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m 

A continuous association of wage earners for the


purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions
of their working lives.

Trade Union means a combination formed for the


purpose of regulating the relations not only between
workmen and employers but also between workmen
and workmen or between employers and employers
©  
 
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{ A trade union is an organized group of workers. Its main
goal is to protect and advance the interests of its members.

{ A union often negotiates agreements with employers on


pay and conditions. It may also provide legal and financial
advice, sickness benefits and education facilities to its
members

{ Trade unions aim to represent the interests of people at


work and negotiate with employers for better terms and
conditions for their members
’   


{ It is an organization formed by employees or workers.
{ It is formed on a continuous basis. It is a permanent
body and not a casual or temporary one.
{ It is formed to protect and promote all kinds of
interests Ȃeconomic, political and social-of its
members. The dominant interest with which a union is
concerned is, however, economic.
{ It achieves its objectives through collective action and
group effort
’
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{ To secure for workers better wages

{ To increase opportunities for promotion and training

{ To improve working and living condition

{ To provide for educational cultural and recreational facilities

{ To promote identity of interests of the workers

{ To offer improved level of production and productivity discipline and


high standard of quality
{ To promote individual and collective welfare
’   


{ I. It is an organization formed by employees or
workers.
{ II. It is formed on a continuous basis. It is a
permanent body and not a casual or temporary one.
{ III. It is formed to protect and promote all kinds of
interests Ȃeconomic, political and social-of its
members. The dominant interest with which a union is
concerned is, however, economic.
{ IV. It includes federations of trade unions also.
{ V. It achieves its objectives through collective action
and group effort.
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a 
 ’ormed of workers belonging to the same craft, occupation or specialization irrespective
of the industry in which they are employed.
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{ rganized on the basis of an industry rather than a craft.
{ All the workers-skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled engaged in a particular industry
organize
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{    

  
 !


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£embership may cover workers employed in many industries , employments and crafts
E.G
The Jamshedpur Labour Union,whose membership includes workers engaged in different
industries and crafts of Jamshedpur
Ê  

 
{ The main service a union provides for its members is
negotiation and representation. There are other
benefits people get from being members of trade
unions.
{ Negotiation
{ Representation
{ Information and advice
{ £ember services

    
 
{ À. a 


{ Agreement with the union that a worker must be the
member of the union at the time of employment and
continuous to do so in order to retain his job else
services are terminated.
{ Closed to non-unionists
{ Employers freedom to recruit is limited
î 

Agreement with the union that a worker would become a
member of the union within a specified period of his
securing employment and would continue his
membership to retain his job.
 Employer free to recruit
 

{ £embership in a union is in no way compulsory either
before or after employment.

º a
 
{ Êhen an employee who is not a union member has to
pay the union a sum equal to subscription.

£ a 
 
{ Êhere an employee, on choosing to become a member
of a union, is obligated to continue his membership of
that union throughout his tenure of employment with
that employer
     
 
6  
   
6 


It was established in À  as result of a resolution passed by the organized workers of
Bombay and the delegates which met I a conference on 3Àst ctober, À .



{ to establish a socialist state in India;


{ to socialize and nationalize means of production, distribution and exchange;
{ to improve the economic and social conditions of the working class;
{ to watch, promote, and further the interests, rights, and privileges of the workers in all
matters relating to their employment;
{ to secure and maintain for the workers the freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom
of association freedom of assembly, the right to strike, and the right to work and
maintenance;
{ to co-ordinate the activities of the labour unions affiliated to the AITUC;
{ to abolish political or economic advantage based on caste, creed, community, race or
religion;
{ to secure and maintain for the workers the right to strike

   
   




The INTUC came into existence on 4th £ay, À 48, as a result of the resolution passed on Àth
November À 4, by the Central Board of the Hindustan £azdoor Sevak Sangh, which was a
labour leader on the Gandhian Philosophy of Sarvodaya



{ To establish an order of society which is free from hindrances to an all-round


development of its individual members, which fosters the growth of human personality
in all its aspects, and which goes to the utmost limit in progressively eliminating social,
political or economic exploitation and inequality, the profit motive in the economic
activity and organization of society and the anti-social concentration of power in any
form;

{ to place industry under national ownership and control in a suitable form;

{ to secure increasing association of workers in the administration of industry and their


full participation in that control;

 
   
  

J

Some trade union leaders of the socialist bent met together December À 48 to form a new
central organization of labour, called Hind £azdoor Sabha



{ The objectives of the UTUC areJ

{ to establish a socialist society in India;

{ to establish a workersǯ and peasantsǯ state in India;

{ to nationalize and socialize the means of production, distribution and exchange;

{ to safeguard and promote the interests, rights, and privileges to the workers in all
matters, social, cultural, economic and political;

{ to secure and maintain workersǯ freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of


association, freedom of assembly, right to strike, right to work or maintenance and the
right to social security;

{ to bring about unity in the trade union movement.


