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TY BTech Trimester-VII (AY 2019-2020)

Computer Science and Engineering

Disclaimer:
a. Information included in these slides came from multiple sources. We have tried our
best to cite the sources. Please refer to the references to learn about the sources,
when applicable.
b. The slides should be used only for preparing notes, academic purposes (e.g. in teaching
a class), and should not be used for commercial purposes.
CS311: Computer Networks

Examination Scheme:
Continuous Assessment: 50 Marks End Semester Examination: 50 Credit: 2+1
Course Objectives:
 To gain basic knowledge of network topologies, standards and protocols
 To learn network layer protocols
 To explore services offered by transport layer
 To understand protocols of application layer
Course Outcomes:
 After completion of this course students will be able to:
 Analyze and apply different types of network topologies and standards
 Use the knowledge of network protocols to analyze and design new networks
 Identify and use transport layer based appropriate communication
 Apply the standards and protocols learned for designing client server based applications

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Pre-requisites
• C Programming
• Data and Mobile Communication

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Syllabus
• INTRODUCTION AND MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL
Types of Networks (Introduction of LAN; MAN; WAN; PAN, Ad-hoc Network)
Network Architectures: Client-Server, Peer-to-Peer, Distributed and SDN, OSI Model, TCP/IP Model.
Network topologies, Network addressing (Physical address, IP address and Port address), Channel
allocation, Multiple Access Protocols: ALOHA, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, Ethernet: Frame format, IEEE
802.3, Fast and Gigabit
• NETWORK LAYER
Network Layer Design Issues, (Switching Techniques) Internet Protocol: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing
schemes, Subnetting, CIDR, NAT, ICMP, Routing Algorithms: Distance Vector, Link State, (Path
Vector), Routing Protocols: RIP, OSPF, BGP, Congestion control, Quality of Service
• TRANSPORT LAYER
Transport Layer Services: Transport layer functionalities, Sockets, Transport Layer Protocols: UDP, RTP,
TCP: 3- way Handshake, TCP Transmission Policy (Sliding Window), TCP Congestion Control
Algorithms: Leaky Bucket, Token Bucket, Congestion Avoidance, Quality of Service
• APPLICATION LAYER
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP), Domain Name System (DNS), Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
(HTTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol: POP3, IMAP, MIME, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), TELNET,
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
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Guidelines for CCA and LCA
Examination Scheme CCA Marks Distribution
Examination Weightage Marks
Sr. No. Examination Scheme Marks
Mid-Term Theory Exam 30 % 15
1. Class Continuous Assessment (CCA) 50 Class Attendance 10 % 5

Online MCQ Test 30 % 15


2. Laboratory Continuous Assessment (LCA) 50
Theory Assignment 30 % 15
3. End Term Theory Examination 50
Total 50
LCA Marks Distribution
Examination Weightage Marks

Laboratory Assignment Continuous


Evaluation 60 % 30
End term Oral Examination 30% 15

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Computer Network 5 5
Activity Planner for CCA
Sr. No Activity Week for conduction
(Tentative)
1 Theory Assignment Week 5 (5th Aug-10th Aug
19)
2 Mid-Term Exam Week 7 (19th Aug- 21st Aug
19)
3 Online MCQ Test Week 9 (2nd Sept.-7th Sept.
2019)
4 End-Term Examination Week 13-Week 15
5 MOOC/Guest Lecture/ Visit to central IT Week 2-Week 10
Dept/(For MOOC web link-
https://alison.com/course/diploma-in-
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computer-networking )
Activity Planner for LCA

Sr. No Activity Week for conduction (Tentative)

1 Practical Assignment No: 1 Week 1

2 Practical Assignment No: 2 Week 2

3 Practical Assignment No: 3 Week 3

4 Practical Assignment No: 4 Week 4

5 Practical Assignment No: 5 Week 5

6 Practical Assignment No: 6 Week 7

7 Practical Assignment No: 7 Week 9

8 Oral Examination Week 11


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Unit-I
INTRODUCTION AND MEDIUM ACCESS
CONTROL

