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Unit- 4

LAN Standards
• Networks we need to have set of rules/standards for
the data to travel from one computer to other
computer
• One such set of rules for the networking traffic to
follow is IEEE802 standards
• Its developed by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers, Inc.)
• The standards such as IEEE 802 helps industry
provide advantages such as,
– interoperability,
– low product cost, and
– easy to manage standards.
• IEEE standards deal with only Local Area Networks (LAN)
and Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN).
IEEE 802 Addresses
• All 802 protocols use the same address format
– 48-bit, globally-unique addresses
– Advantage: any interface can be plugged into any LAN
worldwide without danger of collision
• First 24 bits: Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI)
Address space administered by IEEE, assigned to
organizations Typically manufacturers of equipment
(interfaces) • To get an OUI currently costs $1650
• Last 24 bits: set by the organization
– Example: MAC address 00-19-C5-01-23-45
OUI 00-19-C5 is registered to Sony Corp
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet (CSMA/CD)
• (CSMA/CD) was used to send data over shared
single co-axial cable connected to all
computers on a network
• CSMA/CD system to connect multiple personal
computers on a single cable. It was named as
Ethernet.
• Ethernet or IEEE802.3 standards only define
MAC (Data link) and Physical layer of standard
OSI model.
• Wiring and cabling standards of 802.3
• The four types of cables are,
1. 10Base5
2. 10Base2
3. 10Base-T
4. 10Base-F
• The 10 in the technical name refer to data speed of 10Mbits/sec.

Technical Name Cable/Wire type Max. Segment/wire Length Maximum number of Advantages
Nodes/Segment
10Base5 Thick coaxial 500 meters 100 Long cable length

10Base2 RG58 (thin) coaxial 185 meters 30 Low cost

10BaseT Twisted pair (like 100 meters 1024 Easy to maintain


telephone wire)

10BaseF Fiber-optic 2,000 meters 1024 No noise interference


• 10Base-T
• the most popular cabling method
• Its also called Standard Ethernet
• works on a star topology
• it is simple and cheap to implement it is most opted one
• uses RJ45 connectors on unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable
• maximum cable length is 100 meters
• maximum number of devices per segment is 1,024
The performance of Ethernet (802.3)
• we evaluate the performance of 802.3 under the conditions of
full load and constant load.
• Metcalfe and Boggs - ignore binary exponential backoff and
assume constant probability, p, of retransmission in each slot
probability that one station acquires a slot, A, is


where
k = number of stations ready to transmit
p = probability that a station will retransmit
A is maximized when p is 1/k
When p is 1/k, A --> 1/e as k --> infinity

is the probability that the contention window is j slots
Mean number of slots per contention is:

Each slot is bounded by 2t, so the mean window size is bounded by


Assuming optimal p (p = 1/k), A= 1/e and

Let P be the mean transmission time / frame

Let
F = frame length B = bandwidth L = cable length c = speed of light
P = F/B
and

As BL increases, efficiency decreases


IEEE802.4: Token bus
• Network is a physical bus but a logical ring
• The stations are numbered and are allowed to access the
medium sequentially
• If there are n stations, and packet transmission time is bounded
to T, then the maximum waiting time is nT.
• Token bus or 802.4 is more robust and reliable than 802.3
frames
• Token bus MAC is simple and robust.
• Token bus is mostly used in automation systems.
• Data is subdivided into four priority classes. Each station has
four packet queues, one for each priority. When a station
receives token, it is allowed to transmit certain fixed time.
During that time it transmits packets in the decreasing order of
priorities
Preamble: The Preamble is for synchronizing the receiver's clock.
Starting Delimiter (SD) and End Delimiter (ED): The SD and ED fields are used to
mark frame boundaries.
Frame Control (FC): FC is used to distinguish data frames from control frames.
Destination and Source Address: The Destination and Source address fields may be
of 2 bytes (for a local address) or 6 bytes (for a global address).
Data: This is the actual data and it is of 8182 bytes when 2 byte addresses are used
and 8174 bytes for 6 byte addresses.
Checksum: A 4-byte checksum of the data for error detection.
IEEE 802.5: Token Ring Network

•The principle used in the token ring


network is that a token is circulating in
the ring and whichever node grabs that
token will have right to transmit the
data.
• Since the token rotates in the ring it is
guaranteed that every node gets the token with
in some specified time.
• There is also an upper limit of 250 on the
number of nodes in the network
• To distinguish the normal data packets from
token (control packet) a special sequence is
assigned to the token packet.
•When any node gets the token it first sends the
data it wants to send, then recirculates the
token
Token Passing Protocol
• A token (8 bit pattern) circulates around the ring
• Token state:
– Busy: 11111111
– Idle: 11111110
• General Procedure:
– Sending host waits for and captures an idle token
– Sending host changes the token to a frame and circulates it
– Receiving host accepts the frame and continues to circulate it
– Sending host receives its frame, removes it from the ring,
and generates an idle token which it then circulates on the ring
802.5 Frame Format

SD = Starting Delimiter
ED = Ending Delimiter
They contains invalid differential Manchester codes
AC= Access Control, i.e. data or control or token
Point Ethernet Token Ring
Cost Less Expensive & Easy to More Expensive & more complex
install compared to Ethernet
Stability Less Stable & Secure More stable & secure than Ethernet
Scalability Easy as compared to token Difficult to add computers &
ring & less effect on performance considerably reduces
performance
QoS Use CSMA/CD for media Uses token ring & suitable with
access control suitable for small to medium size LAN
large no. of computers
DHCP
• DHCP- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
• Each computer that uses the TCP/IP protocol suite needs to
know
– its IP address
– Subnet & Subnet Masking
– IP address of a default router &
– IP address of a name server
i.e. four pieces of information are normally needed.
• This info is stored in configuration file & accessed at the time
of booting process
• DHCP is the preferred mechanism for dynamic assignment of
IP addresses to host
Why is DHCP Important?
• Important when it comes to adding a machine to a
network
• When computer requests an address, the
administrator would have to manually configure the
machine
 Mistakes are easily made
 Causes difficulty for both administrator as well as
neighbors on the network
• DHCP solves all the hassle of manually adding a
machine to a network
How does DHCP work?
• When a client needs to start up TCP/IP operations, it
broadcasts a request for address information

• The DHCP server will not reallocate the address during the
lease period and will attempt to return the same address
every time the client requests an address

• The client can extend its lease or send a message to the server
before the lease expires it that it no longer needs the address
so it can be released and assigned to another client on the
network
DHCP packet format

Flag format
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33
Figure 18.7 Option with tag 53

TCP/IP Protocol Suite 34


Figure 18.8 DHCP client transition diagram

TCP/IP Protocol Suite 35


Advantages of DHCP
• DHCP minimizes the administrative burden

• By using DHCP there is no chance to conflict IP


address

• By using DHCP relay agent you provide IP address to


another network
Disadvantages of DHCP
• When DHCP server is unavailable, client is unable to
access enterprises network

• Your machine name does not change when you get a


new IP address
ARP