0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

6 Ansichten70 SeitenMeasuring System Analysis 1

Jan 11, 2020

© © All Rights Reserved

Measuring System Analysis 1

© All Rights Reserved

0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

6 Ansichten70 SeitenMeasuring System Analysis 1

© All Rights Reserved

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 70

System

Analysis

Welcome to MSA

Process Discovery

Basics of MSA

Variables MSA

Attribute MSA

Process Capability

2

Introduction to MSA

So far we have learned that the heart and soul of Six Sigma is that it is a data-driven

methodology.

– How do you know that the data you have used is accurate and precise?

– How do know if a measurement is a repeatable and reproducible?

MSA

3

Measurement System Analysis

The item to be measured can be

a physical part, document or a

scenario for customer service.

Item to be Reference Operator can refer to a person

Measured Measurement or can be different instruments

measuring the same products.

Operator Measurement Equipment

Reference is a standard that is

Process used to calibrate the equipment.

Procedure is the method used

Procedure to perform the test.

Environment Equipment is the device used to

measure the product.

Environment is the surroundings

where the measures are

MSA is a mathematical procedure to quantify variation performed.

introduced to a process or product by the act of measuring.

4

Measurement Purpose

In order to be worth collecting, measurements must provide value - that is, they must provide us

with information and ultimately, knowledge

The question…

…must be answered before we begin to consider issues of measurements, metrics, statistics, or data

collection systems

Too often, organizations build complex data collection and information management systems

without truly understanding how the data collected and metrics calculated actually benefit the

organization.

5

Purpose

The purpose of MSA is to assess the error due to measurement systems.

• Precision

• Repeatability - within an operator or piece of equipment

• Reproducibility - operator to operator or attribute gage to attribute gage

• Accuracy

• Stability - accuracy over time

• Linearity- accuracy throughout the measurement range

• Resolution

• Bias – Off-set from true value

• Constant Bias

• Variable Bias – typically seen with electronic equipment, amount of Bias changes with setting

levels

6

Accuracy and Precision

7

MSA Uses

MSA can be used to:

customer.

as serves as an excellent training tool.

•Compare existing measurement equipment.

•Qualify new inspection equipment.

8

Why MSA

Measurement System Analysis is important to:

• Study the % of variation in our process that is caused by our

measurement system.

• Compare measurements between operators.

• Compare measurements between two (or more) measurement

devices.

• Provide criteria to accept new measurement systems (consider new

equipment).

• Evaluate a suspect gage.

• Evaluate a gage before and after repair.

• Determine true process variation.

• Evaluate effectiveness of training program.

9

Appropriate Measures

process variability.

10

Poor Measures

Poor Measures can result from:

• Poor or non-existent operational definitions

• Difficult measures

• Poor sampling

• Lack of understanding of the definitions

• Inaccurate, insufficient or non-calibrated measurement

devices

– Customers

– Producers

– Suppliers

11

Examples of What to Measure

Examples of what and when to measure:

• Primary and secondary metrics

• Decision points in Process Maps

• Any and all gauges, measurement devices, instruments, etc

• “X’s” in the process

• Prior to Hypothesis Testing

• Prior to modeling

• Prior to planning designed experiments

• Before and after process changes

• To qualify operators

Components of Variation

Whenever you measure anything, the variation that you observe can be

segmented into the following components…

Observed Variation

Precision Accuracy

All measurement systems have error. If you don’t know how much of the variation you

observe is contributed by your measurement system, you cannot make confident

decisions.

If you were one speeding ticket away from losing your license, how fast would

you be willing to drive in a school zone?

13

Precision

A precise metric is one that returns the same value of a given

attribute every time an estimate is made.

when the estimate is made.

– Repeatability

– Reproducibility

14

Repeatability

Repeatability is the variation in measurements obtained with one

measurement instrument used several times by one appraiser while

measuring the identical characteristic on the same part.

Repeatability

For example:

– Manufacturing: One person measures the purity of multiple samples of

the same vial and gets different purity measures.

– Transactional: One person evaluates a contract multiple times (over a

period of time) and makes different determinations of errors.

15

Reproducibility

Reproducibility is the variation in the average of the measurements

made by different appraisers using the same measuring instrument

when measuring the identical characteristic on the same part.

Reproducibility

Y Operator A

Operator B

For example:

– Manufacturing: Different people perform purity test on samples from the

same vial and get different results.