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Unit-I
 Types of Networks ( Text book: Tanenbaum A. S., ‘Computer Networks’, Pearson Education ,
4th Edition, 2008, ISBN-978-81-7758-165-2)
 Introduction of LAN, MAN, WAN, PAN and Ad-hoc Network
 Network Architectures (Tanenbaum A. S., ‘Computer Networks’, Pearson Education , 4th
Edition, 2008, ISBN-978-81-7758-165-2)
 Client-Server, Peer-to-Peer, Distributed and SDN, OSI Model and TCP/IP Model
 Network topologies
 Network addressing
 Physical address, IP address and Port address
 Channel allocation
 Multiple Access Protocols (Text book: Tanenbaum A. S., ‘Computer Networks’, Pearson
Education , 4th Edition, 2008, ISBN-978-81-7758-165-2)
 ALOHA, CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA
 Ethernet ( Text book: Tanenbaum A. S., ‘Computer Networks’, Pearson Education , 4th
Edition, 2008, ISBN-978-81-7758-165-2)
 Frame format
 IEEE 802.3
 Fast and Gigabit
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Computer Networks

 Autonomous computers are


network or a collection of
networks that are all managed
and supervised by a single entity
or organization

 Two or more autonomous


computers are connected

 Geographic location: anywhere


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Types of Networks

Classification of interconnected
processors:
 Personal area networks (PAN)

 Local area networks (LAN)

 Metropolitan area networks (MAN)

 Wide are networks (WAN)

 Ad-hoc network

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Personal Area Network (PAN)

Bluetooth PAN configuration

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Local Area Network (LAN)

Wireless and Wired LAN


(a) 802.11 (b) Switched Ethernet

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Metropolitan Area Network(MAN): based on cable TV

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Wide Area Network (WAN)
WAN: connects three branch offices in Australia

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Ad-hoc Network

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Uses of Computer Networks
 Business Applications  Home Applications: P2P having
no fixed clients & servers

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Uses of Computer Networks
 Mobile Users: Combinations of  Social Issues
wireless networks and mobile  Network neutrality
computing  Digital Millennium
Copyright Act
 Profiling users
 Phishing

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Network Architectures

 Client-Server

 Peer-to-Peer

 Distributed Network

 Software Define Network

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Client-Server Model
Client-server model: involves requests and replies

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Peer-to-Peer Architecture
 All nodes acts as a clients and
servers
– Provides and consume data
– Any node can initiate a connection

 No centralized data source


– The ultimate form of democracy
on the Internet
– The ultimate threat to copy-right
protection on the Internet

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Distributed Network

Distributed networks are part


of distributed computing
architecture, in which
enterprise IT infrastructure
resources are divided over a
number of networks,
processors and intermediary
devices

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Software Define Network

 Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is


dynamic, manageable, cost-effective, and
adaptable for the high-bandwidth, dynamic
nature of today’s applications

 This architecture decouples the network control


and forwarding functions enabling the network
control to become directly programmable and the
underlying infrastructure to be abstracted for

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Network Software

 Protocol hierarchies

 Network Services:
 Connection-oriented v/s connectionless service

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Protocol Hierarchies: Layers, protocols & interfaces

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Protocol Hierarchies: virtual communication in layer 5

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Network Services
Connection-Oriented v/s Connectionless Service

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Reference Models

 OSI reference model

 TCP/IP reference model

 Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP

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OSI Reference Model

Principles for the seven layers of OSI Model:


 Layers created for different abstractions
 Each layer performs well-defined function
 Function of layer chosen with definition of
international standard protocols in mind
 Minimize information flow across interfaces between
boundaries
 Number of layers optimum

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OSI Reference Model

 Application layer
 Presentation layer
 Session layer
 Transport layer
 Network layer
 Data link layer
 Physical layer

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TCP/IP Reference Model

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TCP/IP Reference Model: Protocols

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Comparison of OSI & TCP/IP Reference Models
OSI(Open System Interconnection) TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol / Internet
Protocol)
1. OSI is a generic, protocol independent standard, 1. TCP/IP model is based on standard protocols around
acting as a communication gateway between the network which the Internet has developed. It is a communication
and end user. protocol, which allows connection of hosts over a
network.

2. In OSI model the transport layer guarantees the 2. In TCP/IP model the transport layer does not
delivery of packets. guarantees delivery of packets. Still the TCP/IP model is
more reliable.
3. Follows vertical approach. 3. Follows horizontal approach.

