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Sharmaine Faith Basilio-Gagelonia, RMT

Definition Of Terms
Histology- is derived from the Greek words histos
and logia.

Anatomy can be subdivided into:

Gross Anatomy-
Microscopic Anatomy-

Microscopic Anatomy can be further subdivided

A knowledge of normal is necessary prelude to
the study of the abnormal which deals with
alterations in structure and function of the body
and of its organs, tissues and cells caused by
To understand cells and tissues is to appreciate
the common properties they have shared since
their embryonic origin, the special propensities
acquired during maturation, the minuteness of
their most important parts, metabolic balance
within which they operate normally, and the
case with which all of this can be altered to give
conditions we define as disease.
Cells- fundamental structural units of living

Two basic types of Cell

1. - identified by the presence of
a true nucleus surrounded nuclear membrane.
2. - cells that lacks nuclear
envelope, and the nuclear substance is mixed
with or is in contact with the rest of the

are enclosed by a delicate membrane consisting of
Has a variety of physiological properties indicating cellular
1. Irritability
2. Contractility
3. Conductivity
4. Absorption
5. Secretion and Excretion
6. Respiration
7. Growth and Reproduction
General Ultrastructure Of the Cell (LM)
Spherical in shape
Depends mainly on functional adaptations and partly on
the surface tension and viscosity of the protoplasm
Cytoplasmic microtubule- influence the shape of the cell
The great majority of cells are visible only with the use of
the microscope since they are only a few microns in
Can be studied only with the aid of the microscope

Regulates the entrance and exit of nutritive

and secretory substances
Resistant and highly elastic
 Protoplasm outside the nucleus which contains the different
organelles and inclusions of the cell
 Even, homogenous and amorphous appearance

Chemical composition of Cytoplasm

 Water-75%
 Salts
 Lipids
 Carbohydrates
 Proteins
 Nucleic acids
 Cations
 Anions

“active internal organs” composed of living

differentiated cytoplasm
Golgi bodies
Endoplasmic reticulum

Ingested substances which are temporary

Secretory Granules
Fat Globules
Glycogen deposit
Pigment granules

Found in all cells except mature erythrocytes

and platelets
Usually spherical or ovoid
3-4microns in diameter, 25microns (large
ganglion cells)
Usually single
Stains blue(basophilic)-Feulgen technique
Structures of the Nucleus
 Nuclear membrane/envelope
-Appears as a clear outline in both the cytoplasm and nuclear sides
 Nuclear sap or Karyoplasm
-The clear or empty areas of the nucleus, semi fluid, colloidal solution in
which the chromatin material are suspended
- Serves as a medium for diffusion
 Chromatin particles
-Represents part of the chromosomes which do not disperse after mitosis
 Nucleolus
-More in number in younger cells, but disappear as the cell matures.

Outer thin dense line 8.5-10nm, trilaminar

appearing membrane surrounding the cell
Selective permeability
Possesses devices for:
Cell attachment and cell to cell communicator
Ion pumps for regulation of cellular internal
Receptors for hormone
Serves as a wall of protection between the
cytoplasm and external environment
Interpretations of the organization of
the cell membrane
 The Classical Model of Davson
and Danielli
 Postulates a lipid center
sandwiched by a coat of protein
on each surface

 The “Fluid Mosaic Model” of

Singer and Nicholson
 Proposes that membrane proteins
are globular and float like
icebergs in a sea of lipid
Small molecules pass through plasmalemma

Large molecules enter by:

 - local invagination of the plasma
membrane enclosing fluid to form a membrane
bound vesicle in the cell.
 - similar process involving particulate
Ultrastructure Of The Cell (EM)

Cell coat; external surface of the plasma membrane

covered with glycoprotein and polysaccharides
Can be demonstrated with Periodic Acid Schiff stain
Very thick in microvilli or epithelial cells of intestinal
mucosa and very thin in myelin sheath
Functions of cell surface:
 Filtration barrier
 Ion permeability in nerve and muscle cells
 Receptor sites for different chemicals
 Immunological properties

Cytoplasmic organelle consisting of complex network

of tubules on flattened membranes
7nm thick, encloses a space called cisterna
Two distinct forms of Endoplasmic
1. - irregular network of branching and anastomosing tubules
that continuous with flattened saccular structures called cisternae
 Studded with ribosomes
 - site of protein synthesis which will be transmitted to golgi
complex for packaging and ultimate secretion outside the cell
 - when ribosomes attach to strands of messenger RNA
 - when cells are disrupted and subjected to differential
2. - devoid of ribosomal granules
 Release and recapture of calcium ions and the cycle of contraction and
 Biosynthesis of steroid hormones in endocrine glands
 Cholesterol and lipid metabolism and detoxification
 Synthesis of neutral fats and formation of HCL

