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MINE

PLANNING

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Mine Planning is the process to get the
right material out of the mine at the
right time to obtain the lowest possible
cost per unit of the final commodity
product in order to fulfill the business
targets of the company.

Mine Planning can be defined as the


process of optimizing the exploitation of
mineral reserves for maximum added
value aligned with the strategic goals and
objectives of the business enterprise.

Strategic mine planning is the process where the


mine process is integrated and aligned with the
strategic objectives of the company, which involves
continuous adjustments to changes in the business
environment.
Business Strategy Example:
NPV versus Recovery
Different recovery strategies:

By varying the input


parameters in a flexible • Maximum NPV versus
“Custodians of the Earth”
mine planning system, (highest recovery at specific
the desired balance financial return)
between financial and
• Historical USSR philosophy
physical returns can be (maximum resource recovery at
achieved. any costs) versus optimization
on NPV
Change in Approach
to Mine Planning
Companies need to adapt to the business
environment

This requires cyclical, continuous feedback


planning where reserves and mine schedule
are being re-evaluated regularly pending
various input parameters

Computerized mine planning systems are a


necessity for this approach

To fully implement this concept, certain


regulations would require amending. Until
these changes, cyclical evaluation should be
implemented during the technical studies.
Mine Planning Horizons

A fully integrated mine


planning system can Short term Strategic
Tactical • Corporate
link the various operational plan –
horizons together and Annual, five
Company
monthly/ management
increase weekly/ daily yearly plans • Life of mine
communication and plans – Line – Mine design and
management plan –
efficiency. management
Institutes

one two three


Planning
System
Demands:
• Optimize the quantity and quality of the mined product
• Utilize all available resources as efficiently as possible
• Show the big picture and detail where required
• Accommodate change in input parameters at any time

Flexible Mine
• Allow effective feedback to workforce and management
• Allow scenario analysis
• Chosen on basis of the technical level of available personnel
Planning
System
Results:
• Adaptation to business environment
• Effective decision making
• Lowest cost of financial product

Flexible Mine
• Confidence in the operation
• Reduce risk for stakeholders
Accommodate
Change
Expected Changes: Results:
• Change in resource utilization,
• Resources production levels and quality, timing
• Commodity price of development and other capital
investments
• Costs
• Cash flow Requirements:
• Project detail level • Computerized geological models
• Possibility of “what-if scenarios” and
risk evaluations
RECONCILIATION
- FEEDBACK
Reconciliation - Feedback
This refers to the Involves the collection Feedback into The standard monthly
comparison of of tonnage, grade planning systems is reports should be
measures and (quality) and contained required for replaced by a continuous
estimates along the metal data from physicals, financials feedback and reporting
value chain, and at disparate and hopefully (external and system which can show
different points in independent sources. actuals achieved). results and trends over
time, in order to track any period to enable
and optimize metal appropriate management
recovery. decisions and actions.
DESIGN AND SCHEDULING TOOLS
Design
- Pencil, pen and paper
-AutoCad and alternatives
DESIGN AND
SCHEDULING TOOLS –
GENERAL
Scheduling
- Spreadsheets
Design and schedule -Project planning software
- Gemcom/Surpac and MineSched DESIGN AND
SCHEDULING TOOLS – (MS project, Primavera)
- Maptek - Vulcan and Chronos MINING SPECIFIC

Other design software


-Mintec – MineSight
Evaluation on basis of:
• Overall mine planning strategy
• Costs

IMPLEMENTATION
• Ease of implementation
• Technical level available personnel
• Complexity of the ore body and mine
CONCLUDING REMARKS

• Benefits for companies can be great, provided a company wide


implementation program is conducted and systems are co-
selected and designed by people who have to work with them

• Variety of commercial mine planning programs available

• Choice of supplier should be part of a company wide mine


planning strategy

• Feedback systems to be developed specifically for the


company

Feasibility Study
What is Feasibility Study?

Determine the viability of idea

- Ensure a project is technically and legally


feasible

Determine whether a project is worth the


investment

- Economically justifiable
- Availability of required resources
AREAS of FEASIBILITY STUDY
TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY SCHEDULE FEASIBILITY

ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY CULTURAL FEASIBILITY

LEGAL FEASIBILITY RESOURCE FEASIBILITY

OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY MARKETING FEASIBILITY


TECHNICAL
Feasibility
Does the company have technological
resources to undertake the projects?

