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Electrical Machine Design (EE3220)

Transformer Design
Group-11
1603081
1603011
1603009
1603030
Course Teachers: 1603049
Dr. Mohammad Shaifur Rahman 1603053
Professor, dept. of EEE, KUET 1603056

Amit kumar Podder 1603094

Assistant Professor, dept. of EEE, KUET


Design Requirements:
Design a 500 KVA,6600/440V, 50Hz, 3-phase,Delta/Star, core type , oil immersed
natural cooled distribuition transformer. Maximum temperature rise not to exceed
45˚C with mean temperature rise of oil 35˚C.

Primary line Secondary


voltage, Vp = line voltage,
6600 V Vs = 440 V

3- Delta/
phase Star

Operating
KVA rating, Q
frequency, f
= 500 KVA Core type = 50 Hz
We Have to design:
cor
Regulati e Windi
Resistan ngs
Fram on
ce &
e Wind
Reactan
Tank ce Cooli ow
Yoke
Losses ng
& Syste
Efficien m
cy
Core
Design
Core design:
The value of k is taken from the table k=0.45 Type of Core K

Voltage per turn Et =K 𝑸 =.45 𝟓𝟎𝟎=10.062 V


Single phase shell type 1-1.2
Therefore Flux in the core ,
𝑬𝒕 𝟏𝟎.𝟎𝟔𝟐
Φm = = = 0.045326 Wb Single phase core type 0.75-0.85
𝟒.𝟒𝟒×𝒇 𝟒.𝟒𝟒×𝟓𝟎
Hot rolled silicon steel guard 92, 035mm
Three phase shell type 1.3
is used .
The value of flux density Bm is assumed Three phase core type(distribution) 0.45
as 1.1 Wb/m2.
0.045326 Single phase shell type(power) 0.6 to 0.7
Net iron Area, Ai= = 41205.18 mm2
𝟏.𝟏
Using a cruciform core , Ai =0.56d2
41205.18
Diameter of circumscribing circle , d = 𝟎.𝟓𝟔 =271 mm

Reference widths of laminations:


a=.85d=0.85× 271 =230.35 mm
b=.53d=0.53×271= 143.63 mm
The laminations are punched from 750 mm wide plates and the nearest standard
dimensions are:
a =231 mm and b =144 mm.
Iron loss = 775 W.

Area percentage of Square Cruciform Three Stepped Four stepped


circumscribing circle
Net core area,Ai 0.45 0.56 0.6 0.62
Window
Dimention
Window Dimention:
The window space factor for transformers having high KVA rating is, 𝑘𝑤
= 12/(30 + KV)
So, for our design, 𝑘𝑤 = 12/(30 +6.6) = 0.327
The nearest standard value is assumed as 0.33.
Now, the current density in the windings is taken as,
𝛿 = 3.2 𝐴/𝑚𝑚2
Output of transformer, Q = 3.33 × f × 𝐵𝑚 × 𝑘𝑤 × 𝛿 × 10^6 ×
Aw × d
So, Window area, Aw = 87858 mm2
Window Dimention:
Taking the ratio height to width of window as 2.5
𝐻𝑤 *𝑊𝑤 = Aw
Or, 2.5Ww2 = 87858
𝑊𝑤 = 187 mm
And height of window, Hw = 187 * 2.5 = 469 mm
Area of window provided, Aw = 469 * 187 = 87858.38752 mm2
Distance between adjacent core centers, D = 𝑊𝑤 + d
= 187 + 271
=458 mm
Yoke
Design
Yoke Design:
The area of Yoke is taken as 1.2 times that of limb.
Therefore, Flux density in Yoke = 1.1/1.2 = 0.9167 Wb/m2
Net area of Yoke =1.2× 41205.18 =49446 mm2
Gross area of Yoke =49446/0.9=54.94×103 mm2

