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Timed Trial

Review Lecture
1. In paragraph 1, how does the author demonstrate that Alex
Orlyuk is not living a life of ‘political apathy’? Use your own
words as far as possible. [2] [Point-illustration]
Paragraph 1
The life story of Alex Orlyuk does not seem destined to lead to political apathy.
Born in the Soviet Union to a family scarred by the Holocaust, he moved at the age
of six to Tel Aviv, Israel, where he finished school and military service. He follows
politics and prizes democracy. He thinks his government should do more to make
peace with Palestinians, separate religion and state, and cut inequality. And yet,
now aged 28 and eligible to vote in the past four general elections, he has never
cast a ballot. His abstention, he says, is ‘a political statement’ on the sorry state of
Israel’s politics. He does not think any of its myriad parties is likely to bring about
the change he wants. Many other young Israelis share his disaffection. Just 41% of
under-25s voted in the general election of 2013, compared with 88% of over-55s.
No other country has a bigger gap in turnout between under-25s and over-55s.
1. In paragraph 1, how does the author demonstrate that Alex
Orlyuk is not living a life of ‘political apathy’? Use your own
words as far as possible. [2] [Point-illustration]
Paragraph 1
The life story of Alex Orlyuk does not seem destined to lead to political apathy.
Born in the Soviet Union to a family scarred by the Holocaust, he moved at the age
of six to Tel Aviv, Israel, where he finished school and military service. He follows
politics and prizes democracy. He thinks his government should do more to make
peace with Palestinians, separate religion and state, and cut inequality. And yet,
now aged 28 and eligible to vote in the past four general elections, he has never
cast a ballot. His abstention, he says, is ‘a political statement’ on the sorry state of
Israel’s politics. He does not think any of its myriad parties is likely to bring about
the change he wants. Many other young Israelis share his disaffection. Just 41% of
under-25s voted in the general election of 2013, compared with 88% of over-55s.
No other country has a bigger gap in turnout between under-25s and over-55s.
1. In paragraph 1, how does the author demonstrate that Alex
Orlyuk is not living a life of ‘political apathy’? Use your own
words as far as possible. [2] [Point-illustration]
Paragraph 1
He follows politics and prizes democracy. He thinks his government should do more
to make peace with Palestinians, separate religion and state, and cut inequality.
And yet, now aged 28 and eligible to vote in the past four general elections, he has
never cast a ballot. His abstention, he says, is ‘a political statement’ on the sorry
state of Israel’s politics. He does not think any of its myriad parties is likely to bring
about the change he wants. Many other young Israelis share his disaffection. Just
41% of under-25s voted in the general election of 2013, compared with 88% of
over-55s. No other country has a bigger gap in turnout between under-25s and
over-55s.
1. In paragraph 1, how does the author demonstrate that Alex Orlyuk is
not living a life of ‘political apathy’? Use your own words as far as
possible. [2] [Point-illustration]

keeps abreast of/


keeps himself informed

He follows politics and prizes democracy. He thinks his


government should do more to make peace with Palestinians,
separate religion and state, and cut inequality. And yet, now aged
28 and eligible to vote in the past four general elections, he has
never cast a ballot. His abstention, he says, is ‘a political
statement’ on the sorry state of Israel’s politics. He does not think
any of its myriad parties is likely to bring about the change he
wants.
1. In paragraph 1, how does the author demonstrate that Alex Orlyuk is
not living a life of ‘political apathy’? Use your own words as far as
possible. [2] [Point-illustration]

keeps abreast of/ Cherishes/places


keeps himself informed a high value on

He follows politics and prizes democracy. He thinks his


government should do more to make peace with Palestinians,
separate religion and state, and cut inequality. And yet, now aged
28 and eligible to vote in the past four general elections, he has
never cast a ballot. His abstention, he says, is ‘a political
statement’ on the sorry state of Israel’s politics. He does not think
any of its myriad parties is likely to bring about the change he
wants.
1. In paragraph 1, how does the author demonstrate that Alex Orlyuk is
not living a life of ‘political apathy’? Use your own words as far as
possible. [2] [Point-illustration]

