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Conjunction:

A planet or the Moon is said to be in conjunction with the Sun when


As viewed from the Earth, it is in the same direction as the Sun
(i.e their celestial longitudes are the same)

Opposition:

A planet or the Moon is said to be in opposition with the Sun when as


Viewed from the Earth, it is opposite in direction to the Sun (i.e. their
Celestial longitudes are 180° apart)

Inferior planets: Mercury and Venus

Superior planets: Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

Elongation: of a Planet or Moon is the angle at the the centre of


theEarth
Contained between the centre of the Sun and the centre of the planet or
The Moon, measured along the plane of the eclipse.
Perigee and apogee:

When the Moon in its orbit around the Earth, is nearest to the
Earth, they are said to be in perigee

When the Moon in its orbit around the Earth, is farthest from
The Earth, they are said to be in apogee.

Perihelion and Aphelion:

A planet is said to be in Perihelion, when in its orbit, it is


Nearest to the Sun.

A planet is said to be in Aphelion, when in its orbit, it is


Farthest from the Sun.
KEPLER’S LAW OF PLANETARY MOTION

1. The orbits of all bodies around the central body are eclipses
with the central body situated in one of the foci

2. For a body in orbital motion, the radius sweep out equal


areas in equal time.

3. T2/d3 for all bodies is a constant


T is time taken to complete one revolution of 360 degrees
d is the distance from body to earth
21 Sept

Ω
22 june

22 dec
21Mar.
22 June

22 Dec
First Point of Aries (vernal equinox)
⋎ is the imaginary fixed point on the celestial sphere where the
Ecliptic crosses the equinoctial when the sun is moving from
South to North in Declination.(on March 21-23)

First Point of Libra: (Autumnal equinox)


Ω is the point where the ecliptic crosses the equinoctial
When the sun moving from North to South Declination.
This point is diametrically opposite to first point of Aries.
(on sept. 22-23)

Summer Solstice:

On 22 nd June Sun reaches its maximum North Declination,


and all Northern Latitudes will experience the longest day
And shortest night whereas, the Southern latitudes will
experience, their longest night and shortest day. This
phenomenon is termed as “ Summer Solstice”
Winter Solstice:

On 22 nd Dec Sun reaches its maximum South Declination,


and all Southern Latitudes will experience the longest day
And shortest night whereas, the Northern latitudes will
experience, their longest night and shortest day. This
phenomenon is termed as “ Winter Solstice”
SHA (Sidereal Hour Angle)

Of a celestial body is an Arc of Equinoctial or an angle at the celestial


Pole contained between the celestial meridian of First point of Aries
And the meridian passing through the body, measured Westward
From Aries

RIGHT ASCENTION(RA).

of a celestial body is an arc of Equinoctial or an angle at the celestial


Pole contained between the celestial meridian of the First Point of
Aries and the meridian passing through the body, measured Eastward
From Aries.
Condition to occur solar eclipse

1. Sun and Moon must be in conjunction which can happen only


on new moon day.
2. All three will be in a direct line ( Geographical position of Sun and
Moon must be same (i.e. Declination and RA or SHA or GHA must be
same )
3. Annular eclipse occurs when Moon is in apogee

Condition to occur Lunar eclipse

1. Sun and Moon must be in opposition which can happen only


on full Moon day.
2. All three will be in a direct line (i.e. Declination same value and
opposite name and RA or SHA or GHA must be 180° apart )
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YO_qIv6o1ZI
Obtaining the longitude and LOP by long by chronometer method

1. Observing the sextant altitude and GMT at that instant


2. Obtaining the GHA and declination of the body for that time
3. Obtaining the true zenith distance from the measured altitude
4. Determining angle P using formula Cos P = Sin T.Alt -/+ Sin L .Sin D
Cos Lat. Cos Dec
5. LHA +/- GHA gives the longitude.
6. Calculating the azimuth and thence the Line of Position by adding and
subtracting 90⁰ from Azimuth.
LOP passes through the DR latitude and observed
Longitude.
Obtaining LOP by intercept method
1. Observing the sextant altitude and GMT at that instant
2. Obtaining the GHA and declination of the body at that time
3. Determining the hour angle of the body, using GHA and DR longitude
4. Calculating the CZD using the formula
Cos CZD = Cos P . Cos Lat . Cos Dec +/- Sin Lat. Sin Dec
5..Obtaining TZD from sextant altitude
6. Comparing TZD and CZD to obtain intercept.
TZD > CZD , intercept away
TZD < CZD , intercept towards
7. Obtaining the azimuth and from it, the direction of LOP(Az+/-90)
LOP passes through the DR latitude and DR Longitude.
GP – Geographical Position of celestial Body

