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IMRAD Research

IMRAD is an acronym for
• Introduction
• Methods
• Results
• And
• Discussion
What is IMRAD?
I. Introduction
i. Background of the Study
ii. Objectives
iii. Review of Related Literature
iv. Framework of the Study (Conceptual or
Theoretical Framework)
v. Statement of the Problem (quan)/Research
Questions (qua)
vi. Significance of the Study
vii. Definition of Terms

Components & Sections

II. Methods
i. Research Design
ii. Research Locale
iii. Research Respondents (quan)/Research
Participants (qua)
iv. Data Collection Procedure
v. Research Instruments
vi. Statistical Tools (quan)/Data Analysis (qua)
vii. Ethical Consideration (qua none for quan)

Components & Sections

III. Results And Discussion
i. Results
ii. Discussions
iii. Conclusion
iv. Recommendations

Components & Sections

• References (Using APA referencing style)
• Communications
• Questionnaire
• Modules
• Interview Guide
• Informed Consent Form

Now, time to familiarize. . .
Background of the Study
• The problem or focus or topic or issue you
wanted to study
• Rationale why embark on said topic
• Quote literature to support your statements
• Background of the study without citations is
just an ‘opinion essay’

• Define the focus of your study and what will
be achieved by the study
• Closely related to the statement of the problem

Review of Related Literature
• Literature and studies dealing with the topic
being investigated (books, researches, articles,
etc. as sources)
• Have a minimum of 4 related literature and
• Check the sources according to their relevance
to your study

Framework of the Study (Conceptual or
Theoretical Framework)
• It is “the heart and soul” of research
• Choose between a concept and a theory
• Concepts are abstract ideas which can be taken
from authors or can be personally developed
• Theories are long-standing and established
philosophies or principles developed by renowned
theorists or authors
• Show the research paradigm for quantitative
research design; schematic diagram for qualitative

Statement of the Problem/Research Questions
• Statement of the problem is a term used in
quantitative research
• In order to attain the research objectives and the
research paradigm, formulate the statements of the
problem highlighting the variables of the study.
• Research Questions for qualitative research
• In order to attain research objectives and the
schematic diagram, formulate open-ended
research questions highlighting the factors
identified in the study.

Significance of the Study
• Who will benefit from the result of the study and
the kind of benefit they will get
• It can be people or organizations
• Arrange in the order of who gets the most and
least benefit.

Definition of Terms
• Define terms which are used in the study
• The definition has to be operational or ‘how’
the term is used in the study
• You may have both the lexical and operational
definitions combined

Research Design
• Discuss the design employed in the study
• Start by discussing the major approach used;
that is whether the study is quantitative,
qualitative or mixed
• Proceed by presenting the specific design as in
quantitative correlational research or
qualitative phenomenological design.

Research Locale
• Where the study is conducted
• Make a narrative description of the research
• Why consider it as locale of the study
• Showing location map is optional

Research Respondents/Participants
• Who are the samples or research respondents who will
answer the questionnaires and the research questions
• Research respondents is the term used for quantitative
research design; research participants for qualitative
• Discuss why you choose your research
respondents/participants and the sampling technique
used in selecting them.

Data Collection Procedure
• Discuss the process you use in collecting the
• It includes, among others, the proper protocol
you will observe like asking permission from
authorities where study will be conducted.

Research Instruments
• Present the instruments that will be used in
gathering the data.
• Tell whether it is a survey questionnaire for
quantitative research or the interview guide for
qualitative research.
• Discuss if it is researcher-made or a
standardized instrument

Statistical Tools/Data Analysis
• For quantitative research design, the statistical
tools that will be used in analyzing the data
• For qualitative research design, the method
used in analyzing the data
• Content analysis is the most common method
for qualitative research

Ethical Consideration
• Research ethics is very important in qualitative
• It includes, but not limited to:
• securing endorsement letter from authorities,
• furnishing of informed consent form to
• responsibility of the researcher to the
participants in terms of confidentiality of
information and anonymity of identity, and;
• giving feedbacks to the participants regarding
the results

Results and Discussion
• Based on the data gathered, present the results of
the study
• Depending on the data, the presentation can be
through the use of graphs or tables.
• By discussion, you have to make implications of
the results
• Present some recommendations after identifying
lapses or weak areas of the issue, problem or
topic being studied as shown in the result

Results And Discussions

End of Presentation