– Transactional: Different people evaluate the same contract and make

different determinations.

16

Time Estimate Exercise

Exercise objective: Demonstrate how well

you can estimate a 10 second time interval.

1. Pair up with an associate.

2. One person will say start and stop to

indicate how long they think the 10 seconds

last. Do this 6 times.

3. The other person will have a watch with a

second hand to actually measure the

duration of the estimate. Record the value

where your partner can’t see it.

4. Switch tasks with partner and do it 6 times

also.

5. Record all estimates, what do you notice?

17

Accuracy

An accurate measurement is the difference between the observed average of the

measurement and a reference value.

– When a metric or measurement system consistently over or under estimates the

value of an attribute, it is said to be “inaccurate”

Accuracy can be assessed in several ways:

– Measurement of a known standard

– Comparison with another known measurement method

– Prediction of a theoretical value

What happens if we don’t have standards, comparisons or theories?

True

Average

Accuracy

metrology reference is gospel.

Measurement

18

Accuracy Against a Known Standard

In transactional processes, the measurement system can consist of a

database query.

– For example, you may be interested in measuring product returns where you

will want to analyze the details of the returns over some time period.

– The query will provide you all the transaction details.

However, before you invest a lot of time analyzing the data, you must

ensure the data has integrity.

– The analysis should include a comparison with known reference points.

– For the example of product returns, the transaction details should add up to

the same number that appears on financial reports, such as the income

statement.

19

Accuracy vs. Precision

+ =

average of the shots are to the

Master or bull's-eye.

the shots or Variance.

NEITHER

20

Bias

Bias is defined as the deviation of the measured value from the

actual value.

acceptable limits. Ideally, Bias can never be eliminated due to

material wear and tear!

Bias Bias

21

Stability

Stability of a gauge is defined as error (measured in terms of Standard

Deviation) as a function of time. Environmental conditions such as

cleanliness, noise, vibration, lighting, chemical, wear and tear or other

factors usually influence gauge instability. Ideally, gauges can be

maintained to give a high degree of Stability but can never be

eliminated unlike Reproducibility. Gage Stability studies would be the

first exercise past calibration procedures.

Control Charts are commonly used to track the Stability of a

measurement system over time.

Drift

a function of time!

22

Linearity

measurement range in which the gauge is intended to be used. This

tells you how accurate your measurements are through the

expected range of the measurements. It answers the question,

"Does my gage have the same accuracy for all sizes of objects

being measured?"

Linearity = |Slope| * Process Variation +e

B i a s (y)

% Linearity = |Slope| * 100 0.00

*

-e

*

*

Reference Value (x)

y = a + b.x

y: Bias, x: Ref. Value

a: Slope, b: Intercept

23

Types of MSA’s

– Attribute

– Variable

Attribute Variable

– Pass/Fail – Continuous scale

– Go/No Go – Discrete scale

– Document Preparation – Critical dimensions

– Surface imperfections – Pull strength

– Customer Service Response – Warp

systems.

Manufacturing projects generally use Variable studies more often, but do

use Attribute studies to a lesser degree.

24

Variable MSA’s

Calculates a column of variance components (VarComp) which are used to calculate % Gage

R&R using the ANOVA Method.

Estimates for a Gage R&R study are obtained by calculating the variance components for

each term and for error. Repeatability, Operator and Operator*Part components are summed

to obtain a total Variability due to the measuring system.

We use variance components to assess the Variation contributed by each source of

measurement error relative to the total Variation.

25

Data Sheet

Variation of the study. Use % Study Var when you are interested in

comparing the measurement system Variation to the

total Variation.

% Study Var is calculated by dividing each value in

Study Var by Total Variation and Multiplying by 100.

% Contribution, based on variance

components, is calculated by dividing each Study Var is calculated as 5.15 times the Standard

value in VarComp by the Total Variation then Deviation for each source.

multiplying the result by 100. (5.15 is used because when data are normally

distributed, 99% of the data fall within 5.15 Standard

Deviations.)

26

Data Sheet

Report:

system, SigmaXL® calculates % Tolerance

which compares measurements system

Variation to customer specification. This allows

us to determine the proportion of the process

tolerance that is used by the Variation in the

measurement system.

