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Submitted By,
Pasula Anjali
Pushpakala S B.Sc.-1st year
Priyansha Anand Sec-A
Navinprasath K.
◦ What is MOBILTECH?
◦ AUTOMOTIVE TEXTILES- As an emerging textile in mobiltech
 Advantages of Automotive Textiles.
 Growth drivers
 Classification of Automotive Textiles
• Approximate breakdown of main textiles in an average modern car.
• Processing requirements.
• Various fibres used in automotive interiors and their properties
• Conclusion
◦ The technical textiles which are used in the construction of automobiles, railways, ships, aircraft and spacecraft.
◦ Upholstery, car interiors, carpets
◦ Tires, car elements
◦ Heat, cable & sound insulation
◦ Safety systems- airbags, seat belts
◦ Protective covers for land crafts, boats, aircraft
◦ Special equipments for military vehicles
◦ Some of these textiles are visible while others are concealed
• Visible components-upholstery ,carpets ,seat belts , headliners.
• Concealed components- tyre cords, hoses, belts, airbags ,air and fuel filters, noise and vibration
dampening and body panel reinforcement in composites etc.
◦ Automotive textile is that part of textile which is used in
accordance with the vehicle.
◦ The term automobile textile means all type of textile
components e.g. fibers, filaments, yarns and the fabric
used in automobiles.
◦ Nearly two third of the automobile textiles are for
interior trim, i.e. seat cover, carpets and roof and door
◦ The rest is utilized to reinforce tyres , hoses, safety belts,
air bags, etc.
Advantages of Automotive textiles
performance Flexibility.
& low material

cost/perform Acoustic.
Versatility and
easily tailored
Growth drivers

production Shifting the
Growing Growing
Growing of production
urbanization public
consumer passenger base to
and Rising awareness
acceptance. cars and developing
income. of safety
commercial countries
Classification of Automotive Textiles
Seat covers
Carpets Dashboard

Door and
Headliners Hood fabric
side panels

Sound Parcel
Trunk liners
insulation shelves

Sun visors Seat belts Air bags

Cabin air
Approximate breakdown of main textiles
in an average modern car
Application area % share

Carpets(including Car 33.3

Upholstery(seating fabric) 18.0

Pre- assembled interior 14.0

Tires 12.8

Safety-belts 8.8

Airbags 3.7

Others 9.7

Total 100
• Tensile strength
• Abrasion resistance
• Pill resistance
Processing requirements: • Air permeability
• Compression resistance
Mouldability • Elasticity
• Light fastness at high temperatures
• Stiffness
Susceptibility to compression • Ease of cleaning
• Separation force
Sewability • Dimensional stability
• Flame resistance
• Fogging
Weldability • Resistance to adverse climatic conditions

