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AICTE-QIP SHORT TERM COURSE

on

Stability &Rehabilitation of Engineering Structures


6th to 10th January 2020

Analysis of 07 Storey Masonry Building


using BS :5628
Dr. G.D.Awchat
Design of 7-storey masonry
dormitory building
according to BS:5628
Typical plan of a building
Typical section of a building
BASICS OF DESIGN(LOADING)
1. Roof: dead weight, 3.5 kN/m2 imposed load, 1.5kN/m2
2.Floor: dead weight including finishing and partition, 4.8 kN/m2 (See section 12.10 for sample
calculation) Imposed load, 1.5 kN/m2
3. Wall: 102.5 mm with 13 mm plaster both sides, 2.6 kN/m2 102.5 mm and inner skin of 255 mm
cavity wall, 2.42 kN/m2 (i.e. 102.5 mm + one face plaster)
4.Wind load: speed (Edinburgh area), 50 m/s
5.Quality control: partial safety factors
Assume normal quality control both at the factory and on site. The partial safety factors for the
materials are μm=3.5 (Table 4, BS 5628)
μmv =2.5 (Clause 27.4)
6.Calculation of vertical loading on walls
1. Loading on internal wall A
•The loading on this wall is summarized in Table 1.
2. Loading on external cavity wall B
(a) Inner leaf: The loading on the inner leaf of this wall is shown in Table 2.
b) Outer leaf: For the outer leaf of this wall load/m at floor = 2.42 × 3 = 7.26kN/m
imposed load=0

c) Total dead weight of the building above GL


Neglecting openings, etc., we have
Gk = { 3.5×21×10.5} + {6×4.8×21×10.5}+(12×2.6×4.25×2.85 + 4×2.42×4.25×2.85
+ 2 x 21×2.6×2.85 + 21×2×2.42×2.85)×7 = 17643 kN
Loading on wall A per metre run
(Contd…..)
Loading on wall B per metre run; inner leaf
WIND LOADING
General stability

• To explain the method, only walls A and B are considered in the calculation; hence wind blowing
from either north or south direction is critical and evaluated. In the east-west direction the
cavity and corridor walls provide the resistance to wind loading. In an actual design, the
designer must of course check that the structure is safe for wind blowing east-west and vice
versa.

• In the calculation below, it has further been assumed that the walls act as independent
cantilevers; and hence moments or forces are apportioned according to their stiffness.

Wind loads
These are calculated according to CP 3, Chapter V: Part 2. We have
VS = V S1 S2 S3
S1= S3 = 1 ; Using ground roughness category 3, Class B, with height of the building=21.0m, from
Table 3, CP3, Chapter V: Part 2 S2 = 0.91
Therefore design wind speed VS = 50 x 1x 0.91 x 1 = 45.5 m/sec.
And dynamic wind pressure q = 0.613 x (45.5)2 = 1269.0 N/m2

From clause 7.3, CP3,Chapter v: Part 2,Total wind force F= Cf q Ae (Cf = 1.1,Table 10)
Ae = Effective surface area

The total maximum bending moment is


Total max. BM = F × h/2 where h is the height under consideration.
Total BM just above floor level is given for each floor by:

•6th floor
Cf q Ae × h/2 = 1.1×(1269/103) × 21 × 3 × 3/2 = 131.9 kN m
•5th floor
1.1×(1269/103) × 21 × 6 × 3 = 527.6 kN m
•4th floor
• (1.1×1269×21/103)× 9× 9/2 = 1187.20 kN m
•3rd floor
29.313 × (12×12/2) = 2110.54 kN m
•2nd floor
29.313×(15×15/2) = 3297.70 kN m
•1st floor
29.313×(18×18/2)=4748.71kNm
•ground floor
1.1×(1269/103)× 21 × 21× 21/2 = 6463.2 kN m

In the calculation the factor S2 has been kept constant (Fig. 3), which means the design will be a bit
conservative. However, the reader/researcher can vary the S2 factor as given in Fig. 3 taken from
Table 3 (CP:3) which means the wind speed will be variable depending on the height of the building.
Fig. 3:The variation of the factor S2 and the wind velocity along the height of the building.
(Assumptions made in the design shown in full lines.)
Assumed section of wall resisting the wind moment
The flange which acts together with the web of I-section is the lesser of
 12 times thickness of flange + thickness of web
 centre line to centre line of walls
 one-third of span ( 1.41 m) taken it as 1.34 m

