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Botanical

name
Nyctanthes arbor-tristts ; Harsinghar

Description THIS is a very common wild shrub, usually seen as a thick, tangly bush, but becoming a small tree if cut back every
year and allowed to grow freely.

The small, creamy-white flowers have a surprisingly powerful scent and, as they open in
the evening and fall early in the morning, they permeate the night air with a most delicious fragrance. They cluster
flowers at the ends and along the sides of branch lets which spring from the axils, of the leaves. Seven slim petals,
unequally lobed and somewhat rolled and twisted, surround a brilliant orange tube little more than a 0.6 cm. in
length.

Time of flower:-
The fruit is quite large in comparison with the flowers. Round and flat, it is
fruit august
compressed round the edges revealing the shape of the two seeds within. At
first a rich green, it later becomes brown and brittle

The leaves vary in size, the largest being about 10 by 6.3 cm. They grow Leaves shed in
opposite, have a short, strong stalk, abounded base and pointed apex. Dark February ;
green on the upper surface, they are silvery green underneath, the silvereyes Fruit ripen in April
leaves
caused by a multitude of fine hairs. So round and hard are these leaves that
they are frequently used as fine sandpaper for
polishing.

bark Pale or dark grey, sometime greenish, rough, somewhat wrinkled

found in the sub-Himalayan forest and other northern and central hills, It is an important constituent of the undergrowth, for it densely
Use and covers the ground forms humus and is rarely eaten by goats. It gives an excellent fuel and makes a batten base for tile or grass thatch roofs
distribution and so is cultivated freely in other parts of India

Cultural Flowers of Nyctanthes arbor-tristts use in worship . It is an easy plant to raise from seeds or cuttings during the rains and is not fussy as
significance to soil. A semi-shady spot seems to suit it best.
Landscape
uses It’s a beautiful tree which is bloomed through out the year. Their flowers carpet the ground each morning in the rains
It’s a beautiful tree which is bloomed through out the year. Their flowers carpet the ground each morning in the rains
Remarks
Botanical Duranta erecta, golden dewdrop
name

Duranta erecta is a sprawling shrub or (infrequently) a small tree. It can grow to 6 m (20 ft) tall and can
Description spread to an equal width. Mature specimens possess axillary thorns, which are often absent on younger
specimens.

The flowers are light-blue or lavender, produced in tight clusters located on terminal and axillary stems,
blooming almost all year long.
Flowers

Place golden dewdrop


The fruit is a small globose yellow or orange berry, up to 11 mm (0.43 in)
Fruit at least 3 feet out from
diameter and containing several seeds. the house.

Dewdrops should be
The leaves are light green, elliptic to ovate, opposite, and grow up to 7.5 cm planted 3 to 5 feet apart
Leaves
(3.0 in) long and 3.5 cm (1.4 in) broad, with a 1.5 cm petiole. if you're planting them
in a row.

Time of flower: during


Bark Pale or dark grey, sometime greenish, rough, somewhat wrinkled warm month.

Many gardeners use it as a hedge and shear it back to keep it contained. While golden dewdrop tolerates shearing well, doing so will cut back on the
Use and number of flowers the plant produces. No matter where you live,water it enough to keep the soil moist, but not wet for extended periods.. Ornamental
distribution plant throughout tropical and warm subtropical regions. It is a prolific, fast growing weed that is spread by birds from domestic areas to natural reserves

Cultural
There is no such cultural significance.
significance
Golden dewdrop is widely grown as an ornamental plant throughout tropical and warm subtropical regions. Its showy flowers and fruit make it a desirable
Landscape addition to gardens, and the blossoms attract butterflies and humming birds.You can use it as a specimen plant, mix it in with other plants in your landscape,
uses or plant in a row for a cottage-garden style hedge.