0.186980

Distinct Categories 1.41

0.031861517

5.8685 1.41

8 (Rounded Down )

27

Number of Distinct Categories

parameters and indices

Only indicates whether the process is

producing conforming or

nonconforming parts

1 Data Category

process parameters and indices

Only provides coarse estimates

2 - 4 Categories

Recommended

5 or more Categories

28

AIAG Standards for Gage Acceptance

definitions for Gage acceptance.

% Tolerance

or % Contribution System is…

% Study Variance

29

Graphic Output

Components of Variation

Report breaks down the variation in the measurement system into specific sources. The bar

chart shown was created using Excel’s Clustered Column Bar Chart to graphically display the

Components of Variation. Each cluster of bars represents a source of variation.

instead you have large amounts of variation attributed to Gage R&R, then corrective action is

needed.

30

Graphic Output

R Chart and Xbar Chart by Operator. The R chart consists of the following:

- The plotted points are the difference between the largest and smallest measurements on each part for each operator.

If the measurements are the same then the range = 0.

- The Center Line, is the grand average for the process.

- The Control Limits represent the amount of variation expected for the subgroup ranges. These limits are calculated

using the variation within subgroups.

If any of the points on the graph go above the upper Control Limit (UCL), then that operator is having problems

consistently measuring parts. The Upper Control Limit value takes into account the number of measurements by an

operator on a part and the variability between parts. If the operators are measuring consistently, then these ranges

should be small relative to the data and the points should stay in control.

31

Graphic Output

SigmaXL® provides an R Chart and Xbar Chart by Operator. The Xbar Chart compares the part-to-part variation to

repeatability. The Xbar chart consists of the following:

- The plotted points are the average measurement on each part for each operator.

- The Center Line is the overall average for all part measurements by all operators.

- The Control Limits (UCL and LCL) are based on the variability between parts and the number of measurements in each

average.

Because the parts chosen for a Gage R&R study should represent the entire range of possible parts, this graph should

ideally show lack-of-control. Lack-of-control exists when many points are above the Upper Control Limit and/or below the

Lower Control Limit.

In this case there are several points out of control which indicates the measurement system is adequate.

32

Gage R&R Multi-Vari Output

The Multi-Vari Charts show each Part as a separate graph. Each Operator’s response readings are denoted as a vertical

line with the top tick corresponding to the Maximum value, bottom tick is the Minimum, and the middle tick is the

Mean. The horizontal line across each graph is the overall average for each part.

Ideally the connected means red line should be horizontal (i.e., small reproducibility) and the vertical lines should be

short (small repeatability).

33

Graphic Output

Pattern Means…

Two-way ANOVA tool creates an interaction chart that

shows the average measurements taken by each

Lines are virtually identical Operators are measuring the

operator on each part in the study, arranged by part.

parts the same

Each line connects the averages for a single operator.

One line is consistently That operator is measuring

higher or lower than the parts consistently higher or Ideally, the lines will follow the same pattern and the

others lower than the others

part averages will vary enough that differences between

Lines are not parallel or they The operators ability to parts are clear.

cross measure a part depends on

which part is being

measured (an interaction

between operator and part)

34

34

Graphic Output

The “By Part” Multi-Vari Chart allows us to analyze all of the measurements taken in the study arranged by

part. The measurements are represented by dots; the means by the middle bar. The red line connects the

average measurements for each part.

Ideally,

Multiple measurements for each individual part have little variation (the dots for one part will be close

together)

• Averages will vary enough that differences between parts are clear

35

Graphic Output

The “By Operator” Multi-Vari Chart is created by modifying the X’s from parts to operator. This helps us

determine whether the variability in measurements are consistent across operators.

The by operator graph shows all the study measurements arranged by operator. Dots represent the

measurements; the middle bars represent the means. The red line connects the average measurements

for each operator.

Parallel to the x-axis The operators are measuring the parts similarly

Not parallel to the x-axis The operators are measuring the parts differently

You can also assess whether the overall Variability in part measurement is the same using this graph. Is

the spread in the measurements similar? Or is one operator more Variable than the others?

36

Practical Conclusions

For this example, the measuring system contributes little to the overall

Variation, as confirmed by both the Gage R&R table and graphs.

The Variation due to the measurement system, as a percent of study (Total)

Variation is causing 16.80% of the Variation seen in the process.

By AIAG Standards this gage should be used. By all standards, the

data being produced by this gage is acceptable, and valid for analysis.

% Tolerance

or % Contribution System is…

% Study Variance

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.