 Primarily involved in the generation of energy

 Membrane bound organelles
 Not visible in routine H and E, slender rods/ threadlike
 Self-replicating in living cells
 Vary in number depending on the cellular activity
 Present in eukaryotic cells
 Primary function: synthesize Adenosine triphosphate
 Mobile power plant of the cell
 Electron microscopy:
 Complex internal structure
 Enclosed by two smooth-surface trilaminar membranes
 - inner membrane courses parallel to the outer membrane
forming narrow pleats or folds that project into the interior of the organelle

 Major function: packaging of secretory product in a membrane capable of

fusing with the plasmalemma during exocytosis

 Small dense bodies of varying size and shape limited by a membrane and
containing a number of hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion
 Essential roles in cellular defense mechanisms
 Its enzymes are collectively referred as “acid hydrolases”
 Constitute an intracellular digestive system capable f breaking down
material originating both outside and inside the cell
 Found in all cells except erythrocytes

 Centropheres or cell centers

 Specialized zone of cytoplasm containing the centrioles
 Center of activities associated with cell division
 Called diplosome in non-dividing cells

 Self duplicating organelles that exhibit continuity from one cell generation
to the next
 Double in number immediately before cell division
 Prominent in mitosis
 Essential for the formation of cilia and flagella
 Serves as basal bodies and sites of epithelial cilia
 - hairlike processes and numerous in epithelial cells of
the upper respiratory tract, parts of female and male reproductive tracts
and epyndymal lining the cavities of the CNS
 - longer than cilia, show different undulating wave type
of movement

 Has similar structure with lysosomes but does not contain lysosomal
 Contain several enzymes involved in production or destruction
 Numerous in hepatic parenchymal cells and proximal convoluted tubules

 Can only be seen with the aid of EM

Serve as cytoskeletal and contractile

requirements of both individual cells and tissues
 Two basic categories:
 Microfilaments- less than 8mm in diameter
- most are contractile
- promote cell shape changes or motility
 Intermediate filaments- 8-12mm in diameter
- non contractile

 Slender, cylindrical structures

 Important functional elements of the spindle apparatus in dividing cells
 Forms the mitotic spindle along which the chromosomes move during
 Play a role in maintaining diverse cell shape, closely associated with
 Tubulins(microtubular protein)- closely resemble muscle protein

 Visible only in EM
 Consists of parallel arrays of cisternae showing annuli or circular fenestrae
at regular intervals along their length
 Carry information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
 Seen in rapidly dividing cells

 Lifeless accumulations of metabolites or cell products regarded as

dispensable and often temporary constituents of cells
 Pigments, lipids, glycogen, crystals, secretory granules and vacuoles
 Pigment
 material with natural color as they do not require staining dyes
 two types:
o Exogenous- formed outside the body
-carotenes, dusts, carbon, minerals, lead, tattoo
o Endogenous- formed within the body
- two types:
 - dark-brown, black pigment found in melanocytes
 - hemosiderin and bilirubin
Hemosiderin- golden brown iron containing pigment resulting
from destruction of hemoglobin
Lipofuscin- yellowish brown granules occurring in many cells;
wear and tear pigment
 – stored in connective tissue cells
- may form into adipose tissue
- Round, clear areas in cytoplasm
 - stored carbohydrate in the liver
- can be stained with PAS(brilliant red color)
 - not bounded by membranes, free in the cytoplasm
- seen as regular lattice pattern in EM
 - large, spherical granules(pancreatic acinar cells)
 - storage activity

 Found in all cells except erythrocytes and platelets

 Archive of the cell
 Source of ribosomal, messenger and transfer RNA
 Nuclear envelope: thin, dark staining membrane
 Nuclear pore: aid in exchange of materials between nucleoplasm and
 karyoplasm: semifluid, colloidal solution in which chromatin material and
nucleolus are suspended, serves as a medium for the diffusion of
metabolites and larger macromolecules
• Occurs in all adult cell types, except CNS
• Related to the demand for growth and replacement of tissues
• Involves in cytokinesis and karyokinesis

The process whereby a somatic cell divides to form two

daughter cells identical to each other and to the parent
Doubling the DNA content and subsequent equal
distribution of genetic material between the two daughter
Four Stages Of Mitosis

 Prophase- has four structural changes

1. Chromatin threads become condensed,
shortened and thickened
o Each chromosome is split longitudinally in half-
o The two halves are attached to centromere

