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Welcome:MN7185

Leadership and Strategic


Management (1)
Katie Heming
londonmet.ac.uk
/londonmetuni
@LondonMetUni
• Develop your Management and
Leadership knowledge

• Carry out your own academic and


practical research e.g. cases/ journal

YOU articles and you are expected to share


this knowledge with the class

• Demonstrate how your research of the


Expectations different Leadership and Strategic
Vision Management areas inform and
Goals contribute to your own experience and
Achievement skill development in Leadership &
Change Management.
Contribution
Autonomy • Evidence how you apply this to practice

• Keep a learning journal to record your


own development each week as you
progress through the module (e.g.Blog:
Word press)
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ARE YOU A
LEADER?

http://www.forbes.com/pictures/lmh45mkfh/no-12-oprah-winfrey/
http://www.forbes.com/pictures/lmh45mkfh/no-8-sheryl-sandberg/

/
http://fortune.com/worlds-greatest-leaders/mark-carney-15
http://www.forbes.com/pictures/lmh45mkfh/no-6-christine-lagarde /
/
http://fortune.com/worlds-greatest-leaders/taylor-swift-6
http://www.forbes.com/pictures/lmh45mkfh/no-4-janet-yellen/

londonmet.ac.uk http://www.forbes.com/profile/angela-merkel/
Module Aims:
Academic & Experiential Learning
• To develop students critical awareness of and application of key
leadership and strategic management theories

• Apply academic theory to their own practice and evaluate current


practice in the light of relevant academic theories

• Develop skills to analyse problems in a critical manner showing a


good understanding of leadership/ management theory and practice

• To develop an increased awareness of the impact and influence of


leaders and their own leadership development

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Module learning outcomes: Assessments reflect these
On successful completion of this module you will be able to:
• Demonstrate an understanding of the nature of leadership and
strategic management. Communicate, articulate and apply their
understanding of leadership and strategy theories
• Apply academic theory to complex management issues and develop
skills to analyse problems in a critical manner showing a good
understanding of leadership and strategic management theory and
practice
• Critically evaluate current academic theory and debates on leadership
and strategic management.
• To develop a critical awareness of the organisation in order that an
effective understanding of organisational problems and opportunities
can be developed
• To develop an appreciation of responsible, ethical management and
leadership
• Identify their own skill set and show how module enhances their own
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personal development
Module Outline

Lecture1: Introduction to Module/ Assignments1 & 2


Theories of Leadership: An overview (1)
Academic Article: How can we make sense of leadership in the 21st Century? Higgs
Lecture 2: Leadership traits, skills (2): Kotter/ Lunenburg/ Zaccaro
Collaborative Learning– Seminar Briefing - Thinking about leadership??
10 minute critique of article-5 Articles – in teams – give yourselves a name
Lecture 3: Leadership Styles (3) / Formative Assessment 1 presentations - feedforward
Lecture 4: Research: Leadership in practice: For assessment 1 paired presentation: academic
debates/ : Leadership Situations/Transactions/Transformations/ Charismatic (4/5)
Lecture 5: Leadership Situations/Transactions/Transformations/ Charismatic (4/5): SAL
Collaborative Learning–seminar presentations -5 Articles – in teams
Lecture 6: Assessment 1 Presentations (15 mins):Servant and Authentic Leadership (6/7)
Assessment 2 Briefing
Lecture 7: Research: Leadership in practice: Servant and Authentic Leadership (6/7)
Lecture 8: Leadership and strategic management (1) and (2) /Assessment 1 feedback
Lecture 9: Research: Leadership in practice /Case study : Strategy Development/Analysis
Lecture 10: Implementing Strategy (3) & (4) : SAL CEO Relational leadership and strategic
decisions - making the link between Leadership and Strategic Management:
Lecture11: Assessment 2 Submission: Individual Investigative Report
Lecture 12: Research Leadership in practice
Lecture 13: Research Leadership in practice
Lecture 14: Individual Assignment 2 feedback
Lecture 15: Individual Assignment 2 feedback
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Module Information Review

•15 week module


•3 hour weekly seminars / lectures:-
–activities/ case studies/ academic reading
–debates/ problem solving / research / games
• Assessments
Assessment Method Description of Item % weighting Week Due

Coursework Paired Presentation 30% 6

Coursework Individual Investigative Report 70% 13


ASSESSMENTS
• Assessment 1 (30%): Due Week 6
• Formative assessment -Week 3
• Paired Presentation ( 15 minutes)
• A critical evaluation of a current leadership/ academic debate
• relating to practice and centred on your experiential learning
• You should select a current debate or theme you identify in current
• academic leadership theory.
• You should
• Demonstrate your understanding of Leadership & Management i.e.
emerging theories using analytical diagram/ paradigm/ visuals
• Critically examine your chosen current academic theory/ debate
• How is this area of theory/or debate demonstrated in your business?
• How does current practice currently reflect (or not) the academic debate
• the business
• What could the business learn/ do differently from your analysis of the
theory?
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• Assessment 2 (70%): Individual Investigative Report: Due week 11
• 3,500 - 4,000 words
• Formative assessment -Week 8
• A critical evaluation of how leadership competencies affect the design,
planning and implementation of corporate strategy
• The role of leadership in strategic management in a company of your
choice
- Choosing an academic area from the module - you should identify
• a current issue in the business e.g. Does the leader’s traits influence the
strategic direction of the business? How is the organisational strategy
• communicated in the business? Does transactional or transformational
leadership drive the business strategy? What is the link between
leadership and strategic management in your business/ a business of
your choice?
• You should provide a critical analysis of the academic area and then
examine how the theory could be used to improve the business
• Demonstrate how this investigation supports your own development and
what you have learned in academic terms and as a practitioner.
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• Assessment 2: Individual Investigative Report

As we go through the sessions you need to identify appropriate topics for


your 1st and 2nd Assessments . You should choose the aspects that
interest you most and outline:

a) what you are going to investigate as your inquiry topic

a) how you are going to investigate your topic and start thinking about
which academic areas interest you

b) Q & A on your research inquiry topic and your approach

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ACTIVITY

What do you think Leadership is ?

What influences Leadership today?

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Exeter University Study: What is Leadership?
http://depts.washington.edu/nwphli/2006/docs/Trait_based_perspectives_of
_leadership-2.pdf
From Induction

Article - provides good foundation in key leadership theories

In groups of 4/5 design a diagram to demonstrate what you


think leadership is and the key influences – use key leaders
to demonstrate your points

Present your ideas back to the rest of the group – What do


you notice ? Identify similarities and differences/ key themes

You can create a poster or use post it notes – or any visual


presentation of your choice.
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DEFINITIONS OF LEADERSHIP
“Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so
that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the
achievement of the organisation’s purpose."
source: Lynch, R. (2009) Strategic Management, [5th Ed].
New York: FT Prentice Hall, p.600

“Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a


group of individuals to achieve a common goal.”
source: Northouse, P. (2010) Leadership: Theory and
Practice, [6th Ed]. London: Sage p.3

“A leader is best when people barely know he exists, when


his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say, “We did this
ourselves.”” ~ Lao-Tzu

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Change
Vision/Direction Speed Environment
Growth Share/stakeholders
Strategy/Culture Competition
Culture – GLOBE Risk
Leadership
Gender Drivers

Structure Styles
Systems/Processes Competencies
+
/
Employees/Teams
@LondonMetUni
Social Media
/LondonMetUniversity
Innovation Communication
• Think of some leaders

What makes them great/ not so great leaders?

Do you think of yourself as a leader – why?/why not?

What do you need to become a leader?

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Why study Management and Leadership?