Frilly purple flowers that attract butterflies and golden berry clusters so weighty they give the plant an appealing, weepy appearance. You can use it as a
Remarks
specimen plant, mix it in with other plants in your landscape, or plant in a row for a cottage-garden style hedge. Makes your garden more beautiful.
Botanical
Lantana Camara, Lantana
name

Lantana camara is a small perennial shrub which can grow to around 2 m tall and form dense thickets in a
Description
variety of environment

Lantana camara has small tubular shaped flowers which each have four petals and are arranged in
flowers clusters in terminal areas stems. Flowers come in many different colours including red, yellow, white, pink
and orange which differ depending on location in inflorescences, age, and maturity. The flower has a tutti
frutti smell with a pepper undertone.

fruit The fruit of L. camara is a berry-like drupe which turns from green to dark ---------------------
purple when mature. Both vegetative(asexual) and seed reproduction occur.

The leaves are broadly ovate, opposite, and simple and have a strong odour
leaves Time of flower:In May
when crushed.

bark Dark brownish with rought texture like wrinkled. ---------------------

Lantana camara has been grown specifically for use as an ornamental plant. used in traditional herbal medicines for treating a variety of ailments, including cancer, skin
Use and
itches, leprosy, rabies chicken pox, measles, asthma and ulcers. The native range of L. camara is Central and South America, however it has become naturalised in around
distribution
60 tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide

Cultural
not such cultural significance, flowers use in worship.
significance
Landscape
beautiful shrubs used to make hedge in garden to give a beautiful look. Its also a deciduous tree.
uses

Remarks it’s a beautiful shrub, with fragrance. Low material shrubs that’s look good and give beauty to in your garden.
Botanical
name

Description

flowers

fruit

leaves

bark

Use and
distribution

Cultural
significance
Landscape
uses

Remarks
Botanical
Caryopatris , Heavenly blue
name

They are herbaceous plants or small shrubs growing to 1–4 m tall. Though several Caryopteris species
Description are grown in botanical gardens, as ornamental plants the species have largely been superseded in
gardens

The blue or white flowers are pollinated by butterflies and bumblebees. a classic with sky blue flowers
flowers
and white throats.

fruit The fruit is a four-valved capsule containing four seeds. ----------------

The leaves are opposite, simple ovate to lanceolate, with an entire or crenate
Plant in moderately
leaves margin; they are often aromatic.
fertile, well-drained soil.

bark Pale or dark grey, sometime greenish, rough, somewhat wrinkled ----------------

Use and
They are native to east Asia China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia).
distribution

Cultural
not such cultural significance.
significance
Landscape Heavenly Blue Morning Glory is a multi-stemmed annual with a ground-hugging habit of growth. Its medium texture blends into the garden, but can always be balanced by a
uses couple of finer or coarser plants for an effective composition.
Heavenly Blue Morning Glory features bold blue trumpet-shaped flowers with white throats along the branches from early summer to early fall. Its heart-shaped leaves remain
Remarks
green in color throughout the season. The fruit is not ornamentally significant.
Botanical
LAVANDULA , LAVENDER
name

It is an exotic plant .They are typically much larger and more robust in growth. The plants are widely cultivated
for their essential oils, which are used to scent a variety of products. The fragrance of the plant is caused by
Description
shining oil glands imbedded among tiny star-shaped trichomes (plant hairs) that cover the flowers, leaves, and
stems.

Flowers are borne in whorls, held on spikes rising above the foliage, the spikes being branched in some species..
flowers
The flowers may be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species, occasionally blackish purple or yellowish. The calyx is
tubular. The corolla is also tubular, usually with five lobes (the upper lip often cleft, and the lower lip has two clefts)

Time of flower:-June or
July and tends to last 3-4
fruit
Fruit of lavender is 4-nutlets. They have smooth texture and ovoid or oblong shape. weeks.