Are the processes and procedures


conducive to project success?

The details on how a company will deliver


goods or services, including
transportation, business location,
technology needed, materials and labor.
SCHEDULE
Feasibility
Does the company currently have the
time resources to undertake the projects?

Can the project be completed in the


available time?

The probability of a project to be


completed within its scheduled time limits,
by a planned due date.
ECONOMIC
Feasibility
Given the financial resources of the
company, is the project something that
can be completed?

Commonly called the cost/benefit


analysis. It is the analysis of a project’s
costs and revenues in an effort to
determine whether or not possible to
complete.
CULTURAL
Feasibility
What will be the impact on both local and
general cultures?

What sort of environmental implications


does the feasibility have?

Investigates scientific as well as ethical,


behavioral, and social issues in the
design of clinical trals.
LEGAL
Feasibility
What are the legal implications of the
project?

What sort of ethical considerations are


there?

The study to know if the proposed project


conform the legal and ethical
requirements.
RESOURCE
Feasibility
Does the company have enough
resources?

What resources are required? What


facilities will be required for the project?

The time required for the project and


resources needed to be determined here.
Contingency and mitigation plans should
also be stated here..
OPERATIONAL
Feasibility
How will the company resolve problems in
the project?

This measures how well a company will


be able to solve problems and take
advantage of opportunities that are
presented during the course of the project.
MARKETING
Feasibility
Will anyone want the product once its
done?

is the company prepared for the price


fluctuations in the market?

Involves investigation of the target market


identifying the potential threats and
finding out solutions to overcome it.
Feasibility Study Benefits
1 2 3 4

Narrows the Provides valuable


Identifies new
business Improves project information for a
opportunities
alternatives team’s focus “go/no go”
decision

.
Feasibility Study Benefits
5 6 7 8

Identifies valid Enhances the


Aids decision- Identifies reasons
reason to success rate by
making on the not to proceed
undertake the evaluating multiple
project
project parameters
The Mining Feasibility Study
An evaluation of proposed mining project to determine
whether the mineral resources can be mined economically.

These three stages are not entirely different.


Scoping studies are initial financial appraisal of a mine
resource. Preliminary feasibilities are a more detailed
• Scoping studies version of the scoping studies. Detailed feasibilities are
• Preliminary feasibility the most detailed and will definitely determine whether to
proceed with the project.
• Detailed feasibility
3 STAGES
Scoping
Studies
STAGE 1

• Mostly carried out the earliest as basis for


acquiring exploration areas or making a
commitment for exploration funding.
• It is based on very limited information in
absence of hard data. Study is directed at the
potential of the property rather than a
conservative view based on limited
information.
Scoping Studies

UP In this stage, investment risk may be small but is obviously undesirable to


expend further funds on something that has no chance of being economic.

Major risk is that a viable mining project is relinquished due to


inadequate assessment. This is because of a very low
probability of an exploration project proceeding to become a
mine. DOWN
Preliminary
Feasibility
Studies
STAGE 2

• Findings are announced publicly so it is


difficult to change perceptions with
subsequent information.
• Assumptions should be realistic rather than
optimistic to avoid losses when the final
feasibility study is significantly less favorable.
Reasons to carry out the
Pre-feasibility Studies
• As basis for committing to a major
exploration program following a
successful preliminary program


Common reasons
for carrying out
Pre-Feasibility
• To attract a buyer to the project or
to attract a joint venture partner or
as basis for a major underwriting to
raise the required risk capital

• To provide a justification for


studies proceeding to a final feasibility
study.
Final
Feasibility
Studies
STAGE 3

• The most detailed, thus needs more actual


work
• Aims to remove all significant uncertainties
and to present the relevant information with
back-up material in concise and accessible
way.
Final Feasibility Study Objectives
To demonstrate within a reasonable
confidence that the project can be
constructed and operated in a technically
One sound and economically viable

To provide a basis for detailed


design and construction
Objectives Two

To enable the raising of finance for the


project from banks or other sources

Three
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