In groups, using examples from your own experience


(“good” and/or “bad”) and visuals - pictures/ youtube /
cartoons/photos/ music - you have 10 minutes to
answer to the following:
What is your current understanding/ experience of:
Leadership?
Management?
The relationship between management and
leadership?
10 minute feedback is required per group & each
member must contribute.

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Leadership requires two types of skills

Intellectual Skills People Skills

Developing a direction
Influencing others.
and vision.

Interacting with
Making strategic LEADERSHIP
peers, employees,
decisions.
clients, superiors

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Authentic Great Man/
Transformational George 2003 Trait Theory
Burns 1978/ Bass & Shamir & Eilam 2005 Bass/Stodgill 1974
Avolio 1985/1990/ Bennis Walumbwa, Avolio &
& Nanus 1985 Gardner et al 2008/9
Kouzes & Posner 2002
Behaviourist
Charismatic Theorists (Style
Conger & Kanungo 1998 Approach)

McGregor’s Theory X & Y


Transactional Leadership 1960/Blake and Mouton
Leader-Member X
1964/ Tannenbaum &
Schmidt
Dansereau, Graen &
Hage 1975
Situational Theories
Motivation Hersey & Blanchard 1985

Expectancy
Path-goal Theory Contingency
londonmet.ac.uk House & Mitchell 1974 Fiedler 1964
Some Emerging Themes

Current environmental uncertainty, instability, complexity


Shift in understanding of what constitutes Leadership
Reappraisal of Charismatic and Transformational
leadership models
Attempts to identify Leadership Competences
Training and Leadership Development – rise of the
Corporate Universities
Reassessment of Leadership Development Initiatives in
the private sector
Critical reappraisal of Leadership in the Public Sector
Link between Leadership and Performance
(Storey, 2011: 11)

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• Trait Approach
• 1920 – 1960, revived in 1990s

• Behavioural Approach/ Style / “one best way”/ e.g. Leadership


Grid 1950 – 1970

• Contingency Approach (“It depends”) / Situational leadership


• 1970 – 1990, still popular in business

• Transactional Leadership
• Transformational Leadership
• Authentic / Team / Servant Leadership

- all part of the leadership debate – not one definitive theory

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LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT

Leadership is concerned with:


direction setting, with novelty and is essentially linked to change,
movement and persuasion.
Grint K. (2005) Leadership: Limits & Possibilities pg 15

Management is concerned with:


executing routines and maintaining organisational
stability,
it is essentially concerned with control;

An essential part of management is co-ordinating the


activities of people and guiding their efforts towards the
goals and objectives of the organisation. This involves
the process of Leadership and the choice of an
appropriate form of action and behaviour.
Mullins (2010) 9th edition pg372
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Understanding the link between management and leadership

Theorists suggests that the context within which each


operates defines its difference.

Management is more concerned with relating to people in a


structured organisation setting that has roles and
responsibilities assigned.

Leadership does not necessarily require this environment to


operate. It tends to be more inspirational with emphasis on
communicating, motivating, encouraging and involving others.

Not all managers are effective leaders


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Student activity:

Imagine you are a consultant to a company and you have


been asked to identify what the managers do and what the
leaders of the business do .
Place them on the diagram (15mins) You can use post-its or
paper then discuss overlaps and what is missing

“Leaders are managers, but managers are not


necessarily leaders” argue for or against this
statement
Understanding the link between management and leadership

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Some differences between management and leadership
• MANAGEMENT is... EFFICIENCY LEADERSHIP
• Doing things right is..EFFECTIVENESS
• Efficient performance with an organizational Doing the right things
framework which secures the obedience of Communicating a vision,
a lot of people. persuading rather than
compelling people.
• Acting to limit choices
Innovates -developing fresh
• Running organizations like machines. approaches to long standing
• The ability to harness human beings as a problems/new options.
group to achieve a common endeavour. Being receptive to change.
• Reliant on: Focuses on and develops
• Legal-rational authority. people: the ability to enable
people to perform infinitely
• Concerned with:
better than they thought they
• EFFICIENCY were capable of.
Reliant on: Charismatic
• Based on Peter Drucker (1969,1993,1999) Similarities and differences between leaders and authority.
managers

londonmet.ac.uk Concerned with:


EFFECTIVENESS
What impacts on a manager’s effectiveness?

