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Concept and Nature of Self

who Am I?
At the end of the module, you will be able to:
1. Explain the nature, concept, and the meaning of
the self.
2. Describe the nature of the self from your own
point of view.
3. Discuss the conceptualization and
representation of the self from various
disciplines and perspectives; and
4. Develop a pleasant and wholesome attitude
towards oneself.
Group Singing
Find the following songs on the internet and
make the class sing them also reflect on the
songs’ lyrics. Then answer the questions that
“Sino ako” by Jamie Rivera
“Who Am I” by Casting Crowns
by Jamie Rivera
Hiram sa DIYOS ang aking buhay
Ikaw at akoy tanging handog lamang
Di ko ni nais na akoy isilang
Ngunit salamat dahil may buhay
Ligaya ko na akoy isilang pagkat tao ay mayroong
Sino ang may pag ibig sinong nagmamahal
Kung di ang tao DIYOS ang pinagmulan
Kung di ako umibig kung di ko man bigyang halaga
Ang buhay kong handog ang buhay ko ident
Ng hiram sa DIYOS
Kung di ako nagmamahal sino ako
1.Who are you?
2. How would you describe yourself?
3. Do you love yourself? Why or why not?
4. What are you most grateful for in life?
5. What are the biggest and most important
things you have learned in life so far?
Activity 1
Look at yourself in the mirror and answer the following questions.
1. How can you describe yourself based on your own perspective or point
of view?
“I am ____________________.”

2. What aspect of yourself do you feel good about? Why?


3. What aspect of yourself do you believe you have to improve? Why?

The Philosophical View of Self
Socrates: Know yourself
Socrates is principally concerned with man.
He considers man from the point of view of
his inner life.
The famous line of Socrates, “Know yourself,”
tells each man to bring his inner self to light.
A bad man not virtuous through ignorance;
the man who does not follow the good fails to
do so because he does not recognize it.
The Philosophical View of Self
Socrates: Know yourself
• the core of Socratic ethics is the concept of virtue
and knowledge.
• Virtue is the deepest and most basic propensity
of man.
• Knowing one’s own virtue is necessary and can be
• Since virtue is innate in the mind and self-
knowledge is the source of all wisdom, an
individual may gain possession of oneself and be
one’s own master through knowledge.
The Philosophical View of Self
Plato: The Ideal Self, the Perfect Self
According to Plato, man was omniscient or all-
knowing before he came to be born into this
With his separation from the paradise of truth
and knowledge and his long exile one earth, he
forgot most of the knowledge he had. However,
by constant remembering through contemplation
and doing good, he can regain his former
The Philosophical View of Self
Plato: The Ideal Self, the Perfect Self
Man who is now an exile on earth has a guiding
star, a model, or a divine exemplar which he must
follow to reach and attain his destiny.
In practical terms, this means that man in this life
should imitate his former self, more specifically,
he should live a life of virtue in which true human
perfection exists.
Happiness, which is the fruit of virtue, is attained
by the constant imitation of the divine exemplar
of virtue, embodied in man’s former perfect self.
The Philosophical View of Self
Immanuel Kant: Respect for Self
Man is the only creature who governs and directs
himself and his actions, who sets up ends for
himself and his purpose, and who freely orders
means for the attainment of his aims.
Every man is thus an end in himself and should
never be treated merely as a means-as per the
order of the Creator and the natural order of
The Philosophical View of Self
Immanuel Kant: Respect for Self
This rule is a plan dictum of a reason and justice:
Respect others as you would respect yourself.
A person should not be used as a tool,
instrument, or device to accomplish another’s
private ends.
Thus, all men are persons gifted with the same
basic rights and should treat each other as
The Philosophical View of Self
Rene Descartes: “I think, therefore I am”
Descartes states that the self is a thinking entity
distinct from the body.
His first famous principle was “Cogito, ergo sum.”
which means “I think, therefore I am.”
Although the mind and the body are independent
from each other and serve their own function,
man must use his own mind and thinking abilities
to investigate, analyze, experiment, and develop
The Philosophical View of Self
John Locke: Personal Identity
John Locke holds that personal identity (the
self) is a matter of psychological continuity.
For him, personal identity is founded on
consciousness (memory), and not on the
substance of either the soul or the body.
Personal identity is the concept about oneself
that evolves over the course of an individual’s
The Philosophical View of Self
John Locke: Personal Identity
It may include aspects of life that man has no
control over, such as where he grew up or the
color of his skin, as well as the choices he
makes, like how he spends his time and what
he believes.
The Philosophical View of Self
David Hume: The Self is the Bundle Theory of Mind
 Hume is skeptical about the existence of the self,
specifically, on weather there is a simple, unified self
that exists over time.
 For him, man has no “clear intelligible” idea of the self.
 He posits that no single impression of the self exists,
rather, the self is just the thing to which all perceptions
of a man is ascribed.
 Moreover, even if there were such an impression of
the self, it would have to remain constant over time to
constitute identity.
The Philosophical View of Self
David Hume: The Self is the Bundle Theory of Mind
 However, man’s impressions vary and always change.
 Even attempts to have impressions of the self must fail
for all these attempts are really just occasions for one
to notice perceptions.
 Put simply, a person can never observe oneself
without some other perceptions.
 Thus, Hume asserts that we call the “Self” is really just
“a bundle or collection of different perceptions which
succeed each other with an inconceivable rapidity.”
The Christian or Biblical View of Self
The Holy Bible
“God created man in His image, in the divine
image He created him, male and female He
created them. God blessed them, saying “Be
fertile and multiply; fill the earth and subdue
it. Have dominion over the fish of the sea, the
birds in the air, and all the living things that
move on the earth.”
Genesis 1: 24-28
The Christian or Biblical View of Self
 According to Holy writ, man, following his redemption
by the Savior from eternal bondage, now shares in the
infinite merits of his Redeemer and has become not
only the inheritor of the new earth but also the heir of
heavenly kingdom.
 Thus, it is appropriate to think of the “Self” as the
multi-bejeweled crown of creation—the many gems
thereof representing and radiating the glorious facets
of man’s self that include the physical, intellectual,
moral, religious, social, political, economic, emotional,
sentient, aesthetic, sensual, and sexual aspects.
The Christian or Biblical View of Self
Figure 1. The Self as a Crown of Creation
Sexual aspects

The Crown
Sensual Creation of Self

Sentient Economic
The Christian or Biblical View of Self
St. Augustine: Love and Justice as the Foundations
of the Individual Self
St. Augustine believes that virtuous life is a
dynamism of love. It is constant following of and
turning towards love while a wicked life is a
constant turning away from love.
Loving God means loving one’s fellowmen; and
loving one’s fellowmen denoted never doing any
harm to another or as the golden principle of
justice states, doing unto others as you would
have them do unto you.
Write an essay about anything that you wish to share
about yourself.
You may use the suggested topics
 Me as I see me
 How other people see me
 How would like other people to see me
Thank You 