-  -


This union has been the outcome of decision taken by the Jana Sangh in its Convention at
Bhopal on 3rd July, À 4.

{ to establish the Bhartiya order of classless society in which there shall be secured full
employment;
{ to assist workers in organizing themselves in trade unions as medium of service to the
motherland irrespective of faiths and political affinities;
{ the right to strike;

{ to inculcate in the minds of the workers the spirit of service, co-operation and
dutifulness and develop in them a sense of responsibility towards the nation in general
and the industry in particular.
{ The B£S is a productivity-oriented non-political trade union. Its ideological basis is the
triple formulaJ
{ nationalize the labour;

{ labourise the industry;

{ industrialize the nation;


     
   


This union was founded in À , with the claim that Dzthis trade union of India is not
controlled by any of the political party, employers or government.dz

J

{ to organize and unite trade unions with the object of building up a National Central
rganisation of trade unions, independent of political parties, employers and the
government, to further the cause of labour and that of national solidarity security and
defence of India, and to make the working people conscious of their right as well as of
obligations in all spheres of life;

{ to secure to members of trade unions full facilities of recognition and effective


representation of interests of workers and to ensure for the working people fair
conditions of life and service and progressively to raise their social, economic and
cultural state and conditions;

{ to help in every possible way member trade unions in their fight to raise real wages of the
workers;

{ to endeavour to secure for members of affiliated trade unions adoption of progressive


legislation for their welfare and to ensure the effective environment of the rights and
interests of members of affiliated trade unions and for the working people in general.


  
    

This union was formed in À  when as a result of the rift in the AITUC, some members of
the Communist party seceded. About the objectives of the CITU, its constitution saysJ



{ The CITU believes that the exploitation of the working class can be ended only by
socializing all means of production, distribution and exchange and establishing a
socialist state, that is, it stands for the complete emancipation of the society from all
exploitation.

{ The CITU fights against all encroachments on the economic and social rights of the
workers and the enlargement of their rights and liberties including the right to strike, for
winning, defending and extending the freedom of the democratic trade union
movement.

{ In the fight for the immediate interest of the working class the CITU demandsJ a)
nationalization of all foreign monopoly concerns who barbarously exploit the working
class; b) nationalization of all concerns owned by Indian monopolists and big industry
who garner huge profits at the expenses of the workers, who exploit the people by
pegging prices at a high level and who dictate the anti-labour and anti-people policies of
the government.

{ The CITU fights against the repressive policy of the government towards the democratic
and trade union movement;
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{ The trade union movement started after À À8, when the workers formed their
associations to improve their conditions. It is, thus, a part of the Ǯlabour
movementǯ, which is a much wide term

{ A trade union is an essential basis of a labour movement for without which one
cannot exist, because trade unions are the principal schools in which the
workers learn the lesson of self-reliance and solidarity

{ Trade Unionism in India has been the natural out come of the modern factory
system

{ The main elements in the development of trade unions of workers in every


country have been more or less the same

{ The development of trade unionism in India has had a checkered history and a
stormy career
G  ’ 
 ’
 
{ At least  members should be present for an application

{ It should in a prescribed form ,fees and should be registered under


the Registrar of Trade Unions

{ Should be accompanied by a copy of the Rules of TU

{ Certificate of Registration is issued as soon as TU has been duely


registered under the Act.
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{ The development of industries led to large-scale production on the one hand and social
evils like employment and exploitation of women and child labour and the deplorable
workable conditions, the governmentǯs attitude of complete indifference in respect of
protection of labour from such evils, on the other.

ë  
  
  

{ The year À À8 was an important one for the Indian trade union movement.

{ The industrial unrest that grew up as a result of grave economic difficulties created by
war. The rising cost of living prompted the workers to demand reasonable wages for
which purpose they united to take resort to collective action

u
!  "
  # 

{ In À 4, a violent and long-drawn-out strike by unions led to the arrest, prosecution,
conviction and imprisonment of many communist leaders. The rapid growth of the trade
unionism was facilitated by several factors
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{ In mid-thirties the state of divided labour movement was natural thought


undesirable and soon after the first split, attempts at trade union unity began to be
made through the efforts of the Roy Group on the basis of Ǯa platform of unityǯ.


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{
The Second Êorld Êar, which broke out in September À 3 , created new strains in the
united trade union movement.

{ Hence, again a rift took place in À 4À and the Radicals left the AITUC with nearly 
unions with a membership of 3, , and formed a new central federation known as
)      *


 
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{ As pointed out earlier, when attempts to restructure the AITUC failed, those believing in
the aims and ideals other than those of the AITUC separated from the organization and
established the Indian National Trade Union Congress INTUC) in £ay, À 4

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{ Trade Union is an important factor of the current
society, as it safeguards the basic interest and needs of
both the employees as well as employers, by giving
better terms and conditions of employment, secured
jobs, better wages, favorable working environment
which in turn leads to desired profitability.