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The electromagnetic
spectrum consists of
different types of waves
called electromagnetic
waves or radiation
Common properties of EM waves:
▧ They carry energy from one place to
▧ They are transverse waves
▧ They do not use a medium to travel
▧ They can travel in a vacuum at a speed
of 3x108 m/s
▧ Obey wave equation: v=fʎ
▧ They show reflection, refraction,
absorption and interference
The EM

The waves in the various
regions of the EM spectrum
share similar properties but
differ in ʎ, f, and method of
Radio waves < 3x109 Hz > 108 nm

Microwaves 3x109 - 3x1012 Hz 105 – 108 nm

Infrared 3x1012 - 4,3x1014 Hz 700 – 105 nm

Visible Light 4,3x1014 - 7,5x1014Hz 400-700 nm

Ultraviolet 7,5x1014- 3x1016Hz 10-400 nm

X-rays 3x1016- 3x1017Hz 1-10 nm

Gamma rays > 3x1017Hz < 1 nm

Visible light waves
are the only electromagnetic
waves we can see.

We see these waves as the

colors of the rainbow. Each color
has a different wavelength.
Gamma rays
have the shortest wavelength,
highest frequency, and highest
Radio waves
have the longest wavelength,
lowest frequency, and lowest
Let’s talk about

Radio waves
Radio waves
▧ They are produced by making electrons
vibrate in an antenna.

▧They are used to transmit sound and

picture information over long distances.
Radio waves
▧Low frequency waves are suitable for
communication over great distances.
▧High frequency waves can be reflected by
the ionosphere. This enables the waves to
be transmitted over great distances.
▧ Medium and high frequency waves are
used for broadcasting by local radio
Thin amount of plastic wrap, wax
paper, cotton and rubber are not
likely to interfere with

Radio waves
However, aluminum foil and
other electrically conducive
metals such as copper can reflect
and absorb it and interferes with
their transmission
Choose the letter that
corresponds to the best
answer on the following
1. Which of the following EM waves
has the longest wavelength in the
electromagnetic spectrum chart?

A. Infrared B. Microwaves
C. Radio waves D. Ultraviolet
2. Which of the following best explains
the characteristics of radio waves?

A. Radio waves have the longest

wavelength on the EM spectrum.
B. Radio waves are produced by making
electrons vibrate in an antenna.
C. Radio waves are used to transmit sound
and picture information over long distance.
D. All of the above.
3. Which of the following is the
correct application of radio waves?

A. Camera auto focusing

B. Radio broadcasting
C. diagnosis of bone fractures
D. sterilization of medical
4. Which band of frequency is
suitable for communication over great

A. Low frequency
B. Medium frequency
C. very low frequency
D. extremely low frequency
5. Which of the following is the
correct frequency range of
extremely high frequency band?

A. 3-30 Hz B. 30-300 Hz
C. 30-300 MHz D. 30-300 GHz
Any questions?
ASSIGNMENT (on your notebook)

Write the different regions of EM

spectrum and their specific uses and
effects (Table 18) pp. 111 of your
Science and Technology book.