Leaf shape is diverse across the genus. They are simple in some commonly cultivated
species; in other species they are pinnately toothed, or pinnate, sometimes multiple
leaves -----------------------
pinnate and dissected. In most species the leaves are covered in fine hairs
or indumentum, which normally contain the essential oils

Lavender shab (Phoma lavandula) is another fungus that causes the flowers to turn
brown. Tiny black spores first attach to the stems of the plant, sapping its strength. The
bark ----------------------
fungus usually enters through pruning wounds or other tears in the bark. Parts of
the lavender bush start to die.
The plants are widely cultivated for their essential oils, which are used to scent a variety of products. Lavender is sometimes also used to flavour beverages and sweets and has a number
of applications in herbal medicine.
Use and
It is native to the Old World and is found from Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia to southeast India..
distribution
Lavender species are common in herb gardens for their fragrant leaves and attractive flowers, however it does grow well in England where the climate is not nearly as sunny or dry in
comparison

Cultural
The flowers are also burned to induce sleep or scattered around the house to bring peace. In fact, lavender is so powerful it is able to reverse depression when gazed upon.
significance
Landscape
They are wonderful to fill large spaces in gardens or for creating large flowering hedges.
uses
Lavender (Lavandula) is an easy to grow, evergreen shrub that produces masses of beautifully scented flowers above green or silvery-grey foliage. Low maintained shrub that looks good all year
Remarks
around.
Botanical
Cassia Fistula , Amaltas
name

It blooms in late spring. The golden shower tree is a medium-sized tree, growing to 10–20 m tall with fast growth.
Flowering is profuse, with trees being covered with yellow flowers, many times with almost no leaf being seen. It will
Description grow well in dry climates. Growth for this tree is best in full sun on well-drained soil; it is relatively drought-tolerant and
slightly salt-tolerant. It will tolerate light brief frost, but can get damaged if the cold persists.

During the hot weather (April-May) the tree becomes most conspicuous with its pendulous inflorescence of golden
yellow, mildly scented flowers. The tree remains leafless at the commencement of flowering and the end of the
flowers
flowering season; the leaves start to appear.
In India flowers of the golden shower tree are sometimes eaten by people.

The fruit is a legume , 30–60 cm (12–24 in) long and 1.5–2.5 centimetres (0.59–0.98 in) Time of flowers and fruits:
fruit
broad, with a pungent odor and containing several seeds. March and July

The leaves are deciduous, 15–60 cm (5.9–23.6 in) long, and pinnate with three to eight
leaves Leaves shed in : April
pairs of leaflets, each leaflet 7–21 cm (2.8–8.3 in) long and 4–9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) broad.

The bark of the tree is a grey, smooth to slightly ridged and slender, and changes to a
bark -----------------------
darker grey-brown when mature. Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy

Use and The leaves have also been used to supplement the diets of cattle, sheep and goats fed with low quality forages. Used in Ayurvedic medicine Species is native to the Indian subcontinent and
distribution adjacent regions of southeast Asia. It ranges from eastward throughout India to Myanmar and Thailand and south to Srilanka and southern Pakistan.

The flowers are of ritual importance in the Vishu festival of Kerala, and the tree was depicted on a 20-rupees stamp. The golden rain tree is the national flower of Thailand; its yellow flowers
Cultural
symbolize Thai royalty. People use the flowers as offerings at the temple and also hang them in their homes for the New Year in belief that the flowers will bring happiness and good luck to the
significance
households.
According to the principles of landscaping, growth habit of Cassia fistula is oval, which makes it suitable for creating a frame or screen effect.
Cassia fistula is one of the best ornamental flowering trees fit for town roads.
Landscape uses
Amaltas is suitable for the front row of the border planting in the campus of educational institutes like school, college or university

Amaltas tree are so beautiful and yellow bright with large flowers together in a cluster lengthy and hanging high. Amaltas is one of the most beautiful of our indigenous
Remarks
trees; it adds colour to our hills during the drier and hotter spells ofsummer.
Botanical
Saraca asoca , Ashoka
name

The ashoka is a rain-forest treeThe ashoka is prized for its beautiful foliage and fragrant flowers. It is a handsome,
Description
small, erect evergreen tree, with deep green leaves growing in dense clusters.