The point on the earth surface where the imaginary line drawn from earth’s
center to celestial body intersects earth's surface is geographical position.
(USE DEC AND GHA OF BODY AND PLOT ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH)

Principle of obtaining Line of position

Observing the true altitude of a body and GMT at that instant


Obtaining the True Zenith Distance (90-True Altitude)
Using GP of body as centre and TZD as radius draw a circle on earth
Surface. This is called position circle.
i.e the observer is situated anywhere on the circumference, he will get
Exactly the same zenith distance.
If at the same time, the bearing of the G.P from the observer (Azimuth)
Is also known, we can reverse this bearing from the G.P and where it
Cuts the circumference of the circle will be actual position of the observer
Though the Position circle is large, we are only
Interested in that part of the circle where the azimuth meets the
Circumference . On the earth surface it is not practicable to draw such
Huge circle. Also the observer will be the position where the radius from
GP cuts the circumference of Position circle. Hence a small portion of
The position circle near to the observer (i.e. DR latitude and Longitude)
Has taken as Line of Position. (assuming small portion of large circle
As straight line)
This line is right angle to the Azimuth.
Hence LOP can be obtained by adding and subtracting 90⁰ from Azimuth.
LOP passes through the DR position or DR latitude and observed
Longitude.
Apparent Motions of the Sun. During the year the earth moves
around the sun. As a result, the sun appears to move around the
sky once with respect to the stars as seen from Earth. ..

SIDERIAL DAY:

Is the interval between two successive passages of a star(First


point of Aries) across the observer’s meridian. Its duration is 23h
56m 4s, which 3m 56s (approximately 4 minutes ) shorter than
solar day (24hrs)

APPARENT SOLAR DAY:

Is the interval between two successive transits of the True Sun,


across the same meridian.
It is not constant
Because a). the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit and
b) the obliquity of the Ecliptic.
The Mean Sun:

Is an imaginary Sun assumed to move along the Equinoctial at a


Uniform rate, equal to the average rate of motion of The True Sun
On the Ecliptic.

Mean Solar Day:

Is the interval in time between two successive meridian passage


Of the Mean Sun across the same meridian. (24 HRS)

True Sun:

Real Sun moves on the ecliptic varying speed.

Dynamic Mean Sun:

Is an imaginary sun moves on the ecliptic at mean speed of true


Sun.
ecliptic

equinoctial

TS
MS

DMS
EQUATION OF TIME:

is the difference between apparent solar time and mean solar time,
Both taken at a given place (or at another place with the same
Geographical longitude) at the same real instant of time.

Equation of Time = GHA(MS)-GHA(TS)

EOT is positive if Mean Time is greater than Apparent time.


Or EOT is positive if merpass of sun is >12 and negative if <12 hrs

EOT=EOT due to Eccentricity +EOT due to obliquity

EOT = ZERO FOUR TIMES A YEAR


TIME:

Mean Solar Day:

Is the interval in time between two successive meridian passage


Of the Mean Sun across the same meridian. (24 HRS)

HOUR ANGLE: 15⁰ = 1 HR. 360 = 24 HRS.

GMT (GREENWICH MEAN TIME)

Is the westerly hour angle of the Mean sun measured from the
Inferior meridian of Greenwich.

LOCAL MEAN TIME (LMT)/SHIP MEAN TIME (SMT)

Is westerly hour angle of the Mean Sun measured from the


Observer’s inferior meridian. The observer’s inferior or anti-meridian
Is the meridian 180⁰ away from his own meridian.
(LIT )
STANDARD TIME:

Time maintained w.r.t. a defined meridian for the country’


Standard time +/- Time difference = GMT

ZONE TIME:

Ship at sea keeps zone times. 24 zones on the earth starting with
Greenwich (180⁰ on Either side ) the world is divided in to
15⁰ zones. (15⁰ = 1 hr.)
East zones are negative zones and West positive

International Date Line:

Dateline roughly corresponds to 180⁰ meridian, it is bend to


Accommodate certain land mass be in same zone.

Ship crossing from West to East advance time by 24 hrs.