4. OSI model has a separate Presentation layer and 4. TCP/IP does not have a separate Presentation layer or
Session layer. Session layer.
5. Transport Layer is Connection Oriented. 5. Transport Layer is both Connection Oriented and
Connection less.
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Comparison of OSI & TCP/IP Reference Models
OSI(Open System Interconnection) TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol / Internet
Protocol)
6. Network Layer is both Connection Oriented and 6. Network Layer is Connection less.
Connection less.
7. OSI is a reference model around which the networks are 7. TCP/IP model is, in a way implementation of the OSI
built. Generally it is used as a guidance tool. model.
8. Network layer of OSI model provides both connection 8. The Network layer in TCP/IP model provides
oriented and connectionless service. connectionless service.
9. OSI model has a problem of fitting the protocols into the 9. TCP/IP model does not fit any protocol
model.
10. Protocols are hidden in OSI model and are easily 10. In TCP/IP replacing protocol is not easy.
replaced as the technology changes.
11. OSI model defines services, interfaces and protocols 11. In TCP/IP, services, interfaces and protocols are not
very clearly and makes clear distinction between them. It is clearly separated. It is also protocol dependent.
protocol independent.
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12. It has 7 layers 12. It has 4 layers
Addresses in TCP/IP Network

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Network Topology

 Way of connection
between computers,
printers and other
devices
 Layout of the wire and
devices as well as the
paths used by data
transmissions

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Bus Topology

 Commonly referred as
a linear bus
 All the devices are
connected by one
single cable

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Star and Tree Topology
 Star topology
 most commonly used architecture in
Ethernet LANs
 resembles spokes in a bicycle wheel

 Extended star topology or tree


topology
 significantly reduces the traffic on the
wires by sending packets only to the
wires of the destination host
 network devices that filter frames or
packets like bridges, switches and
routers

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Ring Topology
 A frame travels around the ring,
stopping at each node
 A Node wants to transmit data it adds
the data as well as the destination
address to the frame, which takes the
data out of the frame
 Single ring – all the devices on the
network share a single cable
 Dual ring – allows data to be sent in
both directions

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Mesh Topology

 Connects all devices (nodes) to


each other for redundancy and
fault tolerance
 Used in WANs to interconnect
LANs and for mission critical
networks like those used by
banks and financial institutions
 Implementation is Expensive
and difficult

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Comparison of network Topologies
Topology Information Setup Expansion Troubleshooting Cost Cabling
Transfer Concerns
Star All information Each computer Add a new When one More expensive of Uses twisted pair
passes through themust be close to computer by computer goes the simple cable.
Each computer central network the central device. plugging in a new down, the rest of topologies, it Requires large
connects to a connection. 100 meters cable from the the network is requires costly amounts of cable.
central connection maximum cable computer to the unaffected. If the connection device. No more than 100
device. length. connection device. connection device Usually cheaper meters from the
Up to 24 goes down, then than a hybrid computer to the
computers per the network is network. connection device.
network. down.
Bus One computer at a Connect the cable To add a If one computer A cheaper Single continuous
time sends from one computer, you malfunctions, the network since cable connects the
Single cable information. computer to the must shut down entire network there is usually devices.
connects Information goes next and so on to the network and goes down. one continuous Terminator is
everything. along the cable the end. A disconnect the copper cable. required at each
and the computer terminator is cable from the end of the cable.
accesses the placed at each end existing Uses coaxial or
information off of the network. computers. twisted pair
1/1/2020 the cable. Computer Network Unit I cabling. 41
Ring Information goes in Computers are Cable between the
If there's a break One of the more Requires more
one direction located close to computers must be
in the cable or an expensive cabling than other
Single cable around the ring and each other. broken to add a
error in the topologies due to topologies. Uses
configured in a passes along the Setup is easy. new computer, so
network, high cable costs. twisted pair.
ring. ring until it reaches There is no the network is
information
the correct connector. down until the
continues to
computer. The ring has no new device is back
transfer through
beginning and no online. the rest of the ring
end. until reaching the
point of the break.
This makes
troubleshooting
easy.
Hybrid Mesh Often used across Often created when Connection Troubleshooting is Expensive, large, Cabling depends
long distances. expanding an devices make most difficult in and usually on the types of
Combines two or Information transfer existing network. combining this topology complicated. networks.
more different can happen in Can use a variety of different networks because of the Can use twisted
structures. different ways, connection devices. and different variety of pair and coaxial
depending on the topologies easy. technologies. cable. Also
other topologies. incorporates fiber
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optic cabling
42
over
long distances.
Data Link Layer: Re-Cap

Function:
• Provide service interface to the network layer
• Dealing with transmission errors
• Regulating data flow
• Slow receivers not swamped by fast senders
Frame

info ack seq kind


Problem of Channel Allocation

• Static Channel Allocation in LANs and MANs


• Dynamic Channel Allocation in LANs and MANs

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Dynamic Channel Allocation in LANs and MANs

1. Station Model

2. Single Channel Assumption

3. Collision Assumption

1. (a) Continuous Time


(b) Slotted Time

2. (a) Carrier Sense


(b) No Carrier Sense
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Multiple Access Protocols

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Random Access
In random access or contention methods, no station is superior to another
station and none is assigned the control over another. No station permits, or
does not permit, another station to send. At each instance, a station that has
data to send uses a procedure defined by the protocol to make a decision on
whether or not to send.