keeps abreast of/ Cherishes/places


critical of a high value on
keeps himself informed
government’s failings
He follows politics and prizes democracy. He thinks his
government should do more to make peace with Palestinians,
separate religion and state, and cut inequality. And yet, now
aged 28 and eligible to vote in the past four general elections,
he has never cast a ballot. His abstention, he says, is ‘a political
statement’ on the sorry state of Israel’s politics. He does not
think any of its myriad parties is likely to bring about the
change he wants.
1. In paragraph 1, how does the author demonstrate that Alex Orlyuk is
not living a life of ‘political apathy’? Use your own words as far as
possible. [2] [Point-illustration]

keeps abreast of/ Cherishes/places


critical of a high value on
keeps himself informed
government’s failings
He follows politics and prizes democracy. He thinks his
OR government should do more to make peace with Palestinians,
separate religion and state, and cut inequality. And yet, now
not voted because he aged 28 and eligible to vote in the past four general elections,
wants to express that he has never cast a ballot. His abstention, he says, is ‘a
the contesting political statement’ on the sorry state of Israel’s politics. He
political groups are does not think any of its myriad parties is likely to bring about
weak/unable to the change he wants.
create improvements
2. How does the author support their assertion that the voting
behaviour of Israeli young people is ‘all of a pattern with the rest of the
rich world’ (line 14)? [1] [Point-illustration]

Paragraph 2
Though Israeli politics is atypical–steeped in questions of war, peace, religious
identity and the relationship with Palestinians–the voting behaviour of its young is
nevertheless all of a pattern with the rest of the rich world. Although turnout has
been generally declining across the rich world, it has fallen faster among the young.
Recent evidence from Britain, Poland, Switzerland and America showed that more
than half of millennials stayed at home on election day. Demographic trends
further weaken the political voice of the young. In America’s election in 1972, the
first in which 18-year-olds could vote, around a fifth of adults were under 25.
However, by 2050, under-25s are projected to make up just a tenth of American
adults.
2. How does the author support their assertion that the voting
behaviour of Israeli young people is ‘all of a pattern with the rest of the
rich world’ (line 14)? [1] [Point-illustration]

Paragraph 2
Though Israeli politics is atypical–steeped in questions of war, peace, religious
identity and the relationship with Palestinians–the voting behaviour of its young is
nevertheless all of a pattern with the rest of the rich world. Although turnout has
been generally declining across the rich world, it has fallen faster among the young.
Recent evidence from Britain, Poland, Switzerland and America showed that more
than half of millennials stayed at home on election day. Demographic trends
further weaken the political voice of the young. In America’s election in 1972, the
first in which 18-year-olds could vote, around a fifth of adults were under 25.
However, by 2050, under-25s are projected to make up just a tenth of American
adults.
2. How does the author support their assertion that the voting
behaviour of Israeli young people is ‘all of a pattern with the rest of the
rich world’ (line 14)? [1] [Point-illustration]

Paragraph 2
Though Israeli politics is atypical–steeped in questions of war, peace, religious
identity and the relationship with Palestinians–the voting behaviour of its young is
nevertheless all of a pattern with the rest of the rich world. Although turnout has
been generally declining across the rich world, it has fallen faster among the young.
Recent evidence from Britain, Poland, Switzerland and America showed that more
than half of millennials stayed at home on election day. Demographic trends
further weaken the political voice of the young. In America’s election in 1972, the
first in which 18-year-olds could vote, around a fifth of adults were under 25.
However, by 2050, under-25s are projected to make up just a tenth of American
adults.
2. How does the author support their assertion that the voting
behaviour of Israeli young people is ‘all of a pattern with the rest of the
rich world’ (line 14)? [1] [Point-illustration]
Paragraph 2
Though Israeli politics is atypical–steeped in questions of war, peace, religious
identity and the relationship with Palestinians–the voting behaviour of its young is
nevertheless all of a pattern with the rest of the rich world. Although turnout has
been generally declining across the rich world, it has fallen faster among the young.
Recent evidence from Britain, Poland, Switzerland and America showed that more
than half of millennials stayed at home on election day. Demographic trends
further weaken the political voice of the young. In America’s election in 1972, the
first in which 18-year-olds could vote, around a fifth of adults were under 25.
However, by 2050, under-25s are projected to make up just a tenth of American
adults.
2. How does the author support their assertion that the voting
behaviour of Israeli young people is ‘all of a pattern with the rest of the
rich world’ (line 14)? [1] [Point-illustration]
Paragraph 2
Though Israeli politics is atypical–steeped in questions of war, peace, religious
identity and the relationship with Palestinians–the voting behaviour of its young is
nevertheless all of a pattern with the rest of the rich world. Although turnout has
been generally declining across the rich world, it has fallen faster among the young.
Recent evidence from Britain, Poland, Switzerland and America showed that more
than half of millennials stayed at home on election day.

