nature
there and what is
 Presents ‘evidence’
not
 Presents
via examples from
the texts
information
visually
Quantitative Data Analysis
 Descriptive analysis refers to
statistically describing, aggregating, and
presenting data.

 Inferentialanalysis refers to making


inferences which goes beyond the data
itself.
Steps in Data Collection and
Analysis

1. Data must be gathered and coded

2. Data must be prepared in a way to


make the analysis easier (e.g. in
numeric format, put into a spreadsheet)

3. Data entry

4. Missing values
Analysing Quantitative Data
 Univariate analysis

 Bivariate analysis

 Will you present your results as a number,


or as a percentage? Or both?

 E.g. 270 articles linked Islam with terrorism


 E.g. 23% of articles linked Islam with
terrorism
Analysing your data: The thing
about statistics
1. Statistics do not speak for themselves and always
need to be put into context
1. Include actual numbers, not just percentages (e.g. 75% of
total (34 news articles))

2. Don’t just rely on the reader examining graphs/charts

3. Properly label graphs/charts

4. Don’t overuse graphs/charts


1. Make appropriate use of visual data

5. Statistics go well with qualitative data


Bar Charts
Line Graphs
Pie Charts
What’s Wrong With This Chart?
What’s Wrong With This Chart?
Excel and Chart Builder
Quantitative Analysis and
SPSS
1. Use SPSS to help generate graphs,
charts, etc.

2. Seems like a complicated system, but


is easy once your data is entered

3. Read Deacon et al. 1999


Chapter 14 for more info
Module Evaluations
We want to hear from you!
The Questionnaire
The survey rates as a percentage…
So if a question is not yet
relevant to this module
It also asks you to….
When you click on the link you
will see this
Please enter the first part of
your e-mail address
And click on the relevant
module in ‘Surveys’
You can find the link…
• https://leicester.surveys.evametrics.co.uk
/

• Via Blackboard – A link will be found


within every module

• A survey web link – sent via email


Qualitative and Quantitative
Data Mix Well
 My research on representations of equal rights in the
news shows that overall, they were supported (75
articles or 75%) more often than they were opposed
(25 articles or 25%) in all of my publications.
However, when oppositional articles appeared, they
almost all came from the Daily Mirror (20 of 25
articles or 80%). Common headlines from this
publication about equal rights’ disastrous impact on
men include: ‘We are just slaves, says Mr. Men’s Lib’
(James, 1973: 7), ‘Men’s Lib champ Tony gets the
boot’ (King, 1977: 5), and ‘At last – it’s men who are
feeling the pinch’ (Thomas, 1970: 17).
Digital Feminist Activism
Our analysis of 159 posts showcases a range of experiences shared about
street harassment on the Hollaback! website: from being cat-called,
verbally and physically abused, stalked, propositioned and more. When
thinking about the most prominent experiences recounted, 74 posts (47
percent of total), document some form of ‘cat-calling’ or which takes
place on the street, including wolf-whistling, ‘lip smacking’, ‘kissy noises’,
horn-honking, comments such as ‘hey baby’ or attempts to strike up
conversations with victims. As many contributors detailed, these
behaviours were frequently combined with comments about appearance,
or sexualized ‘banter’ about what the perpetrator would like to do to
recipients. As one anonymous person wrote:
‘I was walking to my school’s student union when a man who appeared
to be another student accompanied by his friend started following me
and yelling things at me like “Ay yo gurl, lemme lick your butt.” And they
both laughed at me when I would turn back to look at them. I didn’t
know how to respond so I didn’t say anything and kept walking till I got
inside. It made me mad that I couldn’t feel comfortable on my own
campus.’ (‘Holla on the Go: “I couldn’t feel safe on my own campus”’
2014)
Qualitative Data Analysis
1. Includes: ethnography, discourse analysis, semiotics,
interviews, questionnaires, etc.

2. There is no one right way to analyse qualitative data.


Techniques vary

3. Qualitative research can produce vast amounts of


data.
– verbatim notes; transcribed recordings of interviews
or focus groups; jotted notes and more detailed
"fieldnotes" of observational research; a diary or
chronological account, and the researcher's reflective
notes made during the research.

4. Transcribing a single interview can take hours and


produce 20-40 pages
Data Analysis
 Doyou allow codes/themes to emerge
organically
Seidel (1998) Data Analysis
Process
Data Analysis
 Ordo you use pre-determined
codes/themes?
Things to Keep in Mind
1. Themes, ideas, discourses are not
always obvious

2. It’s the researcher’s job to make sense of


the data

3. Think of research like doing a puzzle.


Trying to fit different pieces together to
make a coherent whole
“Analysis is breaking up, separating or
disassembling of research material into
pieces, parts, elements or units. With
facts broken down into manageable
pieces, the researcher sorts and sifts
them, searching for types, classes,
sequences, processes, patterns or
wholes. The aim of this process is to
assemble or reconstruct the data in a
meaningful or comprehensible fashion”
(Jorgensen 1989: 107).
Qualitative Data Analysis
 http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/Intro_QDA/wh
at_is_qda.php
Examples of the Analysis
Process
 http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/amanda.php
 A more systematic process. Choices are
from select list of variables

 http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/karen.php
 A more open process. Insert codes as they
emerge. More organic
Examples of Coding Notes
 Ina village like this..the Age
young fellows in the village contrast
don’t seem to have
Residence
much difficulty when
focus
they’re out of work – a
fortnight and they’re back
again – word of mouth I’d Young find
say. It’s a different, tricky work easily
situation I’m in, I just can’t
say “Oh, I heard Contrast
there’s a job going on a situation
building site. I’ll go and have
a go at that.” I wouldn’t be
Constrained
able to do that.
Data Analysis Techniques: Tips to
help you notice, think and collect
1. Word repetitions – look for commonly used
words and words whose close repetition may
indicate emotions

2. Key-words-in-context– look for the range of


uses of key terms in the phrases and sentences in
which they occur.

3. Compare and contrast – How do ideas


presented in the text fit in with what others have
said before? Is it similar? different? Ambiguous?
4. Apply Theory – relates to No. 3. Think about
social science explanations and theories, for
example, to explain the conditions, actions,
interaction and consequences of phenomena.

5. Searching for missing information –


essentially try to get an idea of what is not
being done or talked out, but which you would
have expected to find.

6. Metaphors and analogies – people often use


metaphors to indicate something about their
key, central beliefs about things and these may
indicate the way they feel about things too.
Practical Tips: Raw Data
1. Mark the text - Circle words, underline, use coloured
highlighters, run coloured lines down the margins to
indicate different meanings and coding.

2. Cutting and sorting – the traditional technique of


cutting up transcripts and collecting all those coded
the same way into piles, envelopes or folders or
pasting them onto cards. Laying out all these scraps
and re-reading them, together, is an essential part of
the process of analysis.

3. Put all notes in a separate document/file


Once You have done your coding,
it’s time to go back to thinking
about things
1. Your job is to make sense out of the data

2. Look for patterns and relationships across the


data. Organise data appropriately

3. Make general discoveries or claims about the


data
Writing Up Your Research
1. Always write up by theme NOT
methodology

2. You have used different methods to


strengthen your results, but ultimately you
are trying to answer the research question

3. Look for codes and themes which


transcend method
MA Dissertations
 Youcan use your question and project
design from Assignment 2 for your MA
dissertations.

 BUT– don’t self plagiarise your work.


You may need to re-phrase your work for
your Dissertation.
Thank You!
 Km350@le.ac.uk