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WELD

TESTING
(Pengujian las)
DESTRUCTIVE
AND
NON-DESTRUCTIVE
(Merusak & Tidak merusak)
DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
(pengujian Merusak )
 These can be divided into
two parts (ini dapat dibagi
menjadi dua bagian)
1. Tests capable of being
performed in the
workshop. (Tes dilakukan
di bengkel)
2. Laboratory tests (Tes
dilaboratorium)
microscopic-macroscopic ,
chemical and corrosive.
(Mikroskop, kimia dan
korosi)
REASONS
(Alasan)
 Defects occur during welding which affect the
quality and hardness of the plate
(cacat terjadi selama pengelasan yang
mempengaruhi kualitas dan kekerasan pelat)
 Other defects occur through lack of knowledge
of and skill of the welder
(cacat lainya terjadi karena kurangnya
pengetahuan dan keahlian dari welder)
WORKSHOP TESTS
(Uji workshop)
TENSILE (uji Tarik) BENDING (uji tekan)

IMPACT ( uji tumbukan) HARDNES (kekerasan)

FATIGUE (uji kelelahan) CRACKING (retak)


TENSILE
(uji Tarik)
Material is sectioned and edges
rounded of to prevent cracking.
(bahan dipotong dan ujungnya
dibulatkan untuk mencegah
retak)
Punch marks are made to see
elongation. (Tanda pukulan di
buat untuk melihat perpanjangan)
TENSILE
(uji Tarik)
BEND TESTING
(uji tekan)

 Shows (menunjukkan)
Physical condition of the weld
Determine welds efficiency (kondisi
fisik las, menentukan efisiensi
pengelasan)
• Tensile strength (kekuatan tarik)
• Ductility ( daktalitas)
• Fusion and penetration
BEND TEST
O
 Bend through 180
 the specimen should be a minimum of 30mm wide
 The fulcrums diameter is 3x thickness of the plate
 The bottom rollers have a distance of the diameter
of the former + 2.2 times the thickness of the
plate
 Upper and lower surfaces ground or filed flat and
edges rounded off.
 the tests should be one against the root -another
against the face ,and in some cases a side bend.
Root bend
FACE BEND
IMPACT

 CHARPY AND IZOD


 Gives the toughness and shock loading of
the material and weld at varying
temperatures with a notch such as under cut
 The measurement is the energy required to
to break a specimen with a given notch
o
 2mm depth at a 45 bevel or a “U” notch.
TEST MACHINE
CHARPY
IZOD
ANY QUESTIONS
HARDNESS TESTS.

 This gives the metals ability to show


resistance to indentation which show it’s
resistance to wear and abrasion.
 The tests are
 Brinell
 Rockwell
 Vickers diamond pyramid
 Scleroscope
VICKERS HARDNES
FATIGUE

 the testing of Material that is subject to fluctuating


loads
 HAIGH Electro magnetic tester.
 W’O’HLER Uses rotating chuck with weight
CRACKING

 REEVES Test study the hardening and cracking


of welds.
 The compatibility of electrodes for the metal being
joined.
CRACKING
 Three Sides Are
Welded With Known
Compatible
Electrodes.
 The front edge is
welded with the test
electrode.
 if incompatible it will
crack.
MICROSCOPIC

 Used to determine the


actual structure of the
weld and parent metal
 Up to 50,000 times
magnification with an
electron beam
microscope
 Polishing must be of a
very high standard
MACROSCOPIC

 Examined using a
magnifying glass .
 magnification from 2
to 20 time.
 it will show up slag
entrapment or cracks .
 polishing not as high
as micro.
ETCHING REAGENTS

 These are acids used to show up different


structures in metals
 For steels the most common is “1-2 % nitric
acid in distilled water or alcohol.
 Aluminum uses a solution of 10-20%caustic
soda in water
HAVE YOU
ANY
QUESTIONS
NON-DESTRUCTIVE
TESTING
VISUAL

 While welding  After welding


 The rate the electrode  Under cut
melts  Lack of root fusion
 The way the weld  Any pin holes from gas
metal flows or slag
 Sound of the arc  Amount of spatter
 The light given of  Dimensions of weld
DYE PENETRANTS
 These are an aid to visual inspection

 Will only find surface defects

 Use correct type


DYE PENETRANTS
DYE PENETRANTS

 Types
 Red
 Flouresant

 CAUTION
 Oil based
 Water washable
DETECTION
MAGNETIC PARTICLE
 Mainly for surface
defects
 Some sub surface
defects can be found
 Only ferrous metal
ACOUSTICS

Striking with a rounded


object

Ringing tone if no defect

Tone changes when


object is cracked
APPLICATION OF A LOAD
 Used to test pressure vessels
 Pipe lines
 The item for testing is filled with water or
oil it is then pressurised using a pump
 A safety valve is set 1.5 to 2 times below
the working pressure.
PRESSURE TEST
RADIOGRAPHIC
X-RAY
GAMMA RAY
Electro magnetic
radiation of short
duration
Both of these methods
are a danger to health
X- RAY
X-RAY VIEWER
Pictures taken are
viewed as negatives
will only give flat image
not in three
dimensional
darkened area must be
used for viewing
ULTRASONIC TESTING
This uses high pitched
sound
The sound will not pass
through an air gap so
bounces back and is
picked up on a receiver
The reader is a
oscilloscope
ULTRA SONIC
THIS IS THE END OF THE
LESSON

 ARE THERE ANY


QUESTIONS