Adhesive properties The main criteria involved

Vulcanizing properties
in the development of
textiles and components
in automotive are:
Various fibres used in automotive interiors
and their properties
Application Fibre used Properties
Seat covers Nylon, polyester, polypropylene, wool Abrasion and UV resistance,
attractive design and texture
Seat belts Polyester Tensile strength,
extension(unto 25-30%),
abrasion and UV resistance
Carpets Nylon, polyester, polypropylene Light fastness, mouldability
Airbags Nylon 6,6 and nylon 4,6 Resistance to high
temperature inflation gases,
durability to storage over
many years, tear strength
Seat fire barriers Panox (UCF), Aramid(Nomex,Kevlar- Very high FR including
DuPont),Inidex(Courtaulds)PBI(Hoechst) restrictions of heat release,
toxicity and opacity of fumes
Door trim Polypropylene, nylon polyester Mouldability
Trunk liners Polyester blends Abrasion ,UV resistance
Nonwovens WARP Knitted Spacer WARP Knitted Man made leather
Fabrics Nonwovens Fabrics
• Attractive • Soft handle • Smooth surface • Uniformity
• Durable • Spring comfort protecting against • Washability
• Strength and weight • Thermal insulation abrasion • Wide colour range
• Abrasion resistance • Refraction of light • Fibre pile with high • Lightweight
• Thermal protection • Sorption of noise fibre surface • Very good appearance,
• Pressure-elastic just like natural leather
vertical fibre parts
• Large share of pores
• Limited adjustability
of strength and
stability in machine
and cross-direction.
◦ It is a trilaminate consisting of
• face fabric
• foam
• scrim lining on the back
 PET face fabric.
 The foam is PE-PU or Polyether-PU;the latter
being more hydrolysis resistant and is suitable
for humid climate.
 Foam density-26-45kg/m3 ,2-22mm thick,fire
 The scrim fabric WARP knitted(nylon and
ployster) ,30-90g/m2
◦ There are about 3.5 to 4.5 sq mt carpet in each car.
◦ Apart from ethical and sensual comfort, carpets also play significant role in
acoustic and vibration control
◦ Types of carpets
The carpets used in cars are mainly of three types:
◦ Tufted cut-pile
◦ Tufted loop-pile
◦ Needle-felt
◦ Manufacturing process
◦ Carpets are manufactured either by tufting or needle felting.
◦ Carpet backing is usually spun bonded and is made by an integral process in
which polymer chips are melted and filaments are extruded through a die.
◦ Mainly carpet is used in making thus carpet backing whereas a blend of nylon
and polyester is used in some occasions and polypropylene in very few
◦ The dashboard, probably the hottest area in the car
interior, offers some opportunity for textiles.
◦ The dashboard shape being highly curved and also
complex, to accommodate controls and instruments,
presents many problems to the textile technologist.
◦ It could probably only be obtained by knitting, and
3D knitting would be eminently suitable.
◦ Resistance to low temperature Performance criteria
fulfilled by textiles are:
• Low gloss (no glare or reflections on the
• Soft touch, pleasant aesthetics,
• Non-fogging, non-odorous,
• UV stability,
• Resistance to heat ageing
• High abrasion resistance
◦ A covering for the metal roof inside the car is a
◦ Consists of a piece of fabric, PVC or same other
material simply ‘slung’ i.e. held in place only at a few
◦ The modern headliner is a multiple laminate of up to
seven or more components all joined together.
◦ Each layer is there for a specific purpose either for
aesthetics, to provide sound insulation, vibration
clamping or to provide rigidity to the whole structure.
◦ The central layer is generally a layer of semi-rigid
thermouldable polyurethane foam.
◦ This layer is bounded to two layers of chapped
fibreglass roving, one on each side.
◦ The layers of glass roving help impart rigidity to the
structure and noise reduction.
◦ The fabrics used for doors etc should have
high degree of stretchness. This can be
obtained by incorporating elastomeric yarns
into structure of fabrics.
◦ Now a layer of foam is added to the door
panel fabrics to get a more luxurious touch.
◦ Still development includes the utilization of
high pile polyester fabric without distortion
and to eliminate Vinyl backing.
The following table will show the increasing
use of textiles in door and side panels
Years 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1988
% of 25 34 42 4 49 70 80 90
◦ The textile content consists of:
•Inner hood
•Hood upholstery
•Cover fabric
◦ The inner hood completely covers the hood frame
and is produced from piece-dyed, profiled warp knit
fabric which can be very efficiently processed,
offering excellent crease reversibility.
◦ The hood upholstery is a multilayer fabric, the
nonwoven polyester fabric supported by a woven net
fabric which absorbs tensile loads
◦ Spun-laid fabric layers on top and underneath largely
eliminate running and activity noises.
◦ The upholstery wadding completely covers the
frame to allow the hood arch to be laminated to the
best effect.
Sound is propagated through the air and by vibration of
the car body and there are three basic methods of
reducing it:
•By absorption
•By damping
•By isolation or insulation
In general a thick piece of material will absorb more
sound than a thinner piece of the same material.
Sound absorbancy is influenced by:
•Density of the material
•Air porosity of the material
•Thickness of the material
Carpet structure for noise control
Layer Materials used
Top decorative Tufted BCF nylon or needle-punched polyester or
layer polypropylene-back, latex coated with SBR or acrylic latex.
Thermoforming Polyethylene powder, meldable fibres, EVA or a further thick
layer layer of compounded SBR latex.
Acoustic layers ‘heavy layer’ of EPDM, shoddy fibres or polyurethane foam
◦ Cars with trunk liners are making rapid gain in
the headliner market.
◦ Now a days, the automobile manufacturers are
making lining attached to the front and rear
walls, in many cases attached to sidewalls also.
◦ This gives a most luxurious appearance and also
serves as protection to both exterior walls and to
trunk content such as luggages perfect to date.
◦ These are usually made from waste fibre that are
needled and then naturated with elastomerics
◦ However, even spun bonded polypropylene is
also used as a substrate for a foamed rubber
material that is used as trunk liner.
◦ Needle felt materials are also gaining importance
rapidly as trunk lining.