2. Pair of centrioles adjacent to the nucleus

starts to duplicate and start to move away at
opposite poles or ends of the cell
3. Nucleolus gradually disappears, its content
being attached to some of the chromatids
4. Nuclear envelope starts to disintegrate,
becoming less obvious and thinner---breaks
down into small vesicles.
Metaphase- all the
chromosomes move
to the center of the
cell in relation to the
spindle and are
arranged at the
equatorial plate
Late Phase- a total split
of the two chromatids
of each chromosomes
occurs at the
Anaphase- daughter
chromosomes move to
the opposite poles of
the cell; even
distribution of
Late Phase- a band like
constriction occurs
around the cell
 Telophase- chromosomes
detach from chromosomal
microtubules at each pole of
the cell; microtubules
- chromosomes start to
elongate or disperse, becomes
less distinct and only some portions
remain tightly coiled as
- nucleoli reappear,
nuclear envelop reforms, nucleus
- cleavage furrow
deepens in the midbody

 All somatic cells
contain a diploid
number of
chromosomes (46), but
gametes contain only
the haploid number
(23) having only a
member of each pair
of chromosomes
 End product: four non-
identical haploid
daughter cells
Epithelial Cells
General Characteristics

 Arranged in closely compact manner with scanty

intercellular substances
 It is avascular
 Are moist except the epidermis of the skin can be
arranged in the form of masses like the adrenal gland
and the cells of the parathyroid gland

 Protection- epidermis of the skin

 Absorption- epithelium of the small intestine
 Excretion- epithelium of the kidney
 Secretion- glandular epithelium
 Sensory reception neuro-epithelium
 Lubrication- goblet cells and sebaceous glands
 Reproduction- lining epithelium of the seminiferous
tubules and germinal epithelium of the ovary
Nomenclature of Epithelia

Based on:
Number of layers
Simple/non-stratified-only one cell layer
Complex/stratified-more than one layer of cells
Shape of the cells on the free surface
* The first word in the name of an Epithelium
indicates the number of layers of cells while the
second word indicates the shape of the cells in
the free surface.
Classification and Distribution of Epithelial Tissues

1. Simple/non Stratified
1.1 Simple Squamous
1.1.1 Endothelium- lining of the blood vessel, lymph vessels and
cavities of the heart
1.1.2 Mesothelium- lining serous cavities like pleura, pericardium,
peritoneum and tunica vaginalis testis
1.1.3 Mesenchymal- lines the interior chamber of the eye, perilymph
spaces of the internal ear, subdural and sub arachnoid spaces
1.1.4 Flattened cells- lining the pulmonary alveoli, Bowman’s Capsule
1.2 Simple Columnar
 Subdivided into:
1.2.1 Simple plain Columnar Simple Plain Tall Columnar- mucosa of the stomach, small and large intestine,
gall bladder, bigger ducts of glands Simple Plain Low columnar- smaller ducts of glands, some excretory tubules of
the kidney Cuboidal- thyroid follicles, choroid plexus, pigmented epithelium of the retina
1.2.2 Simple modified Columnar Simple Ciliated Columnar with:
 Motile Cilia- uterus and oviducts of fallopian tube
 Non-motile Cilia or Stereocilia- epididymis Pyramidal/Glandular Epithelium
 Serous Glandular- parotid gland and pancreas
 Mucous Glandular- sublingual glands Goblet Cell- found among cells of simple columnar epithelium of small and large
intestines and pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the respiratory tract Neuroepithelium
 Tastebuds
 Organ of Corti-internal ear
 Retina
 Olfactory epithelium Pigment Epithelium- retina
Simple Squamous Epithelium
 Very thin, flat cells
 Mosaic pattern
 Attenuated cytoplasm with central bulging nucleus
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
 Row of square or rectangular profile
 Nuclei tend to align at the same level in all of the cells
 Box like/cube like
Simple Columnar Epithelium Simple Ciliated Columnar
 A membrane composed of cylindrical cells
possessing an appreciable height aside
from length and width
 Nuclei are at the same level and situated  Possesses hairlike projection
nearer to the basal surface than the apical termed “cilia” on their distal end
surface  Direction of Cilia is always towards
 Associated with secretion or absorption the outside
Pyramidal or Glandular Epithelium

 Secretory and glandular function

Goblet Cells

 Unicellular mucous secreting gland

 “goblet”----expanded cup shaped rim of cytoplasm
 Organelles are composed towards the basal end and the golgi complex and
nucleus are well developed
 Columnar Cell
Difference of Serous and Mucous Glandular Cells

