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Heat Transfer Enhancement Using

Square Perforated Twisted Tubes and


Nanofluids
ABSTRACT
Heat transfer enhancement using nano-fluids has gained significant attention ov
er the past few years. Nano-fluids are potentially applicable as alternative coola
nts for many areas such as electronics, automotive, air conditioning, power gen
eration and nuclear applications.Heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor
characteristics of___nanofluid will have been numerically investigated using A
NSYS FLUENT 14.0. The main objective of this study is to increase thermal pe
rformance enhancement factor (TEF),(which is a ratio of the change in the heat
transfer rate to change in friction factor),which indicates the effectiveness of a
heat exchanger. In this work an experimental analysis on square perforatd twist
ed tape insert in a double pipe heat exchanger using ______ nanofluid is prese
nted. The heat transfer coefficients and the corresponding friction factors requir
ed for performance analysis are determined taking into account the typical oper
ating conditions of the heat exchangers in turbulent flow regimes with particle
volume concentration of ____and twist ratio ranging between 5 and 20 . The ob
servations of square perforated twsited tubes with ______ nanofluid and witho
ut nanofluids are studied along with plain tubes and perforated tubes .
INTRODUCTION

• Heat exchangers are the important engineering systems with wide variety of applica
tions including power plants, nuclear reactors, refrigeration and air conditioning sys
tems, heat recovery systems, chemical processing and food industries
• High performance heat transfer system is of great importance in many industrial ap
plications.
• The techniques used to improve heat transfer coefficient are classified either as pass
ive (an external energy is no required) or active (an external energy is required) met
hods.
• Active methods require external power, for instance, fluid suction or injection, surf
ace fluid vibrations, etc. Passive methods consist in the modification of the heat tra
nsfer surface of the system.
• Passive techniques generally use simple surface or geometrical modifications to th
e flow channel by incorporating inserts or additional devices
• It does not need any external power input.

• Insert manufacturing process is simple and these techniques can be easily employed in a
n existing heat exchanger.

• Passive insert configuration can be selected According to the heat exchanger working co
ndition .
• It can be used in design of compact heat exchangers.

• The enhancement of heat transfer using nanofluids have been used as one of the passive h
eat transfer techniques in several heat transfer applications.

• It is considered to have great potential for heat transfer enhancement .

• Application in heat transfer processes like microelectronics, fuel cells, pharmaceutical pr


ocesses, and hybrid-powered engines, engine cooling/vehicle thermal management, dome
stic refrigerator, chiller, heat exchanger, and in boiler flue gas temperature reduction.
LITERATURE SURVEY
• S. Eiamsa-ardK. KiatkittipongW. Jedsadaratanachai conducted heat transfer e
nhancement by overlapped dual twisted-tapes(O-DTs) and TiO2/water nanoflu
ids was experimentally and numerically investigated. The study encompassed
O-DTs withoverlapped twist ratios (yo/y) of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 and nanofluids wi
th TiO2 volume concentrations (f) of 0.07%, 0.14% and 0.21%. The ob-tained
results indicated that O-DTs induced overlapped swirling-flows which played
an important role in improvingfluid mixingand heat transfer enhancement. Nu
sselt number, friction factor andthermal performance increased with decreasin
g overlapped twistratio and increasing TiO2volume concentration.
• P.V. Durga Prasad A.V.S.S.K.S. Gupta K. Deepak performed experiment on A
l2 O3 water based nanofluids in the pipes with return bend and tr
apezoidal-cut twisted tape inserts. The results show that the average Nus
selt numbers increase with an increase of Reynolds number and the nan
oparticle volume concentration. Nusselt number of entire pipefor 0.03% con
centrations of nanofluidtape inserts of H/D = 5 is enhanced by 34.24% as co
mpared to water. The friction actor of entire pipes for 0.03% concentratio
n of nanofluid with trapezoidal-cut twisted tape inserts of H/D=5 is enha
nced by 1.29 times as compared to water.
• S. S. Chougule, Vishal V. Nirgude, Prajakta D. Gharge, Modak Mayank, S.
K. Sahu experimentally conducted fully developed laminar flow convective
heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of MWCNT/water nanofluid
(φ=0.15%) flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and wit
hout wire coil The stable nanofluid was prepared by dispersing CNTs of dia
meter 10 nm in distilled water.The experimental results reveal that the use of
nanofluids increases the heat transfer rate with negligible increase in friction
factor in the plain tube and the tube fitted with wire coil inserts.
• Bin Sun, Zhimin Zhang, Di Yang performed experimental studies to investig
ate drag reducing nanofluids’ convective heat transfer coefficient and flow r
esistance coefficient at Reynolds numbers ranging from 2000 to 18000. Add
ed 0–0.5% mass fraction of Cu nanoparticles into a concentration of 100–40
0 mg·kg−1 cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC), which is a drag red
ucing fluid. Results indicated that the addition of sodium salicylate (NaSal) i
n CTAC with deionized water creates an improved drag reducing fluid with
stability. Experiments with built-in twisted belt tubes resulted in a much im
proved convective heat transfer characteristic.
• Lu Zheng, Yonghui Xie, Di Zhang numerically examines heat transfer and fl
ow in circular tubes fitted with dimpled twisted tape inserts, and Al2O3-wate
r nanofluid . Considering the effects of dimples, protrusions, nanofluid volu
me fraction α and nanoparticle diameter dp, the discussion and analysis on h
eat transfer and various charscteristcs are detailedly provided. The results sh
ow that dimple side and protrusion side both realize great heat transfer enhan
cement, and dimple side behaves better compared with protrusion side. A ma
ximum increase by 58.96% in h is identified compared with basefluid case, a
nd it is quite helpful that in this case the maximum rise in friction factor is on
ly 5.05%.
• Bin Sun, Amin Yang, Di Yang studied the heat transfer and flow characterist
ics of fluid flowing through the built-in twisted belt external thread tubes, in
the Reynolds number range of 2000–12,000, the heat transfer and flow chara
cteristics were studied respectively for the Cu, Al, Al2O3, Fe2O3, multiwalle
d carbon, and Graphite nanofluids with the mass fraction of 0.1–0.6%. The r
esults show that the Cu nanofluids has the best convective heat transfer effect
among numerous nanofluids, with mass fraction of Cu nanofluids is 0.5%. T
he heat transfer performance of built-in twisted belt external thread tubes inc
reased 50.32% compared to the horizontal tube.
Reference Nano particle Base fluid Remarks