◦ Parcel shelves, also referred to as package

trays or the ‘hat rack’ are now almost
invariably covered with needle-punched
nonwoven mainly in polypropylene or
◦ Technical requirements
•UV , light fastness
•Abrasion resistance
•Sound absorption
◦ In the USA, sunvisors are produced from
raised –warp knit fabric, whereas in Europe
PVC is still extensively used.
◦ Injection moulding produces some
sunvisors, others are composed of metal
frames and rigid foam or cardboard are also
◦ The article is close to the windscreen and
UV light and heat resistance must be of the
highest standard.
◦ Passenger safety is also an important
◦ Requirements of seat belt:
• Should be able to carry a static load of around 1500kg
with a maximum extension of 25-30%;
• Abrasion resistance
• Heat resistance
• Light resistance
• Flexibility for ease of use
o Polyester (both doped dyed and yarn dyed) is the fibre
mainly used in the seat belt manufacture.
◦ Twill or satin weaves are employed for its construction.
◦ In this design long warp knuckles on both sides of the belt
provide the necessary strength in the loading direction,
lightweight and slim and flexible fabric with smooth surface,
which gives comfort to wear and is easy to use.
◦ Shuttle less weaving machines and high-speed needle looms
are employed for weaving seat belts.
◦ It is a high precision application, which on sensing a
collision inflates within 0.125 seconds.
◦ In a collision the airbag begins to fill within 0.03 seconds
by 0.06 seconds the airbag is fully inflated and cushions
the occupant from impact.
◦ The entire event from initial impact to full deployment
takes about 55 milliseconds.
◦ The use of safety devices such as airbags in combination
with seat belts has reduced collision deaths by 28% and
serious injuries by 29%.
◦ Nylon-6,6 and Nylon-4,6 are mainly used in the
manufacture of airbag.
◦ Due to high density of warp and weft symmetrical
construction of the fabric and the need for constant air
permeability across the width of the fabric, good weaving
machines are required.
◦ Rapier weaving machines excellent for production of
airbag fabrics.
◦ Water-jet and air-jet machines are also used.
◦ There are many textile components in a tyre
such as casting belt breaker faric, bead
wrapping fabric, chafer fabric, filler fabric,
tyre cord fabric etc. nylon 6 and nylon 6,6
tyre yarns is used widely with nylon 6 being
the major one.
◦ The fibres generally used for tyre cords are
high tenacity filament yarns of nylon 6,
nylon 6,6, polyester and viscose
◦ Carbon fires are also finding application in
the form of reinforcing material
◦ There are about a dozen different kinds of
filter used in cars but only about half use
textile materials.
◦ Paper is used in many applications such as
the oil filter and carbure air filter, although
non-wovens are used in some cars for the
latter application
◦ Dust diesel fumes and aromatic
hydrocarbons can be even more damaging
to health, hence filters are very much
◦ Filter fabric is arranged in a pleated form to
provide maximum surface area with
minimum airflow resistance.
◦ It is well known that change is the only
permanent thing in nature.
◦ Textile materials are used in automobiles for
interior trim and for ensuring comfort (e.g.
seat covers, carpets, roof liners, and door
liners) as well as for reinforcement (e.g. tyre)
and filters.
◦ Textiles also offer weight reduction which
in turn results in fuel economy.
◦ Increasing global competition has forced
automobile manufacturers to look for
‘versatile’ fabrics.
◦ It won’t be an exaggeration to predict these
textiles to be the textiles of the 21st century.