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Vectors and

Scalars
Mathematics Review
Quadratic equation : Trigonometry :
ax 2  bx  c  0 c cos q 
b
c
 b  b 2  4ac a
x q a
2a sin q 
b c
a
tan q 
Differential calculus : Integral calculus : b
d n n 1
at  ant n 1 at
dt  at n dt 
n 1
d t 1
e   e t
dt  et dt  et

d 1
sin( t )   cos( t )
dt  sin( t )dt  

cos( t )
9/3/2013 PHY 113 C Fall 2013 -- Lecture 3 2
Definition of a vector
1. A vector is defined by its length and direction.

2. Addition, subtraction, and two forms of multiplication can be


defined
3. In practice, we can use trigonometry or component analysis
for quantitative work involving vectors.
4. Abstract vectors are useful in physics and mathematics.

9/3/2013 PHY 113 C Fall 2013 -- Lecture 3 3


Vector addition:
a+
b

b
a

Vector subtraction:
a

a–b

-b

9/3/2013 PHY 113 C Fall 2013 -- Lecture 3 4


Some useful trigonometric relations

 
Law of cosines:
a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bc cos 
a b b2 = c2 + a2 - 2ca cos 
g c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos g

Law of sines:
a  b  c
sin  sin  sin g

9/3/2013 PHY 113 C Fall 2013 -- Lecture 3 5


Some useful trigonometric relations -- continued

 
Law of cosines:
a2 = b2 + c2 - 2bc cos 
a b b2 = c2 + a2 - 2ca cos 
g c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos g

9/3/2013 PHY 113 C Fall 2013 -- Lecture 3 6


Possible realization of previous example:

c=?
Start treasure East
 

10m 15
20o m
A pirate map gives directions to
buried treasure following the
indicated arrows. A physics
students decides to take the
easterly direct route after
South computing the distance c.

9/3/2013 PHY 113 C Fall 2013 -- Lecture 3 7


• A scalar quantity is a quantity that has
magnitude only and has no direction in
space
Examples of Scalar Quantities:
 Length
 Area
 Volume
 Time
 Mass
• A vector quantity is a quantity that has
both magnitude and a direction in space
Examples of Vector Quantities:
 Displacement
 Velocity
 Acceleration
 Force
• Vector diagrams
are shown using an
arrow
• The length of the
arrow represents its
magnitude
• The direction of the
arrow shows its
direction
 The resultant is the sum or the combined effect of
two vector quantities

Vectors in the same direction:


6N 4N = 10 N

6m
= 10 m
4m

Vectors in opposite directions:


6 m s-1 10 m s-1 = 4 m s-1

6N 10 N = 4N
 When two vectors are joined
tail to tail
 Complete the parallelogram
 The resultant is found by
drawing the diagonal

 When two vectors are joined


head to tail
 Draw the resultant vector by
completing the triangle
Two forces are applied to a body, as shown. What is the
magnitude and direction of the resultant force acting
on the body?
Solution:
 Complete the parallelogram (rectangle)
 The diagonal of the parallelogram ac represents the resultant
force
 The magnitude of the resultant is found using
Pythagoras’ Theorem on the triangle abc 12 N
a d
Magnitude  ac  12  52 2
θ

5N
5
ac  13 N
12 b c
Direction of ac : tan q  12
5
12
 q  tan 1  67  Resultant displacement is 13 N 67º
5 with the 5 N force
Find the magnitude (correct to two decimal places) and direction of the
resultant of the three forces shown below.
Solution:
 Find the resultant of the two 5 N forces first (do right angles first)

ac  52  52  50  7.07 N
5 d 5 c
tan q   1  q  45
5
Now find the resultant of the 10 N and

5N
 5
7.07 N forces
 The 2 forces are in a straight line (45º + 90º
θ
45º
a
135º = 180º) and in opposite directions 135º 5N b

 So, Resultant = 10 N – 7.07 N = 2.93 N


in the direction of the 10 N force
• What is a scalar quantity?
• Give 2 examples
• What is a vector quantity?
• Give 2 examples
• How are vectors represented?
• What is the resultant of 2 vector
quantities?
• What is the triangle law?
• What is the parallelogram law?
• When resolving a vector into
components we are doing the
opposite to finding the resultant
• We usually resolve a vector
into components that are
perpendicular to each other
 Here a vector v is resolved into
an x component and a y

y
component
x
• Here we see a table
y=25 N
being pulled by a force of
30º
50 N at a 30º angle to the x=43.3 N
horizontal
• When resolved we see
 We can see that it
that this is the same as
would be more
pulling the table up with a efficient to pull the
force of 25 N and pulling table with a
it horizontally with a force horizontal force of
of 43.3 N 50 N
• If a vector of magnitude v and makes an angle θ with the
horizontal then the magnitude of the components are:
• x = v Cos θ
y=v Sin θ
• y = v Sin θ y
θ
x=vx Cos θ
 Proof:
x y
Cosq  Sin q 
v v
x  vCosq y  vSinq
A force of 15 N acts on a box as shown. What is the
horizontal component of the force?

Solution:

Horizontal Component 
x  15Cos60  7.5 N

Component
12.99 N
Vertical
Vertical Component 
y  15Sin 60  12.99 N 60º
Horizontal 7.5 N
Component
• A person in a wheelchair is moving up a ramp at
constant speed. Their total weight is 900 N. The ramp
makes an angle of 10º with the horizontal. Calculate
the force required to keep the wheelchair moving at
constant speed up the ramp. (You may ignore the
effects of friction).
Solution:
If the wheelchair is moving at constant speed (no acceleration), then the
force that moves it up the ramp must be the same as the component of
it’s weight parallel to the ramp.
Complete the parallelogram.
Component of weight
parallel to ramp: 10º

 900Sin10  156.28 N 80º 10º

Component of weight
perpendicular to ramp: 886.33 N
900 N
 900Cos10  886.33 N
• If a vector of magnitude v has two
perpendicular components x and y, and v
makes and angle θ with the x component
then the magnitude of the components
are:
• x= v Cos θ
• y= v Sin θ y=v Sin θ y
θ
x=v Cosθ
EXERCISES
EXERCISES
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