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Frames in a pure ALOHA network

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Procedure for pure ALOHA protocol

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Frames in a slotted ALOHA network

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Vulnerable period for the shaded frame

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PURE ALOHA v/s Slotted ALOHA (2)
Pure Aloha Slotted Aloha
Any station can transmit the data at the beginning
Any station can transmit the data at any time.
of any time slot.
The time is continuous and not globally
The time is discrete and globally synchronized.
synchronized.
Vulnerable time in which collision may occur Vulnerable time in which collision may occur
= 2 x Tt = Tt
Probability of successful transmission of data Probability of successful transmission of data
packet = G x e-2G packet = G x e-G
Maximum efficiency = 18.4% Maximum efficiency = 36.8%
(Occurs at G = 1/2) ( Occurs at G = 1)
The main advantage of slotted aloha is that it
The main advantage of pure aloha is its simplicity
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in implementation.
Carrier Sense MA protocols
Protocols in which stations listen for a carrier (i.e. a transmission medium) and act accordingly, e.g. MA protocols
used by LANs.
1-Persistent CSMA
When a station has data to send, it listens to the channel.
If the channel is busy, it waits until channel idle.
When the channel is idle, it transmits a frame (with probability = 1).
Propagation delay effect:
At t0, station 1 detects idle and sends a frame.
At t0+τ−ε, station 2 detects idle and sends a frame.2
At t0+τ, station 2 detects collision.

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Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
At t0+τ−ε+τ, station 1 detects collision.
In worst case, only about 2τ time later can station 1 detect the collision.
The longer the cable, the longer stations have to wait to be sure that there is
no collision.

Non-persistent CSMA
• If the channel is busy, it waits for random period then sense the channel again.
• Better channel utilization but longer delays than 1-persistent CSMA.

p-persistent CSMA (applies to slotted channel)


• If the channel is idle, it transmits with prob = p (with 1-p, it defers until next slot).
• If the next slot is idle again, do the same thing.

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Persistent and Nonpersistent CSMA
Comparison of the channel utilization versus load for various random access
protocols.

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CSMA with Collision Detection
States of CSMA/CD: contention, transmission or idle

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Collision-Free Protocols
Bit-map protocol

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Collision-Free Protocols (2)
Binary countdown protocol: - indicates silence

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Problem 1
• A group of N stations share 100 Kbps slotted ALOHA channel.
Each station output a 500 bits frame on an average of 5000 ms
even if previous one has not been sent. What is the required
value of N?

Hints: Bandwidth, Throughput of each station,


Throughput and Efficiency of slotted ALOHA

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Problem 2
• A network using CSMA/CD has a bandwidth of 10 Mbps. If the
maximum propagation time is 25.6 µs, what is the minimum
size of the frame to detect the collision?

Hint: Worst case scenario for the collision detection

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CSMA / CA
• Interframe Space (IFS)
– Waiting Time after sensing idle Channel
• Contention Window
– Waiting Time for random slots
• Acknowledgment
– Retransmission

• Example Protocol – RTS/CTS


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Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers and
Gateways (2)
(a) Hub (b) Bridge (c) Switch

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Network Devices
(a) Layer wise devices (b) Frames, packets and headers

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Comparison of network devices
HUB SWITCH ROUTER
Hub is a broadcast device. The switch is a multicast device. The router is a routing device.
Hub works in the physical layer of The switch works in data link layer and The router works in the network layer
OSI model. network layer of OSI model. of OSI model.
Hub is used to connect devices to the The switch is used to connect devices The router is used to connect two
same network. to the network. different networks.
Hub sends data in the form of bits. The switch sends data in the form of The router sends data in the form of
frames. packets.
Hub works in half duplex. The switch works in full duplex. The router works in full duplex.
Only one device can send data at a Multiple devices can send data at a Multiple devices can send data at a
time. time. time.
Hub does not store any MAC address Switch stores the IP Address and MAC Router stores the IP Address and
of a node in the network. address of nodes used in a network. MAC address of nodes used in a
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network
IEEE Standards
• Ethernet: It is a LAN protocol that is used in Bus and Star topologies and
implements CSMA/CD as the medium access method

 Original (traditional) Ethernet developed in 1980 by three companies:


Digital, Intel, Xerox (DIX).