East to West retard time by 24 hrs.
GEOGRAPHIC POLES

THE TWO POINTS WHERE THE AXIS OF ROTATION CUTS THE


SURFACE OF THE EARTH ARE CALLED THE GEOGRAPHIC POLES
THE UPPER ONE IS CALLED THE NORTH POLE AND LOWER
THE SOUTH POLE.

EQUATOR

IS A GREAT CIRCLE WHICH IS EQUIDISTANT FROM, AND THEREFORE


90 DEG AWAY FROM, THE GEOGRAPHIC POLES. THE EQUATOR
DIVIDES THE EARTH INTO TWO HEMISPHERES.
NORTH HEMISPHERE
SOUTH HEMISPHERE

PARALLES OF LATITUDES ; ARE SMALL CIRCLES PARALLEL TO THE


EQUATOR
MERIDIANS OF LONGITUDES

ARE GREAT CIRCLES THAT PASS THROUGH THE GEOGRAPHIC POLES.


MERIDIANS CROSS THE EQUATOR AND ALL PARALLELS OF LATITUES
AT RIGHT ANGES.
LATITUDE OF A PLACE IS
AN ANGLE AT CENTRE OF THE EARTH
OR
AN ARC OF MERIDIAN
CONTAINED BETWEEN EQUATOR AND
PARALLEL OF LATITUDE PASSING
THROUGH THE OBSERVER.
MEASURED 0-90 DEG N/S FROM
EQUATOR.
LONGITUDE OF A PLACE IS

AN ANGLE AT THE POLE


OR
AN ARC OF EQUATOR
CONTAINED BETWEEN THE PRIME MERIDIAN
AND
MERIDIAN PASSING THROUGH OBSERVER
OF THE PLACE
MEASURED E/W
0 TO 180 DEG from Greenwich Meridian
GHA
LHA
SHA
DEC
POLAR DIST
RA
EARTH AXIAL ROTATION AND CHANGE IN HOUR ANGLE
NAUTICAL ALMANAC
HOW TO FIND
LHA ARIES, AND OTHER BODY
LHA STAR
EXPLAIN GP, Find GP of body
DEFINE :
RATIONAL HORIZON
ZENITH, NADIR
VERTICAL CIRCLE
PRIME VERTICAL CIRCLE
ELEVATED POLE, DEPRESSES POLE
E₁

E₂
Why stars rise, culminate and set 4 minutes earlier
Every day?
When earth is at position E₁, in its orbit, if the Sun is in transit with
the First point of Aries, the Sun and First point of Aries would
culminate at the same time. Thereafter during the period the Earth
complete one rotation of 360⁰ on its axis, it moves to position E₂ in
its orbit. This motion of the Earth does not alter the direction to the
First point of Aries, as it is at an infinite distance from the Earth.
Thus on completion of a rotation of 360⁰, the First point of Aries will
once again culminate i.e. a sidereal day is completed. However, the
motion of the Earth in its orbit, does make a difference in the
direction of the Sun. Since the Earth completes a revolution of 360⁰
around the Sun in about 365.25 days, the average daily angular
motion of the Earth around the Sun is 360⁰/365.25= approximately
0⁰ 59’.
To complete a solar day therefore the Earth has to rotate 360⁰ +
59’. Thus the solar day is about 3m 56s longer than the sidereal
day.
Since we measure time by the Sun, or our clocks shows
24 hours from one culmination of the Sun to the next.
Measure by our clocks, therefore, the First point of
Aries, and in fact all stars, would appear to culminate
every 23h 56m 04s, that is about 4 min. earlier each
day, than they did the previous day. Stars therefore
rise and set also about 4 minutes earlier each day.
DAILY RETARDATION OF THE MOON

At New Moon, when the Sun and Moon in conjunction, they would
culminate at the same time. During the course of one day, the Moon
would
Have moved eastward by 12.2⁰ (i.e. 360/29.5) in its orbit around the
Earth, with respect to the Sun.

Exactly one day after new Moon, when the Earth has completed one
Rotation of 360⁰ with respect to the Sun, the Sun once again culminate.
But for the Moon to culminate again, the Earth would have to rotate a
Further 12.2⁰.

Thus the Moon culminates about 50 minutes later each day. If the
Declination of the Moon remained unchanged, it would also rise and
Set approximately 50 minutes later each day. The average length of
Lunar day is about 24 hours and 50 minutes.
LAH ⋎