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EVAPORATION

SUBMITTED TO :ER. D.S BUNKAR SIR


BY:
ZAKAREYA ALI
SANYA SHARMA
DEPARTMENT OF DAIRY TECHNOLOGY AND FOOD
SCIENCE
CONTENTS:

 INTRODUCTION
 EVAPORATION
 METHOD OF OPERATION
 EVAPORATOR
 TYPES OF EVAPORATORS
 EFFECT ON FOODS
Introduction

 Frequently in the food industry a raw material or a


potential foodstuff contains more water than is
required in the final product.
 When the food stuff is liquid, the easiest method of
removing the water, in general, is to apply heat to
evaporate it.
EVAPORATION

 Evaporation is a physical separation process, which


removes a volatile component from a liquid solution
or mixture by vaporization, obtaining a concentrated
product of the nonvolatile components.
 For liquid foods, evaporation removes most of water
resulting in concentrated product which may be used
as such or processed further, e.g., by drying.
•Evaporation is used extensively in concentrating fruit
and vegetables juices, milk, coffee extracts and in
refining sugar and salt.
• Reduction of the water content:
a. reduces weight and volume of the product,
b. cutting storage and transportation costs, and
c. improving the storage stability of the product.
• Evaporation is established as the major process of
concentrating liquid foods, although some new
methods offer special advantages, such as freeze
concentration and reverse osmosis.
•Changes to food quality that result from the
relatively severe heat treatment are minimised by
the design and operation of the
equipment.
•Evaporation is more expensive in energy
consumption than other methods of
concentration (membrane concentration) and freeze
concentration but a higher degree of concentration
can be achieved
EVAPORATOR

 Evaporators are widely used in the food processing


industry to remove a portion of the water from food
products. This reduces bulk and weight for
subsequent processing, increases solids content (as
for jams and molasses), helps in preservation of the
product, provides convenience to the end consumer
and concentrates color or flavor.
•An evaporator is a device used to turn the
liquid form of a chemical into its gaseous
form. The liquid is evaporated, or vaporized,
into a gas. Many types of evaporators and
many variations in processing techniques
have been developed to various products.
The main components of evaporators are:

•A feed preheater to bring the feed close to the boiling point


•A feed distribution system to distribute the feed equally between the tubes
•An energy supply, usually steam or electricity
•A method of heat transfer to the boiling liquid
•Vapor/liquid separators to separate the vapor with minimal liquid carryover
•A vacuum system to keep the boiling temperature low
•A condenser to remove energy from the vapor and/or to help maintain the
vacuum

Integration and optimization of each of these components is necessary to


obtain the most efficient
evaporation process to produce concentrated products with high quality.
THEORY
•During evaporation, sensible heat is transferred
from steam to the food, to raise the
temperature to its boiling point.
• Latent heat of vaporisation is then supplied by the
steam to form bubbles of vapour, which leave the
surface of the boiling liquid.
•The rate of evaporation is determined by both the
rate of heat transfer into the food and the rate of
mass transfer of vapour from the food.
Heat and mass balances
•Heat and mass balances are used to calculate the degree of
concentration, energy use and processing times in an evaporator.
• The mass balance states that ‘the mass of feed entering the evaporator
equals the mass of product and vapour removed from the evaporator’.
For the water component, this is given by:
mf (1- Xf )= mp(1 - Xp)+ mv
•.For solutes, the mass of solids entering the evaporator equals the mass
of solids leaving the evaporator:
mfXf = mpXp
•The total mass balance is mf = mp+ mv
•Heat supplied by steam = Sensible heat + Latent
heat of vaporisation
Factors influencing the rate of heat
transfer
The following factors influence the rate of heat transfer and
hence determine processing
times and the quality of concentrated products:
1. Temperature difference between the steam and boiling
liquid. There are two options to increase the temperature
difference: to increase the pressure and temperature of
the steam or to reduce the temperature of the boiling
liquid by evaporating under a partial vacuum.
2.Deposits on heat transfer surfaces. The ‘fouling’ of
evaporator surfaces reduces the rate of
heat transfer. It depends on the temperature difference
between the food and the heated
surface and the viscosity and chemical composition of the
food. For example, denaturation
of proteins or deposition of polysaccharides cause the food
to burn onto hot surfaces.
Fouling is reduced in some types of equipment by
continuously removing food from the
evaporator walls
3.Boundary films. A film of stationary liquid at the
evaporator wall is often the main resistance to heat
transfer. The thickness of the boundary film is reduced by
promoting convection currents within the food or by
mechanically induced turbulence. The viscosity of many
foods increases as concentration proceeds. This reduces
the Reynolds number and hence reduces the rate of heat
transfer. In addition, more viscous foods are in contact with
hot surfaces for longer periods and, as a result, suffer
greater heat damage.
METHODS OF OPERATION OF
EVAPORATION