Mullins (2010) 9th edition

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Student Active Learning (SAL)- Compulsory:

Malcolm Higgs, (2003) “How can we make sense of leadership in the 21st
Century?”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol.24
Issue:5, pp273-284
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/01437730310485798

• What key observations does he make about Leadership?


• What does he suggest about the development of understanding
leadership?
• What is meant by “an emerging perspective on leadership”?
• What potential model of leadership does he present? - why?
• What role does emotional intelligence play in leadership?

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Student Active Learning (SAL)- Compulsory:

Kotter: What Leaders really do

By John P. Kotter, Harvard Business Review , 2001


http://hollis.harvard.edu/primo_library/libweb/action/dlDisplay.do?vid=HVD&search_scope=default_scop
e&docId=HVD_ALEPH008027762&fn=permalink

• What is the article saying about Leadership?


• What is he saying about the difference between Leadership and
Management?
• What do each of the case studies highlight?
• What could those business leaders do to improve those things today?
• How does this demonstrate leadership thinking and influence?

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Student Active Learning (SAL)
Bennis: The Challenges of Leadership in the Modern World
Warren Bennis (American Psychologist, January 2007)
http://0-web.b.ebscohost.com.emu.londonmet.ac.uk/ehost/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=9554612a-ad2c-4d16-
afdd-b4e0a827aac8%40sessionmgr101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=2006-
23492-002&db=psyh
• What is the article saying about Leadership?
• What is he saying about –
• How leadership is taught?
• Leading controversy/ debates?
• What do other theorists say?
• Why is there such a surge in interest in leadership?
• How is new leadership thinking being developed/ influenced
To what extent do you agree with the 6 competencies he thinks leaders
have? – what else would you include?
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Academic • How do leadership and management topic link with your own
area of interest and experience?
Inquiry
• What does leadership mean in your business?
• What are the key drivers and influences
• What is the context of your research: Sector/ business/ structure
• complexity
• What management or leadership issues can you identify ?
• What is the base of power, how is power used?

• What would you like your contribution to knowledge in the field of


leadership/management to be?
• To what extent does your research and application of the theory
to practice affect your own conceptualisation of leadership &
management ?
• Clearly articulate your ideas
• Clearly illustrate the implications of your research for your own
potential for development as a leader within your/an organisation
and demonstrate self-reflection
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Decide your topic for your assessments 1 to agree with your
lecturer and start your reading / research on this

Each student to research and bring a journal article to session


next week to discuss – email KH

Read the papers on


“ How can we make sense of leadership in the 21st Century –
Higgs
Kotter : What leaders do
Bennis: The Challenges of Leadership in the Modern World

Start reading a book on Leadership e.g. Peter G Northouse


and Strategic Management e.g. Scholes/ Lynch

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Bibiliography
Adair, J. (1983) Effective Leadership, London: Pan

Council for Excellence in Management & Leadership (2001), Leadership


Development: Best
Practice Guide for Organisations, London:CEML

Northouse, P.G. (2010) Leadership, Theory and Practice, Fifth Edition,


Sage
Publications,Inc

Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J. and Boydell,T.(2010) A Manager’s Guide to


Leadership, Second
Edition, McGraw- Hill Publishing Company

Rowe W. G, Guerrero L. (2011) Cases in Leadership, 2nd Edition, Sage


Publications, Inc

Storey, J. (2011) Leadership in Organizations, Current Issues and Key


Trends, 2nd Edition,
Routledge

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Thank you
London Metropolitan University

londonmet.ac.uk
/londonmetuni
@LondonMetUni