The ashoka flowers come in heavy, lush bunches. They are bright orange-yellow in color, turning red before wilting.
Evergreen tree with beautiful fragrant flowers.
flowers

Time of flowers: February to


fruit
Fruit is a four to eight seeded, flat and black coloured, leathery pod April

• Leaves are alternate, paripinnate, copper red when young and green when mature, and
Time of Fruits : July to
leaves 30–60 cm long.
October

•Bark on old stems is dark green in colour, often marked by bluish and ash white patches
bark of lichens. ------------------------

The bark of the Ashoka plant is used to prepare cosmetics that help to improve skin complexion. People who are suffering from diabetes can use the dried flowers of the tree to treat their
Use and ailment. The flowers help to check blood sugar levels. Herbal supplements prepared from this tree help in the treatment of piles.As a wild tree, the ashoka is a vulnerable species. It is becoming
distribution rarer in its natural habitat, but isolated wild ashoka trees are still to be found in the foothills of the central and eastern Himalayas, in scattered locations of the northern plains of India as well as on
the west coast of the subcontinent near Mumbai

This tree is considered one of the most sacred trees in the Indian traditions and it is dedicated to love God Kama. The ashoka tree is considered sacred throughout the Indian subcontinent,
Cultural
especially in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. This tree has many folklorical, religious and literary associations in the region. the ashoka tree is often found in royal palace compounds and gardens as
significance
well as close to temples throughout India.
Ashoka is ever-green, slender but slow-growing flowering tree. It is easy-to-grow. Ashoka tree produces large bunch of sweet smelling flowers throughout the year. Ashoka tree can be grown
Landscape uses
easily in warm and humid climates.

Remarks The beautiful ashoka tree has many gifts to offer us. From improving complexion to relieving pain, the tree is versatile. Its also used in medicines purpose.
Botanical
Ficus benghaleusis, banyan
name

A banyan (or 'banian') is a kind of fig. It usually starts life by growing on another plant as an epiphyte. Its seeds
Description germinate in the cracks and crevices on a hosttree, or on other structures like buildings and bridges. "Banyan" usually
means the indian banyan or ficus benghalensis.

The flowers are concealed in the fleshy receptacle commonly known as ‘fig’. These figs are grow in pairs in the leaf
axils and numerous, tiny blossoms of both sexes and also a host of small insects. These are the ‘fig insects’ that
Flowers
fertilize flowers. The insect enters the fig through a hole in the top and lays eggs which hatch out and mature. When
these insects leave their home, they are dusted with pollen from the male flowers. Now they make their way into
another fig, thus ensuring fertilization.

Banyans bear multiple fruit in structures denominated "syncarps". The syncarp Figs are ripen in february and
Fruit
of ficus species supplies shelter and food for fig wasps and, in turn, the trees are totally may
dependent on the fig wasps for pollination.

The bright green leaves of


The leaves are large, leathery, glossy green and elliptical in shape. Like most of the fig-
the tree are shedded in the
Leaves trees, leaf bud is covered by two large scales. As the leaf develops the scales fall. Young
summer months of march
leaves have an attractive reddish tinge.
and april.

Bark Its bark is light grey, smooth to touch and peels off easily.

Use and Banyan fruits, leaves, roots and its milky sap are used in many herbal medicines. Medicinal uses of banyan include cure of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever,
distribution inflammations, leprosy, piles, nose-diseases, gonorrhoea, syphilis, dysentery, inflammation of liver etc. Best grown in warmer climates

Cultural
Banyan is also an important figure in various cultures, religious mythologies, folklore and literature. In hinduism, the leaf of banyan tree is said to be the resting place for the god krishna
significance

Banyan trees spread their wide canopy of wide green leaves over large areas and witness many activities. A banyan tree provides a shady platform for kids, a community center for villagers, a
Landscape uses
sitting and resting place for travellers.