1. Single-effect evaporation
2.Multiple- effect evaporation
SINGLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR

The feed enters at TF ,Saturated steam at TS enters the heat-


exchange section , Condensed steam leaves as
condensate or drips
i. The solution in the evaporator is assumed to be completely
mixed
ii. Hence, the concentrated product and the solution in the
evaporator have the same composition
iii. Temperature T1 is the boiling point of the solution
iv. The temperature of the vapor is also T1, since it is in
equilibrium with the boiling solution
v. The pressure is P1, which is the vapor pressure of the
solution at T1
xi. If the solution to be evaporated is assumed to be dilute and
like water, then 1 kg of steam condensing will evaporate
approximately 1 kg of vapor (if the feed
entering has TF near the boiling point)
x. Single-effect evaporators are often used when the required
capacity of operation is relatively small and/or the cost of
steam is relatively cheap compared to the evaporator cost
xi. However, for large-capacity operation, using more than one
effect will markedly reduce steam costs
MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR

• Multiple effect evaporation, in which several evaporators (or


‘effects’) are connected together. Vapour from one effect is
used directly as the heating medium in the next.
•the vapour can only be used to boil liquids at a lower boiling
temperature.
•The effects must therefore have progressively lower
pressures in order to maintain the
temperature difference between the feed and the heating
medium.
Types Of Evaporators

The more common types of


evaporators include:-

1. Batch pan Evaporators.


2. Forced circulation.
3. Natural circulation.
4. Rising film tubular.
5. Falling film tubular.
6. Rising/falling film tubular.
1. BATCH PAN EVAPORATOR
•The batch pan evaporator is one of the simplest and
oldest types of evaporators used in food industry. Now-a-
days it is outdated technology, but it still used in a few
limited applications, such as the concentration of jams and
jellies.
• In batch pan evaporator the product is heated in a steam
jacketed spherical vessel. The heating vessel may be open
to the atmosphere or connected to the condenser and
vacuum. The heat transfer area per unit volume is in batch
pan evaporator is small. Thus, the residence time normally
is many hours. Therefore, it is essential to boil at low
temperatures and high vacuum when a heat sensitive or
thermo degradable product is involved
. ADVANTAGES
1. Used for both small scale & large scale operation.
2. Simple in construction and easy to operate.
3. Low maintenance & installation cost.
4. Wide variety of materials.

DISADVANTAGE
1. Heat economy is less.
2. Not suitable for heat sensitive materials.
3. Heat decreases on product concentration.
4. Since, open type so vapor passes to atmosphere.
USES
Concentrating aqueous and thermo-stable liquors.
Eg. Cooking pickels, liquorice extract etc.
2.NATURAL CIRCULATION
EVAPORATORS
NATURAL CIRCULATION
EVAPORATORS

• Short vertical tubes, typically 1-2 m long and


50- 100 mm in diameter, are arranged inside the
tubes, and the product is concentrated.
• The concentrated liquid falls back to the base
of the vessel through a central annular section. A
shell-and-tube heat exchanger can be provided
outside the main evaporation vessel to preheat
the liquid feed.
CONSTRUCTION :
Consist of long cylindrical body made up of
cast iron with dome shaped top and bottom.
Calandria are fitted at the bottom. Calandria
consist of number of vertical tubes with
diameter 0.05- 0.075 meters & length of 1-2
meters. About 100 such tubes are fitted in the
body of 2.5 mtr. Inlets are provided for steam
and feed. Outlets are provided for vapor,
concentrated products, non-condensed gases
and condensate.
ADVANTAGES:
These evaporators have low construction and maintenance
costs, high flexibility and higher rates of heat transfer than
open or closed pans, when used with relatively low viscosity
liquids .
DISADVANTAGES:
They are generally unsuited to high-viscosity liquors as there
is poor circulation of liquor and a high risk of food burning
onto the tube walls.
USES:
They are used for concentrating syrups, salt and fruit juices.
3. FORCED CIRCULATION
EVAPORATION
FORCED CIRCULATION EVAPORATOR:

