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# Chapter 4

Noise
What is the non-continuous
noise of irregular pulses or
spikes of duration with high
amplitudes?

Jitter
What theorem sets a
limit on the maximum
capacity of a channel
with a given noise level?

Shannon-Hartley
theorem
Quantizing noise
occurs in
PCM
Noise always affects the
signal in a
communications systems
at the ________.
channel
_________ is the random and
unpredictable electric signals
from natural causes, both
internal and external to the
system.
Noise
Noise from random acoustic or
electric noise that has equal
energy per cycle over a specified
total frequency band.

Gaussian noise

Whiter noise

Thermal noise
Which causes a quantization
noise in PCM system?

## The approximation of the

quantized signal
A particular circuit
that rids FM of noise
Limiter
What is the reference
noise temperature in
degrees Celsius?
17
assigned frequency.
Noise
What is the reliable
measurement for comparing
amplifier noise
characteristics?
Noise factor
_________ is measured on a
circuit when it is correctly
terminated but does not have
any traffic.

White noise
Which standard recommends
crosstalk limits?

CCIT G.151
Which standard is utilized
in intermodulation noise
rates on PCM audio
channels?

## CCIT Rec. G.172

What is the reference frequency
of CCIT phosphomeric noise
measurement?
800 Hz
Reference temperature use
in noise analysis

290 K
Which noise is produced
by lighting discharges in
thunderstorms?

Atmospheric noise
usually from _______.
transmission over power
lines and by ground wave
nif stands for

Noise improvement
factor
Industrial noise frequency is
between _____.

15 to 160 MHz
External noise fields are
measured in terms of
_______.

peak values
Form of interference
caused by rain or dust
storms.

Precipitation static
At 17˚ C, the noise voltage
generated by 5kΩ resistor,
operating over a bandwidth of
20KHz is

1.3 μV
________ is an electric noise
produced by thermal agitation
of electrons in conductor and
semiconductor.

Thermal noise
Three identical circuits having
10 dB signal noise-to-noise
ratio each are connected in
tandem with each other, what
is the overall S/N?

5.23 dB
The noise figure of the first circuit
in tandem connection is 10.5 dB
while its power gain is 15, what is
the over all noise figure if the
second circuit has a noise figure of
11 dB?

10.79 dB
Is the interference coming
from other communications
channels?

Crosstalk
What is the reference
noise level?
-90 dBm
What is the unit of noise
power of psophometer?

pWp
A large emission of
hydrogen from the sun that
affects communications.

Solar flare
Atmospheric noise is
known as _______noise.

static
Standard design reference
for environmental noise
temperature.

290 K
Absolute temperature
in Kelvin.

˚C +273
If bandwidth is doubled,
the signal power is _________.

not changed
Name one or more sources
of noise bearing on
electronic communications.
Galaxies

## Internal combustion engine

The transmitter technique
adopted to reduce the noise effect
of the preceding question is
called

preemphasis
effect attenuates modulating
signal components and noise in
what frequency range?

high
Atmospheric noise or static
is not a great problem

## at frequencies above 30 MHz

What is the proper procedure
for suppressing electrical noise
in a mobile station?

## Apply shielding and filtering

where necessary
Where is the noise generated that
primarily determines the signal-to-
noise ratio in a VHF (150MHz) marine-

## In the receiver front end

The difference between signal
strength at a given point and a
reference level is________.

level
Interfering effect of noise, C
message weighted, is _________.

dBmc
F1A weighting refers to
___________.

dBrnc
Reading a 58 dBrnC on your
Western Electric 3A test set at
a +7 test point is equal to
______ dBrnc0.

51
Reading a 58 dBrn, at a +7
test point is equal to ________
dBa0.

46
A reading of -50 dBm on the
disturbing pair, and -80 on the
disturbed pair equals _____ dB of
crosstalk coupling.

30
Power is __________.

## definite amount of energy

per time period
15 dBa F1A weighted,
equals ___________.

-70 dBm
You are measuring noise in a voice
channel with a Lenkurt 601A, F1A
weighting network and a flat meter.

38 dBa
You are measuring noise at a +3 dB
level point, using the Lenkurt 601A,
F1A weighting network, and a flat
meter. The meter reading is -57dBm.
This is ________dBa0.

25
You are measuring noise at a -6 dB
level point, using the Lenkurt 601A,
F1A weighting network, and a flat
meter. The meter reading is -59 dBm.
This is _________ dBa0.

32
A measurement of -75 dBm, C-
message weighted, would be
_________ dBrnc.

15
Your Western Electric 3A test set
meter reading is -23 dBm at at test
point level of -8 dB. This is ______
dBrnc0.

75
At what power level does a 1 KHz
tone cause zero interference
(144 weighted)?

-90 dBm
Reference noise is
___________.
a noise that creates the same interfering
effect as a 1000Hz, -90dBm tone

## a noise that creates zero dBrn in a voice

channel
A practical dBrn measurement
will almost always in a _______
number.

positive
What is the reference level for
noise measurement, F1A
weighted?

-85 dBm
What is the reference tone
level for dBrn?

