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62 Computing Components:

Components of the System Unit


Processors, Memory, the Cloud, and More
Objectives Overview (slide 1 of 2)

Identify characteristics of
Describe the various Describe multi-core
various personal computer
computer and mobile processors, the components
processors on the market
device cases and the of a processor, and the four
today, and describe the
contents they protect steps in a machine cycle
ways processors are cooled

Define a bit, and describe


Describe what is meant by Explain the advantages and
how a series of bits
the Internet of Things services of cloud computing
represents data

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for Detailed Objectives accessible website, in whole or in part.
Objectives Overview (slide 2 of 2)

Explain how program


Differentiate among Describe the purpose
and application
the various types of of adapter cards and
instructions transfer
memory USB adapters
in and out of memory

Explain the purpose Describe how to care


Explain the function
of a power supply for computers and
of a bus
and batteries mobile devices

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for Detailed Objectives accessible website, in whole or in part.
Inside the Case (slide 1 of 3)

• The case contains and protects the electronics of the computer or mobile
device from damage

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Figure 6-1 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Inside the Case (slide 2 of 3)

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Figure 6-2 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Inside the Case (slide 3 of 3)

• The motherboard is the main circuit board of the computer


– A computer chip is a small piece of semiconducting material, usually
silicon, on which integrated circuits are etched

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Figure 6-3 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Processors (slide 1 of 7)

• The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU),


interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a
computer
• A multi-core processor is a single chip with two or more
separate processor cores
• Processors contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit
(ALU)

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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Processors (slide 2 of 7)

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Figure 6-4 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Processors (slide 3 of 7)

• The control unit is the component of the processor that directs


and coordinates most of the operations in the computer
• The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), another component of the
processor, performs arithmetic, comparison, and other
operations

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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Processors (slide 4 of 7)

• For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic


operations, which comprise a machine cycle

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Figure 6-5 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Processors (slide 5 of 7)

The processor contains registers, that


temporarily hold data and instructions

The system clock controls the timing of all


computer operations
• The pace of the system clock is called the clock speed,
and is usually measured in gigahertz (GHz)
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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Processors (slide 6 of 7)

• The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor


chips are Intel and AMD

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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Processors (slide 7 of 7)

• A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to


malfunction or fail
• Require additional cooling
– Heat sinks
– Liquid cooling technology
– Cooling pads

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Figures 6-6 – 6-7 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 1 of 10)

• Memory consists of electronic components that store


instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data
needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the
data
• Stores three basic categories of items:
Data being
The operating
processed and the
system and other Applications
resulting
programs
information
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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 2 of 10)

• Each byte resides temporarily in a location in memory that has


an address
• Memory size commonly is measured in gigabytes (GB)

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Figure 6-11 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 3 of 10)

• Computers and mobile devices contain two types of memory:

Volatile memory Nonvolatile memory


Loses its contents when Does not lose contents
power is turned off when power is removed

Examples include ROM,


Example includes RAM
flash memory, and CMOS

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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 5 of 10)

• Two common types of RAM exist:


Dynamic RAM
Static RAM (SRAM)
(DRAM)

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Table 6-1 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 6 of 10)

• RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted


into memory slots

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Figure 6-13 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 7 of 10)

• Memory cache speeds the processes


of the computer because it stores
frequently used instructions and data

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Figure 6-14 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 8 of 10)

Read-only memory (ROM) refers


to memory chips storing
permanent data and instructions
•Firmware
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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 9 of 10)

• Flash memory can be erased electronically and rewritten


– CMOS technology uses battery power to retain information when
when the power to the computer is off

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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Memory (slide 10 of 10)

• Access time is the amount of time it takes the processor to read


from memory
– Measured in nanoseconds

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Table 6-2 and Figure 6-15 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Adapters (slide 1 of 3)

• An adapter card enhances functions of a component of a desktop or server system


unit and/or provides connections to peripheral devices
– Sound card and video card
• An expansion slot is a socket on a desktop or server motherboard that can hold an
adapter card

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Table 6-3 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Adapters (slide 2 of 3)

• With Plug and Play technology, the computer automatically can


recognize peripheral devices as you install them

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Figure 6-16 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Adapters (slide 3 of 3)

• A USB adapter enhances functions of


a mobile computer and/or provides
connections to peripheral devices

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Figure 6-17 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Buses (slide 1 of 2)

• A bus allows the various


devices both inside and
attached to the system unit to
communicate with one
another
– Data bus
– Address bus
• Word size is the number of bits
the processor can interpret
and execute at a given time
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Figure 6-18 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Buses (slide 2 of 2)

• A computer might have these three types of buses:

System bus Backside bus Expansion bus

Connect processor to Connect processor to Connect processor to


main memory (RAM) memory cache peripherals

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accessible website, in whole or in part.
Power Supply and Batteries (slide 1 of 2)

• The power supply or laptop AC adapter converts the wall outlet


AC power into DC power

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Figure 6-19 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Power Supply and Batteries (slide 2 of 2)

• Mobile computers and devices can run using either a power


supply or batteries
• Batteries typically are rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

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Figure 6-20 accessible website, in whole or in part.
Summary

Various Types of processors,


Advantages and
components inside steps in a machine
services of cloud
computers and cycle, and processor
computing
mobile devices cooling methods

How memory stores Adapters, buses, Ways to care for


data and various power supplies and computers and
types of memory batteries mobile devices

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accessible website, in whole or in part.
62 Components of the System Unit
Computing Components:
Processors, Memory, the Cloud, and More

Module 6
Complete