Choi et al Al2O3 Transformer oil Thermal


conductivityincreases
20%
Duangthongsuk TiO2 water Thermal
andWongwises conductivityIncreases
from 3 to 7%
Li et al Al2O3 water Thermal
conductivityincreases
from 10.7%
Lee et al. Al2O3 water Thermal
conductivityincreases
from 1.7%
Prasher et al. Al2O3 Propylene glycol 30% increase
inviscosity
Nguyen et al. Al2O3 water Nanofluid
dynamicviscosity
increases
• Masuda et.al. [34] dispersed Al2O3 nanoparticle of size 13nm in diameter
in water with a volume fraction up to 4.3%, and obtained an enhancement i
n Thermal conductivity of up to 30%, and continued experiments with SiO
2 & TiO2 of particle size 12nm and 27nm with maximum concentrations of
up to 2.4 and 4.3%, and obtained thermal conductivity enhancement of up t
o 15 – 30%.
• Eastman et.al [30] also reported an enhancement of 30% in thermal condu
ctivity with suspensions in water of Al2O3 nanoparticles with an average d
iameter of 33nm and a volume fraction of 5%.
• Wang et.al [35] dispersed Al2O3 of 8nm particle size with water, Ethylene
glycol, pump oil, and engine oil with different concentrations, resulting in t
he enhancement of 14 – 30%.
• Wang et.al [35] also dispersed CuO of 28nm particle size in both water and
ethylene glycol and predicted an enhancement of 35 – 55%. Lee et.al [36]
also obtained similar results with CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed
both in water and ethylene glycol.
• M. E. Nakhchi, J. A. Esfahani performed numerical analysis for Cu-water nan
ofluid flow through a circular duct inserted with cross-cut twisted tape with al
ternate axis (CCTA). Three dimensional (RNG) k − ϵ turbulence model is appl
ied to simulate this problem. All simulations are performed for plain tube and
nine different CCTA geometries in the range of width ratio (b/w) from 0.7 to
0.9, length ratio (s/w) from 2 to 2.5, Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 t
o 15,000 and volume fraction of nanoparticles from 0 to 1.5%.The results sho
w that the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 23.20% with increasing the
nanoparticle volume fraction from 0% to 1.5%. Finally, it is shown that the th
ermal performance increases by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticl
es inside the duct.
OBJECTIVES:
• To study the thermohydraulic performance of Nanofluids.

• To increase the performance parameters .,i.e. Nusselt number etc.

• To reduce the cost.


OUTCOMES