 In 1985, the Computer Society of the IEEE started a project, called


Project 802, to set standards to enable intercommunication among
equipment from a variety of manufacturers.
 Current version is called IEEE Ethernet

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IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control
(a) Position of LLC (b) Protocol formats

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IEEE Ethernet

• In IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Data link layer is split into two sublayers:
– Bottom part: MAC
• The frame is called IEEE 802.3
• Handles framing, MAC addressing, Medium Access control
• Specific implementation for each LAN protocol
– Defines CSMA/CD as the access method for Ethernet LANs and Token passing method
for Token Ring.
• Implemented in hardware
– Top part: LLC (Logical Link Control)
• The subframe is called IEEE 802.2
• Provides error and flow control if needed
• It makes the MAC sublayer transparent
– Allows interconnectivity between different LANs data link layers
• Used to multiplex multiple network layer protocols in the data link layer frame
• Implemented in software
Ethernet Frame format
Frame Check Sequence (FCS) - CRC

Frame formats. (a) DIX Ethernet , (b) IEEE 802.3.

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802.3 MAC frame

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Ethernet Provides Unreliable, connectionless Service

– Ethernet data link layer protocol provides connectionless service to the


network layer
• No handshaking between sending and receiving adapter.
– Ethernet protocol provides Unreliable service to the network layer :
• Receiving adapter doesn’t send ACK or NAK to sending adapter
• This means stream of datagrams passed to network layer can have
gaps (missing data)
– Gaps will be filled if application is using reliable transport layer
protocol
» Otherwise, application will see the gaps
Ethernet address
 Six bytes = 48 bits
 Flat address not hierarchical
 Burned into the NIC ROM
 First three bytes from left specify the vendor. Cisco 00-00-0C, 3Com 02-60-8C and the
last 24 bit should be created uniquely by the company
 Destination Address can be:
 Unicast: second digit from left is even (one recipient)
 Multicast: Second digit from left is odd (group of stations to receive the frame –
conferencing applications)
 Broadcast (ALL ones) (all stations receive the frame)
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 Source address is always Unicast
Ethernet evolution through four generations

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Categories of traditional Ethernet

•<data rate><Signaling method><Max segment length or cable type>

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IEEE 802.3 Cable Types
Name Cable Max. Max Cable Nodes
Toplogy
Segment /segment
Length
10Base5 thick coax 500 meters 100
Bus

10Base2 thin coax 185 meters 30


Bus

10BaseT twisted pair 100 meters 1 Star

10BaseF Fiber Optic 2Km 1


Star
10Base5 implementation

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10Base-T implementation

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10Base-F implementation

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Fast Ethernet

• 100 Mbps transmission rate


• same frame format, media access, and collision detection rules as 10
Mbps Ethernet
• can combine 10 Mbps Ethernet and Fast Ethernet on same network
using a switch
• media: twisted pair (CAT 5) or fiber optic cable (no coax)
• Star-wire topology
– Similar to 10BASE-T

CAT 3
CAT 5
Fast Ethernet topology

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Fast Ethernet implementations

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13.5 Gigabit Ethernet

• Speed 1Gpbs
• Minimum frame length is 512 bytes
• Operates in full/half duplex modes mostly full
duplex
Topologies of Gigabit Ethernet

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Gigabit Ethernet implementations

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Figure 13.23 Gigabit Ethernet implementations
Answer the following questions

• Explain what might happen if two stations are accidentally


assigned the same hardware address?
• Why wireless LAN can not use the same CSMA/CD
mechanism that Ethernet uses?
• Complete given table and answer yes or no-
Characteristic CSMA/CD CSMA/CA Token Ring
Mutiple access
Carrier Sense
Collision checking
Acknowledgement

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• If we can extend the LAN then why we need a WAN?
• How can a bridge know whether to forward frames?
• Can the length of an Ethernet be increased to many segments
of 500 meter each merely by adding a repeater to connect each
additional segment?

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