Serous Glandular Cells Mucous Glandular Cells

Acidophilic Pale, slightly basophilic

Granular cytoplasm Reticulated, non granular cytoplasm

Rounded Nucleus Flattened nucleus pushed towards the

basement membrane

Presence of intercellular and intracellular Not provided with canaliculi

secretory canaliculi

Narrow lumen of the acinus surrounded by Wider lumen surrounded by secreting cells
secreting cells
2. Complex or Stratified
2.1 Tall Columnar- innermost layer next to basement
membrane, cells are young with mitotic figures for replacement
of worn out cells, pigment granules are present in the cytoplasm
2.2 Polyhedral- with spherical dark staining nuclei becoming
vesicular as they reach the periphery, cells exhibit projections
giving a spiny appearance ”prickle cell layer” (stratum
2.3 Squamous/Flattened cells without nuclei- superficial layer
appearing like scales on the outer body surface, cells become
cornified or hardened, keratin prevents dehydration of
underlying cells, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
2.4 Squamous with nuclei- innermost surface of the body, non-
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, found in the epidermis
of the skin, lining of the oral cavity, epiglottis, esophagus and
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

 Appears to be composed of
several layers of cells when in
reality, there is only one layer
 All cells rest upon the basement
membrane but not all the cells
reach the surface
 Cells vary in shape
 Tall columnar
 Fusiform/spheroidal-male urethra,
duct of parotid gland, trachea,
primary bronchi, auditory tube
Transitional Epithelium

 Consist of many
layers(contracted stage)
 Deepest layer- one or two
 Pyriform/pear shaped cells-
one to three rows
 Superficial layer-
flattened/umbrella shaped
 Two layers(stretched)
 Superficial layer- large
flattened squamous cells
 Layer of cuboidal cells
 Thin basal lamina
 With degree of elasticity
 Appear very thin when
organ is distended and
thicker when the organ is
 Found in urinary bladder
Connective Tissue
Type of tissue that is mesodermal in origin which
provides structural and metabolic support for
other tissues and organs found widely distributed
in the human body.
Widely dispersed system of cells fibers and
ground substance associated with muscle,
nerve, vasculature and all body organs.
Fewer cells are set apart due to abundant
intercellular substance or ground substance
containing fibers, except blood

 Support and packaging

 Capsule that surrounds the organs and the internal architecture
 Tendons, ligaments, areolar tissue that fills the spaces between organs
 Bone and cartilage are types of connective tissue that function to support the soft tissues of the body
 Storage
 Lipids are stored in adipose tissue
 Loose connective tissue stores water and electrolytes
 Transport
 The connective tissue matrix serves as the medium through which nutrients and metabolic wastes are
exchanged between cells and their nourishing blood supply
 Defense
 Related to its content of phagocytic(macrophage) and antibody producing cells(plasma cells)
 Repair
 Has a great capacity for regeneration

 Connective tissue cell

 Fixed Cells
 Permanent resident population
 Responsible for production and maintenance of extracellular components
 Storage for reserve fuel (fibroblasts, fat cells, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, reticular cells)
 Wandering or mobile cells
 Transient immigrant from the bloodstream
 Concerned with the short term tissue reaction in injury(neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, mast cells, plasma cells,

 Abundant gel-like ground substance or matrix rich in tissue fluid

 Extracellular matrix
 Proteoglycans, collagen, elastic fibronectin, chondronectin and laminin

 Extracellular proteinaceous connective tissue fibers

 Collagen fibers
 Reticular fibers
 Elastic fibers
Types of Connective tissue:

A.Connective Tissue Proper

1. Loose Connective Tissue
• Loosely arranged in a meshwork as in the loose areolar or fibro-elastic
2. Dense Connective tissue
• Fibers are compactly or closely packed
• Divided into:
o Dense regular connective tissue- fibers are arranged in flat sheets or parallel
bundles as in tendons and fascia
 Tendons
 Ligaments
 Fascia and aponeurosis
 Cornea
o Dense irregular connective tissue- fibers are closely interwoven in random way
 Dermis of the skin
 Capsule of organs
 Tendon sheats
Connective Tissue with Special properties

 Mucous Connective Tissue- Wharton’s Jelly of Umbilical Cord

 Elastic Connective Tissue- ligamentum nuchae, true vocal chords
 Reticular connective tissue- framework of lymphoid organs, liver and the
bone marrow
 Adipose or fat connective tissue- white or yellow fat
 Pigment Connective tissue- choroid and iris
 Embryonal Connective tissue- uterine mucosa
 Lymphoid or adenoid connective tissue- lymphoid organs
 Interstitial connective tissue of lung, testis and ovary (fibro-reticular)
 Connective tissue of the lung, testis and ovary (fibro-reticular)
Varieties of Connective Tissue Cells

