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ELECTRICAL

MACHINES

Static Machines Dynamic Machines

AC & DC AC & DC
Transformer GENERATOR MOTORS
Electrical Machinery Fundamentals
An Electrical Machine is a device that can
convert either mechanical energy to electrical energy
(Generator) or electrical energy into mechanical
energy (Motors). Almost all practical motors and
generators convert energy from one form to another
through the action of a magnetic field.
Magnetic Field
are the fundamental mechanism by which
energy is converted from one to another in motors,
generator, and transformers.
4 Basic Principles of Magnetic Field
1. A current-carrying wire produces magnetic field in
the area around it.
4 Basic Principles of Magnetic Field
2. A time-changing magnetic field induces a voltage
in a coil of wire if it passes through that coil. (This is
the basis of transformer action.)
4 Basic Principles of Magnetic Field
3. A moving wire is the presence of a magnetic field
has a voltage induced in it. (This is the basis of
generator action.)
4 Basic Principles of Magnetic Field
4. A current-carrying wire in the presence of a
magnetic field has a force induced on it. (This is the
basis of a motor action.
TRANSFORMER
is an electrical device that is closely related to
electrical machines. It converts AC Electrical energy at one
voltage to AC Electrical voltage level (Step up or Step
down).
AC MOTORS
Split Phase Motor
is an AC motor of fractional horsepower size
and is used to operate such devices as washing
machines, oil burners, and small pumps.
Split Phase Motor
4 Main Parts:
1. Rotor – the rotating part
2. Stator – a stationary part
3. End plates or brackets
4. Centrifugal Switch – located inside the motor.
Split Phase Motor
The Rotor consist of 3 elements.
1. Core that is made up of sheets of high-
grade electrical sheet steel called laminations.
2. Shaft on which the laminated iron core is
pressed.
3. Squirrel cage winding consisting of heavy
copper bars which are placed in slots in the iron core.
Split Phase Motor
The Rotor
Split Phase Motor
The Stator
The stator of a split-phase motor is composed
of a laminated iron core with semiclosed slots, a
heavy cast iron or steel frame into which the core is
pressed, and two windings of insulated copper wire
that are wound into the slots called Running and
Starting Windings.
Split Phase Motor
The Stator
Split Phase Motor
The End Plates (End Shields or Brackets)
are fastened to the stator frame by means of
screws or bolts and serve mainly to keep the rotor in
position. These sustain the rotor, keep it precisely
centered within the stator, and permit rotation without
allowing the rotor to rub on the stator.
Split Phase Motor
The End Plates (End Shields or Brackets)
are fastened to the stator frame by means of
screws or bolts and serve mainly to keep the rotor in
position. These sustain the rotor, keep it precisely
centered within the stator, and permit rotation without
allowing the rotor to rub on the stator.
Split Phase Motor
Centrifugal Switch
Its function is to disconnect the starting winding
after the rotor has reached the 75% Full speed.
2 Main Parts
 Stationary part – located on the front end plate
and has two contacts.
 Rotating part – located on the rotor.
Split Phase Motor
Centrifugal Switch
When the motor is at standstill, the two contacts
on the stationary part of the switch are kept closed
by the pressure of the rotating part. At
approximately 75% of full speed, the rotating part
releases its pressure against the contacts and causes
them to open, thus automatically disconnecting the
starting winding.
Split Phase Motor
Operation of a Split Phase Motor
Generally there are three separate windings in
the split phase:
 Squirrel cage winding – consists of a number of
heavy copper bars that are fitted into slots in the
laminated iron core.
 Main (Running) Winding – winding of heavy
insulated copper wire and is located at the bottom
of the stator slots.
Split Phase Motor
Operation of a Split Phase Motor
Generally there are three separate windings in
the split phase:
 Auxiliary (Starting) Winding – winding of fine
insulated copper wire and is located on top of the
running winding.
Split Phase Motor
Operation of a Split Phase Motor
Generally there are three separate windings in
the split phase:
 Auxiliary (Starting) Winding – winding of fine
insulated copper wire and is located on top of the
running winding.
Split Phase Motor
Reversing the Split Phase
Split Phase Motor
Two Speed Split Phase Motor
Since the speed of an induction motor is
governed by the number of its poles, to change the
speed of a split-phase motor, it is necessary to
change the number of poles.
Split Phase Motor
Two Speed Split Phase Motor ( 2 Running, 1 Starting)
3 windings are needed for this variable-speed
motor. Usually these motors are wound for 6 and 8
poles and run at speed of approximately 1,150 and
875 r.p.m., respectively. Their most common use is in
electric fans.