Taking the section of Yoke as rectangular,


Depth of Yoke, Dy=a=222mm
54.94×103
Therefore, height of Yoke, Hy = ≈ 247mm
222
Overall
Dimensio
ns of
frame
Overall Dimensions of frame:
For 3 phase core type
transformer,
Height of frame, H = 𝐻𝑤 +2𝐻𝑦
= 469+2*247
=914 mm
Width of frame, W =2D+a
=2*459+231
=1149 mm
Depth of frame, 𝐷𝑦 = a
= 231 mm
Low
voltage
winding
Low voltage winding design:
Secondary line voltage = 440 volts; Connection = Star
Secondary phase voltage, 𝑉𝑠 = 440/ 3 = 254 volts.
No. of turns/phase, 𝑇𝑠 = 𝑉𝑠 /Et = 254/10.062 = 25
Secondary phase current, Is = (500*1000)/(3*254)= 656 A
Current Density, 𝛿 = 2.3 𝐴/𝑚𝑚2 is used.
Area of secondary conductor, 𝑎𝑠 = 721.5/2.3 = 285 𝑚𝑚2 .
From table 23.1(from book), which corresponds to width and thickness
of bare conductor.
Using a bare conductor, (22*10) 𝑚𝑚
Low voltage winding design:
Area of bare conductor, 𝐴𝑠 = 220 mm
Current density in secondary windings, 𝛿𝑠 = 721.5/250=2.98 A/𝑚2
Conductors are paper covered. The increasing dimensions on account
of paper covering is 0.5 mm.
So, dimensions of insulated conductors = 22*(23+0.5)=231 𝑚𝑚2
Using 3 layers for the winding
Helical winding is used,
25
Therefore space has to be provided for ( + 1) = 9 turns along the axial
3
depth.
Low voltage winding design:
Axial depth of LV winding,𝐿𝑐𝑠 = 9 *22.5 = 212 mm
The height of window is 𝐻𝑤 = 469 𝑚𝑚
This leaves a clearance of (469 – 212)/2 = 128 on each side of the winding.
Using 0.5mm pressboard cylinders between layers.
Radial depth of L.V Winding,
𝑏𝑠 = No. of layers * Radial depth of conductor + Insulation between layers
= 3*(10+0.5)+(2+0.5) mm = 32.5 mm.
Now, diameter of circumferential circle, d = 271mm
Using pressboard wraps 1.5 mm thick in insulation between low voltage
winding and core.
Inside diameter of LV winding =271+(2*1.5)= 274 mm
Outside diameter of LV winding =274+(2*32.5)= 339 mm
High
voltage
winding
High Voltage Winding:
Primary line voltage = 6600 volts ; Connection = Delta
Primary phase voltage, 𝑉𝑝 = 6600 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠
No. of turns/phase, 𝑇𝑝 = 6600 * 25/ 231 = 656
The voltage/coil is about =1320 volts.
Turns/coil = 689/5 = 131
Using 4 normal coils of 170 turns and reinforced coil of 180 turns total
HV turns provided = 4*170 + 180 = 860
High Voltage Winding:
Taking number layers/coil =13
Turns/layer = 170/13 =13
Maximum voltage between layers = 2*13*10.062 = 263 volts,
which is below the allowable limit.
High voltage winding phase current, 𝐼𝑝 = (500*1000)/(3*6600)
= 25.25 A
As the current is above 20A, contionous disc type coils are used for HV winding.
Taking a current density of 2.4 A/𝑚𝑚2 ,
Area of HV conductor, 𝑎𝑝 = 25.25/2.4 = 10.52 𝑚𝑚2