 Fibroblasts
 Synthesize collagen and elastic fibers and glycosaminoglycan of the amorphous intercellular substance
 Secrete procollagen molecules into the intercellular matrix
 Macrophage(phagocytes,histiocytes)
 Most abundant in richly vascularized areas
 irregularly shaped cells, capable of amoeboid movement with pseudopodia
 Important agents of defense
 Act as scavengers because of their mobility and phagocytic activity engulfing extravasated blood cells,
bacteria, foreign bodies and dead cells
 Play a fundamental role in development of immunity
 Fat Cells(adipose or adipocytes)
 Storage of neutral fats
 Incapable of mitotic division
 Can be stained with osmic acid
 Mast Cells
 The granules contain heparin(anticoagulant) and histamine(vasodilation and increases the
permeability of capillaries and small venules)
 Actively involved in anaphylactic sensitivity reactions
 Plasma Cells
 Ovoid, irregularly shaped cells, smaller than macrophage but larger than lymphocytes
 Nucleus are small and eccentrically placed
 Major producer of antibodies
 Pigment Cells
 Resemble fibroblasts whose cytoplasm contain pigment granules(melanosomes) that never invade
the nucleus
 Blood Leukocytes
 White blood cells are frequently found in connective tissues
 Lymphocytes- smallest of the free cells of connective tissue with spherical darkly staining nucleus,
they accumulate in chronic inflammation
 Two types:
o T lymphocytes- long lived and responsible for initiating cell mediated immune response
o B lymphocytes- short lived which are capable of transforming into large immature cells when stimulated by
an antigen
 Eosinophils- not numerous in connective tissue but abubdant in lactating breast and of the respiratory
and alimentary tracts
 Nucleus are usually bilobed with spherical granules which are highly refractile, staining with acid dyes.
 Accumulate in the blood and in the tissues in certain allergic, parasitic infections and subacute inflammatory
 Contain slight amount histamine and comparison with mast cells
 Neutrophils
 Round cells with a segmented nucleus ranging from 3 to 4 lobes.
 Granules are finer and neutropholic in staining
 Monocytes
 Rarely seen
 Considered as phagocytes because they become very amoeboid and often show inclusions that stain
supravitally with neutral red.
 Basophils
 Contains granules similar in composition and function to mast cells
Types of connective tissues fibers

 Collagen fibers (white)

 Most numerous type and found in all types of connective
 Consists of most abundant protein , collagen, representing 30 % of total
body proteins.
 Fresh collagen are colorless and homogenous strands, but showing of
fain longitudinal striations.
 Completely inelastic, has greater tensile strength than steel, it imparts a
unique combination of flexibility and strength the tissues in which it lies
 Vary from 1 to 2 micrometer
 Birefringent under polarized light
Elastic or Yellow fibers
 Thinner and highly refractile without longitudinal striations
 Branch and anastomose freely forming irregular networks
 Appear yellow
 Highly elastic capable of stretching to one and one half times their
length, yield easily to very small traction forces but return to original
shape when forces are relaxed.
Reticular or Argyrophyl fibers
 Small branching fibers which frequently form a netlike supporting
framework or reticulum
 Retricular fibers are often continuous with collagenous fibers
 Composed mainly of protein collagen
 Relatively sparse in adult connective tissues, except for regions around
muscle fibers, small blood vessels, fat cells in the fine portion of the lungs.
Table summarizing the properties of connective tissue fibers
APPEARANCE Colorless/white yellow Demonstrated by
special technique--
DISTRIBUTION Wide, tendon, joint Blood vessels, aorta, Lymphatic system
capsules and ligaments lung, elastic ligaments, particularly the spleen,
vocal cords support basement
STRUCTURE Coarse, long fibers in Fine fibers which branch Fine short fibers, which
wavy bundles, no to form a network, no branch to form a close
branching fibrils fibrils network, few fibrils
STRIATIONS EM. Transverse striation none Striations with periodicity
of those of collagen
TENSILE STRENGTH great little little
ELASTICITY Flexible but inelastic considerable little
Histophysiology of connective tissue

 Most are derived from mesoderm except the neuroglia or supporting tissues
of the CNS which is derived from the ectoderm and the reticulum of the
thymus which are derived from endoderm.