-90 dBm
What is the reference tone
level for dBa?

-85 dBm
Atmospheric noise becomes
less severe at frequencies

above 30 MHz
Indicate the noise whose
sources are in category
different from that of the
other three?

Atmospheric noise
Indicate the false
statement.
Distant stars are another
Which of the following is
not a source of industrial
noise?

Sun
Indicate the false
statement
A random voltage across the
resistor does not exist
The value of the resistor creating
thermal noise is doubled. The
noise power generated is
therefore.

unchanged
Indicate the false
statement.
Impulse noise voltage is
dependent on bandwidth
An amplifier operating over the
frequency range of 455 to 460
kHz has a 200 kΩ input resistor.
What is the RMS noise voltage at
the input to this amplifier if the
ambient temperature is 17˚C ?

4.0 μV
The first stage of a two-stage amplifier has
a voltage gain of 10, a 600 Ω input resistor,
a 1600Ω equivalent noise resistance and
27kΩ output resistor. For the second stage,
these values are 25, 81kΩ, 19kΩ, and 1MΩ,
respectively. Calculate the equivalent
input-noise resistance of this two stage
amplifier.

2,518 Ω
The noise output of a resistor is amplified by
a noiseless amplifier having a gain of 60 and
a bandwidth of 20 kHz. A meter connected at
the output of the amplifier reads 1mV RMS.
If the bandwidth of the amplifier is reduced
to 5kHz, its gain remaining constant, what

0.5 mV
The front-end of a television receiver, having a
bandwidth of 7Mhz, and operating at a
temperature of 27˚C , consists of an amplifier
having a gain of 15 followed by a mixer whose
gain is 20. The amplifier has a 300 Ω input
resistor and a shot noise equivalent resistance of
500Ω; for the mixer, these values are 2.2kΩ and
13.5kΩ respectively, and the load resistance of
the mixer is 470 kΩ. Calculate the equivalent
noise resistance for this television receiver.

875Ω
One of the following is not a
useful quantity for
comparing the noise

## Input noise voltage

Indicate the false statement.
Noise figure is defined as

## an unwanted form of energy

tending to interfere with the
proper and easy reception and
reproduction of wanted signals
Calculated the noise figure of the
amplifier whose Req equals 2518Ω
(RT=600Ω) if its driven by a
generator whose output impedance
is 50Ω.

39.4
Calculate the noise figure of the receiver
whose RF amplifier has an input
resistance of 1000Ω and an equivalent
shot-noise resistance of 2000Ω, a gain
of 25 and load resistance of 125 kΩ.
Given that the bandwidth is 1.0MHz and
the temperature is 20˚C, and that the
receiver is connected to an antenna
with an impedance of 75Ω.

30.3
A receiver connected to an antenna
whose resistance is 50 Ω has an
equivalent noise resistance of 30Ω.
Calculate its equivalent noise
temperature if the noise figure is equal
to 1.6.

174K
Most internal noise comes
from

Thermal agitation
Which of the following is not
a source of external noise?

Thermal agitation
Noise can be reduced by

## narrowing the bandwidth

Noise at the input to the
receiver can be as high as
several

microvolts
Which circuit contributes
most of the noise in a

Mixer
Which noise figure
represents the lowest noise
1.6 dB
The transistor with the lowest
noise figure in the microwave
region is a

MESFET
What is the noise voltage across a
300Ω input resistance to a TV set
with a 6MHz bandwidth and
temperature of 30˚C?

5.5μV
Which of the following types of
noise becomes of great
importance at frequencies?

Transit-time noise
The solar cycle repeats the
period of great electrical
disturbance approximately
every

11 years
The square of the thermal noise
voltage generated by a resistor is
proportional to

its resistance

its temperature

## the bandwidth over which it is

measured
Noise occurring in the presence of
signal resulting from a mismatch
between the exact value of an analog
signal and the closet available
quantizing step in a digital coder.

Quantizing noise
Noise consisting of irregular
pulses of short duration and
relatively high amplitude,

Impulse noise
Noise that occurs via capacitive
or inductive coupling in a cable.

Crosstalk
Sources of impulse noise induced
in communication channels.

## Erroneous digital coding bit caused by

an error on a transmission facility

## Crosstalk from dc signaling systems

Crosstalk due to incomplete
suppression of sidebands or to
intermodulation of two or more
frequency-multiplexed channels
which is unintelligible is classified as

Miscellaneous noise
___________ is device that measures the
internal open circuit voltage of an
equivalent noise generator having an
impedance of 600Ω and delivering
noise power to a 600 Ω load.

Psophometer
External noise originating
outside the solar system

Cosmic noise
A noise whose source is
within the solar system.

Solar noise
The total noise power
present in a 1-Hz
bandwidth .

Noise density
Which of the following is not a
way of minimizing if not
eliminating noise?

## Increase channel bandwidth

What is the primary cause of
atmospheric noise?

Lightning
What do you call the noise
coming from the sun and
stars?
Space noise
The major cause of atmospheric
or static noise are

Thunderstorms
Which of the following low noise
transistors is commonly used at
microwave frequencies?

MESFET