From table(book),
4∗10.52
Diameter of bare conductor =√( ) = 3.660 mm
𝜋
High Voltage Winding:
Using paper covered conductors (from table 23.4)
The nearest standard conductor size has :
Bare conductor = 3.75 mm, Insulated diameter = 3.975 mm with fine
covering.
Modified area of conductor, 𝑎𝑝 = 𝜋4 × 3.752 = 11.04 𝑚𝑚2
Actual value of current density, 𝛿𝑝 = 25.25/11.04 = 2.29 A/m2
Axial depth of one coil = 13*3.975 mm = 51.98076923 mm
The spacers used between adjacent coils are 5 mm in height.
High Voltage Winding:
Axial length of HV winding:
𝐿𝑐𝑝 = No of coils * Axial depth of each coil + Depth of spacers
= 5*51.98 + 5*5 = 285 mm
The height of window is 𝐻𝑤 = 469 mm and there the space left
between window is (469-285) = 184 mm, this is occupied by insulation
and axial length of the coil.
High Voltage Winding:
The clearance left on each side is 91.88 mm.
The insulation between layers is 0.3 mm thick paper.
So, Radial depth of high voltage coil, 𝑏𝑝 = (13*3.975 + 12*0.3)=55.275 mm
Now, thickness of insulation between HV and LV winding =5+0.9*KV
=5 + .9*6.6 =11mm.
The insulation between H.V and L.V winding is 8 mm thick bakelized paper cylinder.
High Voltage Winding:
This(24.8) includes the width of oil duct also. It is the total insulation
between HV and LV windings.
Now, inside diameter of HV winding
= Outside Diameter of LV windings + 2*Thickness of
insulation
= 339 + 2*11 = 361 mm
Outside diameter of HV windings = 361 + 2*55.275 = 472 mm
Clearance between two adjacent limbs is = 472 – 459 ≈ 13 mm
Resistan
ce
Resistance :
Mean Diameter of primary winding = (472 + 361)/2 = 416 mm
Length of mean turn in primary winding 𝐿𝑚𝑡𝑝 = 𝜋 × 416 × 10−3
= 1.31 m
𝑇𝑝 ×𝜌×𝐿𝑚𝑡𝑝
Resistance of primary winding at 75℃, 𝑟𝑝 = 𝑎𝑝
656×0.021×1.31
= = 1.71 Ω
10.52
Mean Diameter of secondary windings = (274 + 339)/2 = 307 mm
Length of mean turn of secondary windings, 𝐿𝑚𝑡𝑠 = 𝜋 × 307 × 10−3 =
0.964 m
Resistance :
𝑇𝑠 ×𝜌×𝐿𝑚𝑡𝑠 25×0.021×.964
Resistance of secondary winding at 75℃, 𝑟𝑠 = 𝑎𝑠
=
285
= 0.0018 Ω
Total resistance refer to primary, 𝑅𝑝 = 156.3 +(4857 ) 2 * 0.014
51
= 278.42 Ω
𝐼𝑝 ×𝑅𝑝 2.92×25.25
P.U resistance of transformer, ℰ𝑟 = = = 0.011 Ω
𝑉𝑝 6600
Leakage
Reactan
ce
Leakage Reactance:
274+472
Mean Diameter of windings = = 372.97 mm
2
Length of mean turn, 𝐿𝑚𝑡 = 𝜋 × 372.97 × 10−3 = 1.172 m
𝐿𝑐𝑝 +𝐿𝑐𝑠 212+285
Height of winding, 𝐿𝑐 = = = 248 mm
2 2
Leakage reactance of transformer referred to primary side,
2𝐿𝑚𝑡 𝑏𝑝 +𝑏𝑠
𝑋𝑝 = 2𝜋𝑓 × µ0 × T𝑝 × ×(a + ) × 10−3
𝐿𝑐 3
1.172 32.5+55.275
= 2𝜋 × 50 × 4𝜋 × 10−7 × 6562 × ×(11 + ) × 10−3
248 3
=32.21 Ω
P.U leakage reactance, ℰ𝑥 = (32.21* 25.25)/6600=0.1232 Ω
P.U impedance, ℰ𝑠 = 0.12322 + 0.0112 = 0.1237 Ω
Regulati
on
Regulation:

P.U Regulation, ℰ =ℰ𝑟 cos𝜑 + ℰ𝑥 s𝑖𝑛𝜑


Considering power factor of 0.8.
∴ P.U regulation at unity p.f, ℰ = ℰ𝑟 = 0.011
2
At zero power factor lagging, ℰ = ℰ𝑥 =0.015
At 0.8 p.f lagging, ℰ = (0.011× 0.8) + (0.015× 0.6) = 0.0829
Losse
s
Losses:
𝑰𝟐 𝑹 loss:
𝐼2 𝑅 loss at 75℃ = 3I𝑝 2 R 𝑝 = 3 ∗ 25.252 ∗ 2.92 = 5589 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡
Taking stray load loss at 15%,
Total 𝐼2 𝑅 loss including stray loss, P𝑐 = (1+0.15)*5589 = 6428 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡
Core Loss:
Taking the density of laminations as 7.6 × 103 kg/𝑚3
Weight of 3 limbs = 3 × 0.469 × 0.045326 × 7.6 × 103
= 484.33 kg
Losses:
The flux density in the limbs is 1.1 wb/𝑚2
Corresponding to this density specific core loss is 1.6 W/kg.
So, core loss in limbs = 484.33*1.6 = 775 watt.
Weight of two yoke = 2 × 1.149 × 0.049446 × 7.6 × 103
= 863.57 kg
Corresponding to flux density 1.1 wb/𝑚2 in the yoke the specific core loss =
1.12 watt.
So, core loss in yoke = 863.57 * 1.12 = 864 watt.
Total core loss, 𝑃𝑖 = 775 + 864 = 1638 watt.
Efficienc
y
Efficiency:

Total losses at full load = 1638 + 6428 = 8066 watt


500∗1000
Efficiency at full load at unity power factor = × 100%
500∗1000+8066
= 98.412%
For maximum efficiency, 𝑥 2 P𝑐 = P𝑖
𝑥 = 0.50489
Thus maximum efficiency works at 50.489% of full load.
This is a good figure of distribution transformer.
Tank
Tank:
Height over yoke H = 914 mm
Allowing 50 mm at the base and about 150 mm for oil & hight for leads
200mm.
Height of oil level = 914 + 50+150 = 1114 mm.
Height of tank H𝑡 = (1114 + 200) = 1314 mm.
Width of tank, W𝑡 = 2D + D𝑒 + 2b = (2*459+ 472+2*40) mm = 1116.4 mm
Voltage Rating Clearance
kV kVA mm
b l
11kV or less Less than 1000 40 50
1000-5000 70 90
About 11kV & upto 33kV Less than 1000 75 100
1000-5000 85 125
Tank:
The clearance used is approximately l=50 mm on each side.
So, length of tank, L𝑡 = D𝑒 + 2l = 472 + 100 = 572 mm
Total loss dissipating surface area of tank, S𝑡 = 2*(W𝑡 + 𝐿𝑡) * H𝑡
= 2*(1.1164 +0.572)*1.314
= 5.36 𝑚2
Total specific loss due to radiation and convection is 12.5 w/𝑚2 − ℃
Total losses at full load= 8066 W
So, temperature rise = 8066/(5.36*12.5) = 120.3 ℃
So, the temperature rise is excessive of limit(35℃). To limit temperature rise we
need to use external tubes.
Coolin
g
System
Cooling System:
Area of plane tank S𝑡 = 2*(W𝑡 + L𝑡 ) * H𝑡
= 2*(1.469+0.572)*1.314 = 5.4 𝑚2
Let, the tube area= xS𝑡 .
Total dissipating surface = (1 + x) × S𝑡 = 5.4(1+x)
8066 42.68
Specific loss dissipation = = W/𝑚2 − ℃
5.4×(1+𝑥)×35 (1+𝑥)
12.5+8.8𝑥
Loss dissipated = W/𝑚2 − ℃
(1+𝑥)
42.68 12.5+8.8𝑥
Or, =
(1+𝑥) (1+𝑥)
𝑥 = 3.43
Cooling System:
So, area of tubes = 3.43 * 5.4 = 18.51 𝑚2
Taking the diameter of tubes ,dt= 50 mm
The average height of tubes, lt= 1.05 m.
Wall area of each tube = 𝜋d𝑡 l𝑡 = 𝜋 × .05 × 1.05= 0.165 𝑚2
So, total no. of tubes to be provided = 18.51/0.165 = 112
Now, Temperature rise within tubes
=total Cu loss at full load/(5.4(12.5+8.8x))
=8066/(5.4*(12.5+8.8*3.43)
=34.99 ℃.
This is below 35℃ that is meet with our requirement.
Thank You All