Liquid is circulated through the tubes at high


pressure by means of pump. Hence boiling does not
takes place as boiling point is elevated. Forced
circulation creates agitation. When liquid leaves the
tube and enters the vapour head, pressure falls
suddenly. This leads to flashing of superheated
liquor. Thus evaporation is effected.
CONSTRUCTION:

Heating unit consists of steam jacketed tubes.


Inlets are provided for steam and feed. Outlets
are provided for vapour, concentrated
products, non condensed gases and condensate.
Pump is connected near the inlet.
ADVANTAGES:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is high
2. Salting, scaling are possible
3. Suitable for high viscous preparations

DISADVANTAGES:
1. Equipment is expensive
2. More power supply is required

USES:
1. Crystallizing operations
4.RISING FILM EVAPORATOR
Rising Film Evaporator:
• liquid feed enters from the bottom of steam
heated tubes. The parallel movement of liquid
and vapor along tube surface imparts effective
water evaporation from the liquid feed. This type
of evaporator is ideal for liquids which attain
high viscosity or have fouling tendency.

•The Long Tube Vertical evaporator is


frequently called arising or climbing film
evaporator . The liquid starts boiling at the lower
part of the tube and the liquid and vapor flow
upward through the tube .
•If the heat transfer rate is significantly higher,
the ascending flows generated due to higher
specific volume of the vapor-liquid mixture ,
causes liquid and vapor to flow upwards in
parallel flow.

•The liquid flows as a thin film along the tube


wall. This co-current upward movement against
gravity has the advantageous effect of creating a
high degree of turbulence in the liquid. This is
useful during evaporation of highly viscous and
fouling solutions.
ADVANTAGES:
1. Large area for heat transfer
2. Enhanced heat transfer
3. Suitable for heat sensitive materials
4. Used for foam forming liquids
5. Instrument needs less space

DISADVANTAGES:
1. Expensive, construction is quite
complicated
2. Cleaning and maintenance is quite
difficult
3. Large head space required
5. FALLING-FILM
EVAPORATOR
FALLING- FILM EVAPORATOR

•Liquid is fed from top and flow down as a thin


film,
the liquid becomes vapour and forms small
bubbles. They tend to fuse to form layers of
bubbles. Concentration takes place during
downward journey. Vapour and liquid are
separated at the bottom.
•Used widely for concentrating heat sensitive
materials such as orange juice and other fruit
juice Holdup time is very small (5-10) High heat
transfer coefficient (due to high velocities )
ADVANTAGES
1. Suitable for high viscous liquids
2. Liquid hold up time is less
3. Liquid is not overheated
4. Highly acidic and corrosive feeds can be
concentrated

DISADVANTAGES
1. Not for suspensions, salting and scaling liquids
2. 2. Poor feed distribution in tubes
3. 3. Feed ratio is high
USES
1. Separate volatile and non volatile liquids
2. Concentration of yeast extract
3. Manufacture of gelatin
4. Extracts of tea and coffee
6.RISING/FALLING-FILM EVAPORATOR
Rising/Falling Evaporator:

• In the rising/falling evaporator, the


product is concentrated by circulation
through a rising-film section followed by a
falling-film section of the evaporator.
• The product is first concentrated as it
ascends through a rising tube section,
followed by preconcentrated product
descending through a falling-film section,
there it attains its final concentration.
EFFECTS ON FOODS

•Evaporation darkens the colour of foods, partly because


of the increase in concentration of solids, but also
because the reduction in water activity promotes
chemical changes.

•As these changes are time and temperature


dependent, short residence times and low boiling
temperatures produce concentrates which
have a good retention of sensory and nutritional
qualities.
•Vitamins A and D and niacin are unaffected.
•Additional vitamin losses occur during storage (for
example 50% loss of vitamin C in marmalade over 12
months at 18ºC and 10% loss of thiamin over 24 months in
peanut butter at 18ºC).
THANK YOU