Remarks A banyan tree can get up to about 100 feet tall and spread over several acres it helps to provide shade, relief and peace.
Botanical
Santalum Album, Chandan
name
Santalum Album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and is the most commonly known source
of sandalwood. The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and unlike many other aromatic woods
Description
they retain their fragrance for decades. Both the wood and the oil produce a distinctive fragrance that has
been highly valued for centuries.

flowers Flowers purplish-brown, small, straw coloured, reddish, green or violet, about 4-6 mm long, up to 6 in
small terminal or axillary clusters, unscented in axillary or terminal, paniculate cymes.

Fruit a globose, fleshy drupe; red, purple to black when ripe, about 1 cm in
fruits ripen in the cold
fruit diameter, with hard ribbed endocarp and crowned with a scar, almost
season
stalkless, smooth, single seeded

Leaves thin, usually opposite, ovate or ovate elliptical, 3-8 x 3-5 cm, glabrous and
mature fruit is available
leaves shining green above, glaucous and slightly paler beneath; tip rounded or pointed; stalk
from June to September
grooved, 5-15 cm long; venation noticeably reticulate.

Bark is tight, dark brown, reddish, dark grey or nearly black, smooth in young trees, Flower panicles appear
bark
rough with deep vertical cracks in older trees, red inside. from March to April

Highly valued for its sweet fragrance and used as a medicine, perfume and incenseThe tree has many other uses and is often cultivated in parts of tropical
Use and
Asia and Australia for its essential oil, which is used in perfumery, as a food flavouring.It is parasitic in nature during growing stage, native to semi-arid areas
distribution
of the Indian subcontinent. It is now planted in India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Northern Australia.

Cultural
Certain cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. It is also considered sacred in some religions and is used in different religious traditions.
significance
Landscape
it is a graceful treeSandalwood is a small, very slow-growing, elegant, evergreen shrub or tree.
uses

Remarks Sandalwood is a small, very slow-growing, elegant, evergreen shrub or tree. Also used in medicines. Fragrance of the tree is very good.
Botanical
Cedrus deodar, deodar
name

The tree has a decoratve pyramidal format . the tip of the branches and hanging downward giving a nice and soft
feeling to the tree. It has greenish grayish needle leaf the longest among the cedars. The fastest growing from the
Description
cedar group. Can tolerate urban condition ( compacted and poor soil) if enough space is given to the tree to grow. It
needs full sun.

Flowers Flower showiness: false flower, size range: 1.5 - 3 ,flower sexuality: monoecious (bisexual) ,flower scent: no
fragance ,flower color: brown seasons: summer

Flowers appear in
Fruit Fruit showiness: true, fruit size range: 3 – 7, fruit colors: grey, seasons: fall, winter
september and october.

Leaf arrangement: spiral, leaf venation: parallel, leaf persistance: evergreen, leaf type:
Seed is shed from
Leaves simple, leaf blade: less than 5, leaf shape: needle, leaf margins: entire, leaf textures:
september to december
waxy, rough, coarse ,leaf scent: pleasant

Young trees are covered with smooth, dark-gray bark that becomes
Bark -----------------
brown, fissured, and scaly with age.

The inner wood is aromatic and used to make incense. Used in construction material and herbal ayurveda. Cedrus deodara is an evergreen large conifer that were used
Use and
extensively for their timber. Native to the western himalayas in eastern afghanistan, northern pakistan (especially in khyber pakhtunkhwa)and india (jammu and kashmir).
distribution
Himachal pradesh, uttarakhand, sikkim and, arunachal pradesh states and the darjeeling region of west bengal) southwestern tibet

Among hindus, as the etymology of deodar suggests, it is worshiped as a divine tree. Deva, the first half of the sanskrit term, means divine, deity, or deus. Dāru, the second part, is cognate
Cultural
with (related to) the words durum, druid, tree, and true.Several hindu legends refer to this tree.
significance
Landscape
Cedrus deodara is a large, fast growing evergreen tree with a conical crown. Planted in hilly areas.
uses

Remarks It is a ornamental tree, often planted in parks and large gardens for its drooping foliage.