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Composite Construction
 Composite construction provides a method of using two materials
together so as to utilize each material to its best advantage.
 Some of the construction problems associated with the normal
steel- concrete composite beams are examined, including the
placing sequence of deck concrete and the monitoring of
deflections to insure proper slab thickness.
 New approaches to steel-concrete composite construction
include a beam and column system and a box girder utilizing the
void space as an air conditioning duct.
 Other types of composite construction are mentioned, including
the timber-concrete slab bridge, a timber-steel composite truss
utilizing high-strength bridge strand as the lower chord, a wood-
steel open web joist which provides nailable chords, and light
gage metal decking with a concrete slab.
Anatomy of composite construction

• Floors

• Shear Connections

• Columns

• Bracing Systems

Floors = Slab + Beams

Note: Mainly will discus on

type of floors and connections.
Common Types of Floor Systems
• Concrete slabs supported by open-web joists

•One-way and two-way reinforced concrete slabs

supported on steel beams

• Concrete slab and steel beam composite floors

• Composite profiled decking floors

• Precast concrete floors on steel beams

Note: The most common arrangement found in composite floor

systems is a rolled or built-up steel beam connected to a formed steel
deck and concrete slab. Mostly Profiled Decking Floors system is used
in composite construction.
 The reason why composite construction is often so good can be
expressed in one simple way - concrete is good in compression and
steel is good in tension.
 By joining the two materials together structurally these strengths
can be exploited to result in a highly efficient and lightweight
 The reduced self weight of composite elements has a knock-on
effect by reducing the forces in those elements supporting them,
including the foundations.
 Composite systems also offer benefits in terms of speed of
construction. The floor depth reductions that can be achieved
using composite construction can also provide significant benefits
in terms of the costs of services and the building envelope.
Benefits of Composite Construction
 The benefits of composite construction include speed of
construction, performance and value. Steel framing for a structure
can be erected quickly and the pre-fabricated steel floor decks
can be put in place immediately. When cured, the concrete
provides additional stiffness to the structure.
 Additionally, the concrete encasement protects the steel from
buckling, corrosion and fire. Service integration within the channels
on the composite decks is another advantage to composite
 Building quality standards can be adhered to easily by the use of
pre-fabricated decks. Excessive deflections can be controlled by
cambering the beams or by shoring the metal decks to limit
deflection when concrete is poured.
The Principle of Composite Action

 The principle of Composite Action underpins the use of composite

materials in construction.
 It relates to the interaction of two or more separate elements
acting together and contributing together rather than separately.
 By physically connecting them, the strength of the beams and
the resistance to bending, shear and torsion are significantly
Types of Composite Slabs
 The most common composite slab consists of the profiled steel
decking and concrete cast in-situ. Once cured the concrete and
decking act compositely
 Pre-cast concrete slabs can also be used to form a composite floor
deck system. The slabs must be designed specifically so that they
can interact with the beam system in place. The composite action
in this case can be achieved by welded shear studs and transverse
reinforcement across the floor deck. By utilising pre-cast concrete
decks, hollow core slabs can be used. These can reduce the weight
of the whole building whilst offering similar performance to solid
slabs. Pre-Cast slabs are usually covered by a layer of concrete
after installation to produce a more finished and aesthetic result.
Examples of Hollow-Core Slabs
 The final type of composite floor slab is the Slim Floor. This consists
of the supporting steel beam being encased in the concrete
with the lower flange of the beam supporting the floor. Diagrams
depicting the various composite slab types in use today are
shown below.

•Decking with deformed ribs (or embossed decking), as

shown, is commonly used
•The deformations on the ribs allow for a stronger bond
between the concrete and the decking
•Concrete Slab thickness must be ≥ 2” above steel deck
• Composite floor system consists of
steel beams, metal decking and

• They are combined in a very efficient

way so that the best properties of
each material can be used to optimize
construction techniques
Composite Beams
 A composite beam can be structurally described as a T-Beam, with
the top flange composed of concrete in compression and the steel
section in tension. Forces between the two materials are transferred
by shear connectors. The principle of composite action with regards
to beams leads to increased strength and stiffness of the system
whilst using a smaller steel section.
• Size of sheeting = 1.8mx0.830m

• Thickness = 1.1mm
(a min. of 0.7 mm ie recommended)

• Yield strength of sheet = 250

Advantages of Profiled decking floors

• Do not need form work.

• Lightweight concrete is used resulting in

reduced dead weight.

