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METHODS OF RESEARCH

AND
THESIS WRITING

Chapter II: The Research Problem


Problem
• Any significant, perplexing and challenging situation, real or artificial
• A perplexing situation after it has been translated into a question or series of questions that help determine the
direction of subsequent inquiry.

Aim or purpose.
This answers the
question “Why?”

Population. This The subject matter


answers the or topic. This
question “Who?” answers the
or “From question
whom?” “What?”
PROBLEM

The place or locale


The period of time. of the study. This
This answers the answers the
question “When?” question
Elements of a Research Problem “Where?”
Example:

Problem: To determine the status of teaching science in the high schools of Province A during the school year
2019-2020.

Aim or purpose: To determine the status of


Subject matter or topic: The teaching of science
Place or locale: In the high schools of Province A
Period or time: During the school year 2019-2020
Population: The respondents are implied to be either the teachers or the pupils or both.
Guidelines in the Selection of a Research Problem or Topic
Among the guidelines or criteria are the following which may also be considered as characteristics of research
problems:
1. The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher himself to avoid blaming others for any obstacle
encountered.
2. It must be within the interest of the researcher to make sure that the researcher will focus his full attention on the
research work.
3. It must be within the specialization of the researcher to make the work easier for him and this may improve his
specialization, skill, and competence in his profession.
4. It must be within the competence of the researcher to tackle. He must know the method of research and other research
procedures applicable to his problem and must know how to apply them.
5. It must be within the ability of the researcher to finance, otherwise he must be ale to find funding for his research.
6. It is researchable and manageable, that is,
a. Data are available and accessible.
b. The data must meet the standards of accuracy, objectivity, and verifiability.
c. Answer s to the specific questions (sub problems) can be found.
d. The hypothesis formulated are testable, that is, they can be accepted as true and valid.
e. Equipment and instruments for research are available and can give valid and reliable results.
7. It can be completed within a reasonable period of time unless it is a longitudinal research which takes a long time for
its completion.
8. It is significant, important, and relevant to the present time and situation, timely, and of current interest.
9. The results are practical and implementable.
10. It requires original, critical, and reflective thinking to solve it.
11. It can be delimited to suit the resources of the researcher but big or large enough to be able to give significant, valid
and reliable results and generalization
12. It must contribute to the national development goals for the improvement of the quality of human life.
13. It must contribute to the fund of human knowledge.
14. It must show or pave way for the solution of the problem or problems intended to be solved.
15. It must not undermine the moral and spiritual values of the people.
16. It must not advocate any change in the present order of things by means of violence but peaceful means.
17. There must be a return of some kind to the researcher if the research is completed:
a. Monetary c. Improved specialization, competence and skills in professional work.
b. Promotion d. Enhanced prestige and reputation.
e. Satisfaction of intellectual curiosity and interest and being able to discover truth.
18. There must be a consideration of the hazards involved, either physical, social or legal.
Title
Guidelines in writing the title. These are also the characteristics of the title.
1. The title is formulated before the start of the research work.
2. It must contain the subject matter, locale of the study, population involved and the period of time.
3. The title must be broad enough to include all aspects of the subject matter studied or to be studied.
4. Must be brief and concise as possible.
5. Avoid using “ An Analysis of,” “A Study of,” “An Investigation of.”
6. The title must be written like an inverted pyramid if it contains more than one line.

Example 1: Complete title. Contents as required by Guideline No. 2


THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF PROVINCE A AS PERCEIVED
BY THE SCIENCE TEACHERS AND STUDENTS DURING
THE SCHOOL YEAR 2019-2020
Example 2: Brief and concise form of a title.
THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN THE
HIGH SCHOOL OF PROVINCE A
NOTE: The contents that are required in Guideline No. 2 are omitted except to the subject matter and locale of the study
because it will be mentioned in the scope and delimitation.
Statement of the Problem
Guidelines in formulating the general problem and specific sub problems or specific questions.
General Problem Specific Question
Should be formulated before conducting the research. Should be formulated before conducting the research.
It should be broken up into as many specific questions State in interrogative form.
as necessary.
Must be clear and unequivocal or does not have dual
meanings.
The answers can be found even without considering the
other questions.
Must be based upon known facts and phenomena.
Answers can be interpreted apart from the answers to
other questions.
Answers must contribute to the development of the
whole research problem.
All answers should give a complete development to the
entire study when they sum up.
Number of question should be enough to cover the
development of the whole study.
Specific Questions
Before writing the specific questions, determine first the different aspects of the research problem to be
studied and from each aspects make one specific question.