Ans: The author cites statistical data of voting


trends from wealthy nations that illustrate how
young people in those countries, like Israeli youth,
are less likely to vote than older age groups.
3. What does the author mean by the description of the young
changing ‘from a pivotal voting bloc into a peripheral one’
(lines 20–21)? Use your own words as far as possible. [2]
3. What does the author mean by the description of the young
changing ‘from a pivotal voting bloc into a peripheral one’
(lines 20–21)? Use your own words as far as possible. [2]

[Closet Paraphrase]
3. What does the author mean by the description of the young
changing ‘from a pivotal voting bloc into a peripheral one’
(lines 20–21)? Use your own words as far as possible. [2]

influential/important
collective voice/ a
The effect of the votes of
huge deciding factor
the young has
in the elections
weakened/changed
on the sidelines // to
one that can be
easily overlooked
4. Explain the author’s use of the word
‘presages’ in line 22. [1] [VI]
As a result, the young will have dwindled from a pivotal voting bloc into a
peripheral one which raises the worrying possibility that today’s record-low youth
turnout presages a permanent shift. Voting habits are formed surprising early–in a
person’s first two elections. If future generations, discouraged by their fading
influence, never adopting the voting habit, turnout will fall further, weakening the
legitimacy of elected governments.

The word conveys the writer’s The author uses the word to express his view
alarm of a future where the current that current youth voting trends represent an
low youth participation is irreversible development that does not augur
irreversible. well for the health of democracies
5. In paragraph 3, how does the author suggest that the
attitudes of millennials towards voting might change in the
future? Use your own words as far as possible. [3] [DP]

Whilst they are more interested in issues and causes than they are given credit for,
are better educated than past generations, are more likely to go on a protest or to
become vegetarian, and are less keen on drugs and alcohol, millennials seldom
establish the habits that inclined their parents to vote.

(a) The author suggests that young people today do not


routinely vote but are very enthusiastic about current
affairs.
5. In paragraph 3, how does the author suggest that the
attitudes of millennials towards voting might change
Reasons:in the
future? Use your own words as far as possible.- [3] [DP] a longer time
Spending
in the education system
- Prioritising career over
People who have children and own a home feel more attached marriageto their
communities and are more concerned about how they -arehigh run.standards
But for
youngsters are settling down later than their parents did.
marriage
- the pressure to excel in
(b) The author notes how they will be school and the
(c) strengthens connections/bonds to their
more likely to vote when they become workplace
societies so that they hold reduces
greater interest in/time
parents and purchase their own care more about to meet potential life
properties / have a place of their own policies/politics/governance/their
as this partners
operations/administration.
- singlehood is a norm for
those under 30
6. In paragraph 4, what reasons does the author suggest as to
why ‘Millennials do not see voting as a duty’ (lines 33–34)? Use
your own words as far as possible. [2] [DP]
Millennials do not see voting as a duty and therefore do not feel
morally obliged to do it. Rather, they regard it as a duty of politicians to
woo them. They see parties not as movements deserving of loyalty, but
as brands they can choose between or ignore.

(a) Millennials think it is the


obligation of politicians to
entice/impress them to vote.
Joko Widodo
President of Indonesia
6. In paragraph 4, what reasons does the author suggest as to
why ‘Millennials do not see voting as a duty’ (lines 33–34)? Use
your own words as far as possible. [2] [DP]
Millennials do not see voting as a duty and therefore do not feel
morally obliged to do it. Rather, they regard it as a duty of politicians to
woo them. They see parties not as movements deserving of loyalty,
but as brands they can choose between or ignore.

(b) They no longer believe in life-long


devotion to one party. / They do not see
political factions as causes requiring their
allegiance.
6. In paragraph 4, what reasons does the author suggest as to
why ‘Millennials do not see voting as a duty’ (lines 33–34)? Use
your own words as far as possible. [2] [DP]
Millennials do not see voting as a duty and therefore do not feel
morally obliged to do it. Rather, they regard it as a duty of politicians to
woo them. They see parties not as movements deserving of loyalty, but
as brands they can choose between or ignore.

(c) They treat parties as products


they can either pick or brush off.
7. Explain what the author means by ‘a cycle
of neglect and alienation’ (line 41). [2]
7. Explain what the author means by ‘a cycle
of neglect and alienation’ (line 41). [2]

Many disillusioned
youngsters regard refusing Ans: The author means that by
to vote as a way to express failing to vote, the young are…
dissatisfaction with the
choices on offer. But
abstention traps them in a
cycle of neglect and
alienation.
7. Explain what the author means by ‘a cycle
of neglect and alienation’ (line 41). [2]

The author means that by


failing to vote, the young are…

(a)trapped in an endless process//


a self-perpetuating/ constantly
repeating loop
7. Explain what the author means by ‘a cycle
of neglect and alienation’ (line 41). [2]
The author means that by
failing to vote, the young are…
(a) trapped in an endless process//
a self-perpetuating/ constantly repeating
loop

(b) of abandonment/ being overlooked/


not catered to/forsaken by those in power
and being left isolated/ lacking social
connection/ estranged.
8. In paragraph 6, what distinctions does the
author draw between the ways in which old
people and young workers are treated by some
policies? [2] [DP contrast pairs]
Even parties without any such overt focus on old people increasingly
favour them when setting policies. Australians aged over 65 pay no tax
on income under $24 508; younger workers start paying tax at $15 650.
In Britain, free bus passes, television licences and energy subsidies for
pensioners have survived government cutbacks; housing assistance for
young workers has not. Young workers pay taxes toward health-care
and pension schemes that are unlikely to be equally generous by the
time they retire.
8. In paragraph 6, what distinctions does the
author draw between the ways in which old
people and young workers are treated by some
policies? [2] [DP contrast pairs]
Even parties without any such overt focus on old people increasingly
favour them when setting policies. Australians aged over 65 pay no tax
on income under $24 508; younger workers start paying tax at $15 650.
In Britain, free bus passes, television licences and energy subsidies for
pensioners have survived government cutbacks; housing assistance for
young workers has not. Young workers pay taxes toward health-care
and pension schemes that are unlikely to be equally generous by the
time they retire.
8. In paragraph 6, what distinctions does the
author draw between the ways in which old
people and young workers are treated by some
policies? [2] [DP contrast pairs]
Even parties without any such overt focus on old people increasingly
favour them when setting policies. Australians aged over 65 pay no tax
on income under $24 508; younger workers start paying tax at $15 650.

(a) The elderly only begin paying tax at a


higher salary/pay threshold than their
younger compatriots.
8. In paragraph 6, what distinctions does the
author draw between the ways in which old
people and young workers are treated by some
policies? [2] [DP contrast pairs]
In Britain, free bus passes, television licences and energy subsidies for
pensioners have survived government cutbacks; housing assistance for
young workers has not.
(b) policies/schemes that provide help for young
workers to afford basic necessities / essential
needs are trimmed/scaled back/eliminated
while older workers continue to enjoy such
programmes
8. In paragraph 6, what distinctions does the
author draw between the ways in which old
people and young workers are treated by some
policies? [2] [DP contrast pairs]
Young workers pay taxes toward health-care and pension schemes that
are unlikely to be equally generous by the time they retire.

(c) they contribute to public funds for


medical and old-age financial payouts but
will enjoy lower welfare payouts as
compared to the elderly today when they
retire
Do policies in SG favour the young or the old?
- A panel will be formed to help articulate a
youth vision for the Republic in 2025 and
create an SG Youth action plan
- Youth Conversations dialogue series, which
engaged more than 8,000 young people in
2018 on topics such as social inequality and
environmental sustainability
- A designated Youth Belt, which will span the
area from *Scape and Cathay Cineleisure
Orchard mall to the junction of Somerset and
Killiney roads, will serve as a hub for youth-
oriented organisations, businesses and service
providers.
Do policies in SG favour the young or the old?

- From 1 July 2017, employers must offer re-employment to eligible


employees who turn 62, up to the age of 67.
- Maintenance of Parents Act
10. In paragraph 10, how does the author counter their earlier
claim that Alex Orlyuk’s attitude is one of ‘disaffection’ (line 9)?
[1] [PI +VI to show understanding of ‘disaffection’]

A state or feeling of being While in paragraph 1, the author


dissatisfied, especially with claims that Orlyuk does not care/ in
people in authority or a not interested in voting,
system of control
in paragraph 10, the author suggests
this attitude may only be temporary, as
it conveys how Orlyuk will vote in
future when someone he views as the
right candidate enters politics.
Summary
Using material from paragraphs 7–9 (lines 53–74), summarise what the
author has to say about the positive and negative effects of the
strategies used to persuade more young people to vote.

Write your summary in no more than 120 words, not counting the
opening words which are printed below. Use your own words as far as
possible.

• One positive effect is…


Using material from paragraphs 7–9 (lines 53–74), summarise what the author has to say about the
positive and negative effects of the strategies used to persuade more young people to vote.

One positive effect is…

strategy

positive
effect

negative
effect

Am I addressing the different parts of the question?


Remember this SAQ Question
from the Prelim with 2 parts?
3.
In paragraph 2, the author describes the benefits of smart
cities as ‘safer and more convenient lives’ (line 14). Give one
example of each benefit that the author provides and
explain how it improves residents’ lives. Use your own
words as far as possible. [2] [PI + inference]

Am I addressing the different parts of the question?


Using material from paragraphs 7–9 (lines 53–74), summarise what the author has to say about the
positive and negative effects of the strategies used to persuade more young people to vote.

Cambridge Affirmation
“suitable discourse markers, which contributed greatly to the flow of the final summary”

Am I using concise discourse markers to make the summary coherent?


Using material from paragraphs 7–9 (lines 53–74), summarise what the author has to say about the
positive and negative effects of the strategies used to persuade more young people to vote.

One positive effect is…

Am I addressing the different parts of the question?


Using material from paragraphs 7–9 (lines 53–74), summarise what the author has to say about the
positive and negative effects of the strategies used to persuade more young people to vote.

One positive effect is…

Cambridge Feedback
The school context ….essential to score the points in paragraph 8.

Am I including the context?


Cambridge Feedback
WORD LIMIT
The 120-word limit was scrupulously adhered to….
educational institutions?
REPHRASING EVERYDAY TERMS? USE YOUR CAUTIOUS JUDGEMENT
One candidate substituted ‘school’ with ‘an infrastructure designed for
learning’ and another replaced ‘living with their parents’ with
‘co-habiting with progenitors’.
staying with parents?

USE YOUR OWN WORDS


Strong summarising skills…key words and phrases in the original were
accurately rendered in the candidates’ own words: for example, ‘compulsory’
was often rendered well as ‘mandatory’ or ‘obligatory’.

a rule a requirement
must vote?
After the exam:
“Oops…the writer used my word…”

Don’t trust
your eyes

Point at key words


with your finger
Can you tell the difference?
Using material from paragraphs 7–9 Using material from paragraphs 7
(lines 53–74), summarise what the and 9, summarise what the author
author has to say about the positive has to say about the positive and
and negative effects of the strategies negative effects of the strategies
used to persuade more young people used to persuade more young people
to vote. to vote.

Can you please Using material from paragraphs 7,


8, 9 and 11, summarise what the
read carefully? author has to say about the positive
and negative effects of the strategies
used to persuade more young people
to vote.
Is this familiar?
MYE

Alfie Kohn argues that ‘competition has reached ludicrous


proportions’ (lines 2–3) in our lives today.

How far do you agree or disagree with this view? Support your
answer by referring to the extent to which you and people within
your society are involved in competition.

YIJC MARKERS
“An alarming number of scripts merely responded
to the central issue.”
AQ SURPRISE
The author argues that young people ‘are more
interested in issues and causes than they are given
credit for’ (line 27).

How far do you agree or disagree with this view?


Illustrate your answer by referring to the extent to
which you, and young people within your society, are
involved in issues and causes.
The Expected AQ phrasing
The author argues that we underestimate young
people’s interest in issues and causes.
How far do you agree or disagree with this view?
Illustrate your answer by referring to the extent to
which you, and young people within your society, are
involved in issues and causes.
GIVEN QUOTE: young people ‘are more interested in
issues and causes than they are given credit for’
Central Issue

Based on the Central Issue, select your own quotes from the passage(s)

quote quote quote


GIVEN QUOTE: young people ‘are more interested in
issues and causes than they are given credit for’
Central Issue

Based on the Central Issue, select your own quote


‘Many disillusioned youngsters regard
refusing to vote as a way to express
dissatisfaction with the choices on offer.’
Central Issue: young people ‘are more interested in issues and causes than they are given
credit for’
Your own quote from the passage: Many disillusioned youngsters regard
refusing to vote as a way to express dissatisfaction with the choices on offer.

I agree that young people are more interested in issues and causes than
society gives them credit for. Many do not vote and seem apathetic
towards issues but the writer appears to defend them by arguing that
abstaining from voting is itself a political statement: “Many
disillusioned youngsters regard refusing to vote as a way to express
dissatisfaction with the choices on offer.” This is a perceptive argument
that looks beyond statistics to explain the real reason why such a huge
number of young people do not vote. We may even infer from his
statement that young people have perhaps a rather idealistic view of
what voting is for. They want to vote for the best candidate not the
least unsatisfactory among disappointing “choices on offer”. Casting a
token vote when all the candidates are perceived as unsuitable would
perhaps violate the sanctity or important purpose of that vote which is
meant to be used to elect a representative who will champion issues
and causes they are interested in.

The above is only part of the paragraph.


It shows that you are discussing your own quote from the passage
while basing your discussion on the Central Issue
Central Issue: young people ‘are more interested in issues and causes than they are
given credit for’

Your own quote from the passage: Many disillusioned youngsters


regard refusing to vote as a way to express dissatisfaction with the
choices on offer.

I concur with the author’s view that young people are not
given due credit for being interested in issues and causes. I
would even go further to commend some for passionate,
direct involvement in issues and causes instead of relying
on elected political representatives. But still, I do not think
they should express their dissatisfaction by not voting. It is
a political statement but an unwise one because they
disempower and marginalise themselves by retreating from
the political space. So while I defend them against
accusations of disinterest and apathy, I do not entirely
excuse them for refusing to vote.

This is not the whole paragraph. It is part of your evaluation.


Balanced Evaluation
Cambridge Feedback
MERELY LISTING & DESCRIBING
• Weaker responses simply listed examples of issues and causes
adopted by the young, and were very descriptive in nature.

• These responses could have been improved by focusing on a small


number of such causes which should be evaluated/analysed in
greater detail.
Cambridge Feedback
LENGTHY PARAPHRASE
Some of the weaker responses quoted a part of the
text and then say ‘What the author is trying to say is’
followed by a lengthy paraphrase of the text material.
This approach limited the candidates’ ability to
evaluate the merits or otherwise of the opinions
expressed in the text.
AQ Tips and Reminders
• Pick points that are relevant to the central issue which is usually
specified in the AQ question.
• If there are 2 passages, you need to address both passages in your
response (but not necessarily in the same paragraph unless there are
pairs of contradictory points)
• Take note of questions with 2 requirements e.g. “how important” +
“how far do you agree”. You must explicitly address both
requirements in your answer.
AQs with 2 requirements
Examples:
1. One writer thinks sport has considerable value, while the other
questions this view. How important is sport for you and your
society, and how far would you agree or disagree with the opinions
expressed in these two passages? (A-Level 2015)
2. Anna Banatvala thinks an understanding of history is essential,
whereas Lee Min Yen thinks history has no value. How important is
an understanding of history for you and your society, and how far
has your view been challenged or confirmed by these two
passages?
Last Reminders
• The passage(s) is your dictionary. Be sensitive to contextual clues. Use
the passage(s) well!
• Use CATL to ensure that your answers are complete and accurate.
• Do not skip summary for AQ!
• Don’t panic if you get 2 passages instead of 1. The same Paper 2 skills
that you are familiar with still apply! You just need to make sure to
address both passages in the AQ, that’s all.
• Don’t panic if you get a topic that you are unfamiliar with or not
interested in. There will be 1200-1400 words to help you understand
it better.
Cambridge Feedback: Language
Redundant prepositions were regularly seen, as in ‘discuss
about’, ‘voice out’ and ‘emphasise on’.