• Decking distributes shrinkage strains, thus

prevents serious cracking.

• Decking stabilizes the beam against lateral

buckling, until the concrete hardens.
Shear Connectors
 Shear connectors are an essential element of composite
construction if it is to perform adequately. The main purpose of the
shear connector is to provide longitudinal shear resistance between
the materials so that they act compositely and to facilitate the
interaction between the different materials and to allow them to
act as one. (MCRMA, 2003)
 The shear connection between steel beams and concrete slabs is
typically achieved by headed steel studs, welded to the top flange
of the steel beam and subsequently encased in concrete. The
performance of the studs depends on their dimensions and the
spacing along the flange of the beam. Near supports, where the
shear forces are greatest, the spacing is reduced. Shear studs can
be welded through steel decking.
Types of Shear Connectors
 Headed Studs
 The most common form of connecting materials compositely is
with the use of headed shear studs. The behaviour of headed
studs does not vary significantly when concrete properties are
changed. Resistance to shear depends on the number of studs
used and performance is less that that achieved by more
modern shear connectors such as the Perfobondstrip or a
welded T-Section. (Zingoni, 2001)
 The advantages of stud connectors is that the welding process is
quick and simple, the placement of the studs does not interfere
with the placement of reinforcement within the slab and they
provide uniform resistance to shear in all directions normal to the
axis of the stud. (Johnson, 2004)
• Mechanical connectors are used to develop the
composite action between steel beams and concrete.
• This connection is provided mainly to resist
longitudinal shear, and is referred to as the “ shear

• Shear stud diameter ≤ ¾” or ≤ 2.5 tf (prevent tear out).
 (tf – thickness of flange or steel deck )

• Shear studs must extend 1½” above top of deck

• They must transfer direct shear at their base.

• They must create a tensile link into the concrete.

• They must be economic to manufacture and fix.

• Spacing of studs :
Ribs parallel:-
Longitudinal – 6 x stud diameter
Transverse – 4 x stud diameter
Ribs perpendicular:- 4 x stud diameter (long. And trans.)
Maximum spacing 4 x slab thickness or 600mm.
Oscillating Perfobondstrip
 The curved form of an oscillating perfobondstrip provides better
force transfer between steel and concrete than a continuous strip.
The load capacity of this connector is larger than a headed stud or
welded T-Section. This form of connector is most suited to light
weight concrete or high strength normal weight concrete. Problems
with this form of connection are difficulties in welding the section to
the steel beam. (Zingoni, 2001)

Conventional and innovative composite beams


 Welded T-Section connectors perform very well in comparison to

headed studs and achieve the same load resistance as oscillating
perfobondstrip. Load capacity increases when Light Weight
Concrete or high strength concrete is used.
 The objective of the curved form is to improve the transfer of force
between the steel and the surrounding concrete as opposed to a
straight connector.
 This connector is a section of a standard T-section welded to the H
or I section with two fillet welds (Figure 7).T-connectors evolved from
the observation by Oguejiofor (1997) that a large part of the
bearing capacity of a perfobond strip was the result of the direct
bearing of the concrete at the front end of the (discontinuous)
perfobond strip.

 Channel connectors might not need inspection procedures, such as

bending test of headed studs, due to strength of most specimens is lower
than their monotonic strength by about 10 to 23%.

Millennium Tower (Vienna - Austria)

 55 storeys
 Total height 202 m
 Total ground floor 38000 m2
 Time of erection: 8 months
42,3 m

Concrete slab
Concrete core

Composite Slim floor beams

Composite columns frame

Total time of erection: 8 month

max. speed 2 to 2.5 storeys per week!
Parking deck “DEZ” (Innsbruck - Austria)

 4 storeys
 Ground dimensions 60 x 30 m
 Max. span length 10.58 m with
26 cm slim floor slab (= l/40)
Erection of composite columns over 2 storeys
Assembly of prefabricated concrete slabs


Cross section of the slim-floor beam and slab

-200 mm concrete slab
-60 mm prefabricated concrete elements
-steel beam: web 165/20 mm
flange 245/40 mm
-headed studs: 22 mm
 In the comparative study includes,
• Deflections of the members,
• Size and material consumption of members in composite
with respect to R.C.C. and Steel sections.

 Project details:
• Here Zone IV is taken as per IS 1893 : 2000, a typical office
building plan is selected with area covering 24 m x 42 m.
• Modeling was done with ETABS
End of Presentation