Example:
Topic: The teaching of science........
Different aspects ma be the following:
a. Qualifications of the teachers (education)
b. Methods and strategies of teaching used and their level of effectiveness
c. Facilities (instructional and non-instructional) (availability)
d. Adequacy of supervisory assistance extended to teachers
e. Teachers and students perception comparison
f. Problems encountered in teaching science
g. Proposal to solve/help solve the problem
h. Implications of the study.
General Problem

Example:
This study was conducted to investigate all aspects of the teaching of science in the high schools of
Province A during the school year 2019 – 2020 as perceived by the science teachers and students.
Specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions:
a. How qualified are the teachers handling science in the high schools of Province A?
b. How effective are the methods and strategies used by the teachers in teaching science?
c. How adequate are the instructional as well as the non-instructional facilities foe the teaching of science.
d. What problems are being encountered by the teachers of science
Assumptions
 It is a self-evident truth which is based upon a known fact or phenomenon.
 In descriptive and historical researches assumptions are not explicitly expressed but left implicit or unwritten.
 It is where the specific questions is based upon, if there is no assumption there can be no specific question.

Example:
SQ: How qualified are the teachers handling science?
Implicit Assumption: There are certain qualifications that one should possess before he can teach science.
SQ: How effective are the methods used in the teaching of science?
IA: There are certain methods that are effective in the teaching of science.

Guidelines in the use of basic assumptions.


1. You cannot assume the value of your study.
2. You cannot assume the reliability of the instruments you propose to use in your research.
3. You cannot assume the validity od basic data.
4. You cannot assume that your population is typical.
5. An assumption is not tested, neither is it defended nor argued.
Hypotheses
 A tentative conclusion or answer to a specific question raised at the beginning of the study.
 An educated guess about the answer to a specific question.

Two forms of hypotheses.


Operational Null
Stated in affirmative form Stated in negative form.
States that there is a difference between States that there is no difference between
two phenomena. the two phenomena.

Guidelines in the formulation of explicit hypotheses.


1. In experimental investigations, hypotheses have to be explicit, they have to be expressed.
2. In descriptive and historical investigations, hypotheses are seldom expressed if not entirely absent.
3. Hypotheses are usually in the null form because it is easier than in the operational form.
4. Hypotheses are formulated from the specific questions upon which they are based.
Example:
Q: Is there any significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers and those of the students concerning
the different aspects in the teaching of science?
Operational: There is a significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers and those of the students
concerning the different aspects in the teaching of science.
Null: There is no significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers and those of the students
concerning the different aspects in the teaching of science.

Purposes, functions and importance of hypotheses or specific questions.


1. It helps the researcher in designing his study (methods, research instruments, sampling design, etc.)
2. Serve as the bases for determining assumptions.
3. Serve as the bases for determining the relevance of data.
4. Serve as bases for the explanation or discussion about the gathered data.
5. Guides the researcher in consolidating his findings and in formulating his conclusions.
METHODS OF RESEARCH
AND
THESIS WRITING

Chapter III: Related Literature And Studies


Related Literature
It is composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related. These materials
are usually printed and found in books, encyclopedias, professional journals, magazines, newspapers and other
publications.
These materials are classified as:
1. Local, if printed in the Philippines
2. Foreign, if printed in other lands.

Related Studies
These are studies, inquiries, or investigations already conducted to which the present proposed study is
related or has some bearing or similarity.
These may be classified as:
1. Local, if the inquiry was conducted in the Philippines
2. Foreign, if conducted in foreign lands.
Importance, Purposes and Functions

Review of related literature is very important because it serve as a foundation of the study and it guides
the researcher in pursuing the research venture.
It guide the researcher in the following ways:

1. Searching or selecting a better research problem or topic.

2. Understand his topic for better research. It may clarify vague points about the problem.

3. Ensure that there will be no duplication of other studies.

4. Locating more resources of related information.

5. Making the research design especially in:

a. Formulation of specific questions to be researched on

b. Formulation of assumptions and hypotheses if there should be any

c. Formulation of conceptual framework

d. Selection and application of the methods of research


e. Selection and application of sampling techniques

f. Selection, preparation and validation of research instruments for gathering data

g. Selection and application of statistical procedures

h. Analysis, organization, presentation and interpretation of data

i. Making of the summary of implications for the whole study

j. Formulation of the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations

6. Making comparison between his findings with the findings of other researchers on similar studies.
Characteristics of Related Literature and Studies

1. The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible.

2. Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased.

3. Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study.

4. Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid
and reliable.

5. Reviewed materials must not be too few nor too many.


Sources of Related Literature and Studies

1. Books, encyclopedias, almanacs and other similar references

2. Articles published in professional journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers and other publications.

3. Manuscripts, monographs, memoirs, speeches, letters and diaries.

4. Unpublished thesis and dissertations.

5. The constitution and laws and statutes of the land.

6. Bulletins, circulars and orders emanating from government offices and departments.

7. Records of schools, public and private, especially reports of their activities.

8. Reports from seminars, educational or otherwise.

9. Official reports of all kinds, educational, social, economic, scientific, technological, political, etc. from the
government and other entities.
Where to Locate the Sources of Related Literature and Studies
Generally, the sources of related literature and studies are located in the following places:
1. Libraries, either government, school or private libraries.
2. Government and private offices.
3. The National Library.
4. The Library of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports.