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AR 6012 Construction Project

Presented by
Ar. Santhosh Manavalan
• To understand different management
technique suitable for planning and
constructional projects.
• To understand the management system for
accomplishing the task efficiently in terms of
both time and cost.
UNIT 1: Introduction to Project Management

• Project Management Concepts – Objectives

• Planning, Scheduling, Controlling and role of
decision in Project Management
• Gantt’s Approach
• Load Chart
• Progress Chart
• Development of Bar Chart – Merits and
• A temporary effort to create a unique product, service or result. Has a
definite start and end.
• Time bound.
• And a project is unique in that it is not a routine operation, but a specific
set of operations designed to accomplish a singular goal. So a project
team often includes people who don’t usually work together –
sometimes from different organizations and across multiple geographies.
• The development of software for an improved business process, the
construction of a building or bridge, the relief effort after a natural
disaster, the expansion of sales into a new geographic market — all are
• And all must be expertly managed to deliver the on-time, on-budget
results, learning and integration that organizations need.
Project Management
• A temporary effort to create a unique product,
service or result. Has a definite start and end.
• Time bound.
• Is the application of knowledge, skills, tools,
and techniques to project activities to meet
the project requirements.
Project Management Depends on:
7.Human resources
9.Risk management
Stakeholder management
All management is concerned with these, of course. But project management brings a unique focus
shaped by the goals, resources and schedule of each project. The value of that focus is proved by the
rapid, worldwide growth of project management.
Project Planning
• To bring a project to fruition, the project manager will
need to assemble a project plan.
• The project plan describes the cost, scope, and schedule
for the project. It lays out exactly what activities and tasks
will be required, as well as the resources needed, from
personnel to equipment to financing, and where they can
be acquired.
• Good project planning also factors in risk and how to
manage it, including contingency plans, and details a
communication strategy to keep all stakeholders up to
date and on board.
Project Planning
• Planning the project typically involves the following steps: Initiation: This step typically occurs
before the project is green lighted. It usually involves putting together a business-case
document that explains the need for the project, followed by a feasibility study to determine
the viability of the project in terms of its cost and projected benefits.
• Stakeholder involvement: Identify your project sponsors and key stakeholders. To ensure the
success of the project, meet with them to discuss their needs and expectations. Map out the
project scope, budget, and timeline with them, and make sure to get their complete buy-in.
• Prioritizing goals: A project — and a team — can only do so much. Prioritize your goals to
make fulfilling them clearer and easier.
• Identifying deliverables: What are the specific deliverables that you and your team are
expected to produce? You’ll need to know exactly what is expected of you, as well as when
(i.e., the deadlines for each output). You’ll also want to define what success looks like for each
deliverable and develop metrics for tracking and ranking each one.
• Scheduling: Using the information organized in the previous step, you’ll need to map out the
timeline for the project.
• Developing a project plan: As described previously, a project plan lays out the steps that will
be needed to bring the project to fruition. It includes all the activities and tasks required, in
the appropriate order and workflow. The project plan will draw from all the previous steps.
• Bake in contingency plans: No project is without hiccups. Make sure you plan for any bumps
in the road by assessing the risks associated with your project and putting plans in place for
addressing them.
Project Scheduling
• Project scheduling is a mechanism to
communicate what tasks need to get done and
which organizational resources will be allocated
to complete those tasks in what timeframe. A
project schedule is a document collecting all
the work needed to deliver the project on time.
• But when it comes to creating a project
schedule, well, that’s something few have deep
experience with.
How to Schedule a Project
• Before going deeper into project scheduling, let’s
review the fundamentals to project scheduling.
Project scheduling occurs during the planning phase
of the project.
– What needs to be done?
– When will it be done?
– Who will do it?
• Once we’ve got answers to these questions, then we
can begin to plan dates, link activities, set the
duration, milestones and resources.
Steps to Schedule a Project
• Define Activities
– What are the activities that you have to do in the project? By using a Work
Breakdown Structure (WBS) and a deliverables diagram, you can begin to take
these activities and organize them by mapping out the tasks necessary to complete
them in an order than makes sense.
• Do Estimates
– Now that you have the activities defined and broken down into tasks, you next have
to determine the time and effort it will take to complete them. This is an essential
piece of the equation in order to calculate the correct schedule.
• Determine Dependencies
– Tasks are not an island, and often one cannot be started until the other is
completed. That’s called a task dependency, and your schedule is going to have to
reflect these linked tasks. One way to do this is by putting a bit of slack in your
schedule to accommodate these related tasks.
• Assign Resources
– The last step to finalizing your planned schedule is to decide on what resources you
are going to need to get those tasks done on time. You’re going to have to assemble
a team, and their time will need to be scheduled just like the tasks.
Traditional Project Management
• Traditional project management is a universal practice which
includes a set of developed techniques used for planning,
estimating, and controlling activities. The aim of those techniques
is to reach the desired result on time, within budget, and in
accordance with specifications.
• Traditional project management is mainly used on projects where
activities are completed in a sequence and there are rarely any
• The concept of traditional project management is based on
predictable experience and predictable tools. Each project follows
the same lifecycle, which includes five stages: initiating, planning,
executing, controlling, and closing.
Gantt Chart
• Gantt chart is the most important technique in traditional
project management. Its creator was Henry Gantt, which is
why he's considered the father of traditional project
• Gantt chart gives you a simple overview of a project. It is
one of the most useful ways of presenting tasks and
activities of the project on a timeline.
• In the beginning, people used to create Gantt charts by
hand or by using magnetic blocks and Legos. As
technology progressed, we began making Gantt charts in
Excel in a matter of seconds.
Steps to Schedule a Project
Understanding Gantt Chart
Left part of the Gantt chart shows the project activities and the top shows the
time scale. Each activity is presented with a bar. A bar’s position tells us about
the beginning, duration, and end of the activity.

By looking at a Gantt chart, we can learn:

•What the project tasks are
• Who is working on each task
• How long each task will take
• How tasks overlap and link with each other
• The start and finish date of the project

Today, we mainly use the Gantt Chart to track project schedules and make
project management less stressful. Gantt chart helps us understand the
relationship between tasks more clearly, keep all the team members on the
same page, and successfully complete the project. Gantt Chart comes with a
lot of benefits: it lets you organize your thoughts, gives you a clear layout of
what you’re doing, helps you set a realistic time frame, and it’s highly visible.
Project Management Triangle
In the initiation phase, it’s important to specify all the steps of the
project development including what WILL be was done and what
WILL NOT be done. If you want to keep the project under control,
you need to allocate some time and carefully plan and define the
Time is an invaluable resource. While we can control the processes
and make necessary changes to improve them, we cannot control
time. One of the biggest challenges each project manager has to
face is to use time efficiently, keep the project on schedule, and
reach the desired objectives.
As a project manager, you should define the budget in the early
stage of the project and then compare it with the figure your
customer initially offered. If the client decides to spend a certain
amount of money that doesn’t match your requirements, you can
prepare a business proposal which will include the estimates of the
total cost of the project. This proposal helps the customer base his
decision on more accurate estimates.
Project Management Triangle
• All three constraint are interconnected and depend heavily on one
another. Once you reduce the time allocated for the project, the cost
increases. Also, the scope of the project dictates the pace and a number of
resources necessary to realize and successfully complete the project.
• While it’s virtually impossible to keep your eye on everything, it’s
imperative to maintain the balance and strive towards the equilibrium of
the triangle no matter how challenging it can be.
• The area inside the triangle represents the quality and it’s the ultimate
objective of every project delivery. A good project manager will find a way
how to control all three constraints of the triangle and produce the best
• Project manager's ultimate goal is to meet their customers’ requirements
and live up to the quality standards. In order to do so, you as a project
manager need to control both the quality and the constraints.
Load Chart
• The Resource Load Chart displays estimated
allocations per resource in the selected
period. Using this chart, the project manager
can drill down further to identify available
resources and problematic allocations. You
also have the ability to add resource calendar
exceptions to set working times, client
meetings or holidays that can affect your
project schedule.
Load Chart

Green: Resource is optimally allocated.

Blue: Resource is under allocated.
Red: Resource is over allocated.
Gray: Exceptions.
Yellow (NW) : Non-Working.
Common Project Management Charts

It is a type of Bar chart that demonstrates the project schedule. Gantt chart diagram demonstrates the task
duration in days, weeks and months. It is best in tracking progress. Moreover, project managers can plan, work
out the practical aspects and potential problems, segregate the work to team members, and minimize the
delivery time using this graphic. Illustrate the beginning and ending times of your assignment. Identify the task
relationships. Portray task dependencies and give visual references to your colleagues are some benefits of
implementing this chart. You can also the show the schedule changes and implications.
The most commonly used project management chart after Gantt diagram is Pert Chart. Program
Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Chart is known as the network diagram. It was designed by US
Navy in 1950s. They portray more complex project tasks and analyze the tasks encompassed in the
completion of the project. Pert Chart also analyze the time needed to accomplish the task and
recognize the minimum time required. They generally showcase he parallel activities. Let your team
easily conceptualize the whole project. Both, Pert Chart and Critical Path Method Diagram (CPM)
are used interchangeably. However, CPM doesn’t consider time variations and Pert chart permits
the randomness in task completion times.
Pareto chart is a chart containing both bar graph and line chart. Mostly used in six sigma analysis, but can fit in
any project management. Analyze the frequency of problems in a process effectively. They help in visualizing the
quality aspects of your processes. Also, Pareto diagram assists in focusing on vital causes. An individual can easily
communicate the data with other team members.
In the project event, the root cause and effect analysis plays a significant role. Also called
as Ishikawa diagram or Fishbone Diagram. With this, professionals arrange causes and
effects graphically. Categorize ideas that the team gathers for a fruitful brainstorming
session. It gives an in-depth look into the issues behind the problems that further helps
generate potential solutions for those who are determined to obtain the best outcomes.
The Control Chart or a Statistical Process Control Chart is a graph used in the project management.
This demonstrates the changes in the process with time. One can control the ongoing process by
searching and correcting problems. A team member can analyze the quality enhancement in the
project be it for hampering the problem or making changes in the process. Process Control Chart can
assist in determining the stability of the process.
They represents the sequential steps taken in a process, workflow, or a task. Matrix shows the
relationships between four groups of information. Discover who is keen and influencing in the task or
project you are working on. With stakeholder analysis matrix you get information about the
involvement of stakeholders. On the other hand, with RACI matrix (Responsibility Assignment Matrix)
you are informed about the deliverables during the lifecycle of a project or person who is taking part
in the task.