(a) Wall A
For wall A (Fig. 4), neglecting the outer skin of the cavity wall flange, the second moment of area is
•IA = 2* {( 0.1025)3 x 1.34/12} + {0.1025 x1.34 x (2.07)2} + {(4.045)2 x 0.1025 /12 }
= 1.169 x 0.565 = 1.734 m4

Fig. 4: Dimensions for Wall A


(b) Wall B
•The flange width which acts with channel section has been assumed as half of the I-section. For wall
B (Fig. 5), neglecting the outer skin of the cavity wall flange,
IB = 2* {0.67 + (0.1025)3/12 + 0.1025 x 0.67 x (2.07)2) } + {2 x 0.1025 x (4.045)3/12} = 0.571 x1.13
= 1.7 m4
Fig.5:Dimensions for wall B
• Total second moment of area of the building :
∑ I = 12 IA + 4 IB = 12 x 1.734 + 4x 1.7 = 27.61 m4

Moment carried by wall A

MA = Total moment x IA/ ∑ I = (1.734 /27.61) = 0.06266 M

and moment carried by wall B

MB = Total moment x IA/ ∑ I = 0.0616 M

Similarly, shear force carried by wall A

SFA = Total force x IA/ ∑ I = 0.06266 F

and shear force carried by wall B

SFB = Total force x IA/ ∑ I = 0.0616 F

The calculated values of the SF are given in Table 3.


Distribution of bending moment stresses and shear force in walls
DESIGN LOAD
1. Load combination for ultimate limit state, wall A: Clause 22, BS:5628
(a) Sixth floor
(i) Dead and imposed loads dead + imposed
=1.4Gk+1.6Qk
= 1.4 X 20 + 1.6 x 5.4 = 28+ 8.64= 36.64 kN/m
Stress ={ ( 36.64 x 103 )/(102.5 x 103) }= 0.357 N/mm2
(ii) Dead and wind loads

Windward load side


Dead + wind = 0.9Gk+1.4Wk
Stress ={ ( 0.9 x 20 x 103 )/(102.5 x 103) } – (1.4 x 0.01) = 0.162 N/mm2
No tension develops,hense safe

Leeward side
Dead + wind = 1.4Gk+1.4Wk
Stress ={ ( 28 x 103 )/(102.5 x 103) } + (1.4 x 0.01) = 0.287 N/mm2
No tension develops,hense safe
For the ground floor

• There is no need to check at any other level, since shear is not a problem for this type of
structure.
• The BS 5628 recommends gA as the design vertical load per unit area of wall cross-section due to
vertical load calculated from the appropriate loading condition specified in clause 22. The critical
condition of shear will be with no imposed load just after and during the construction.

• Load combination, wall B


• The design principle has been covered in great detail for wall A; hence for wall B this will be
limited to the ground floor level to explain further salient points.

• Inner leaf wall B –ground floor level


• (i) Dead and imposed loads
Design load and characteristic brickwork strength
The worst combination for this wall just above ground level also is dead + wind, and the design
load is (1.96×102.5×103)/103=201kN/m.
• Selection of brick and mortar for inner leaf of wall B
The design vertical load resistance of the wall is (ßtfk)/μm (clause 32.2.1). The value of ß depends on
the eccentricity of loading; hence the value of e needs to be evaluated before design can be
completed.

5. Calculation of eccentricity
•The worst combination of loading for obtaining the value of e at top of the wall is shown in Fig. 6.
Axial load
P =(0.9×78.54+1.6×7.29) (Gk and Qk from Table 2)
•=(70.69+11.66)=82.35kN/m
First floor load
P1=(1.4×6.48+1.6×2.025) (see Table 12.2)
•=12.31kN/m
Fig. 12.6 Load combination for calculating the eccentricity.
Eccentricity

• e = P1t /6 (P+P1) = 12.31 t/ 6( 82.35 + 12.31) = 0.0217 t = 2.22 mm


(a) Wind blowing north-south direction
A part of the panel B will be subjected to suction, if the wind is blowing in N-S direction. Then
Vs =VS1S2S3=50×1×1×0.64 (ground roughness category A, CP3, Chapter V: Part 2)
=32m/s
Note that the localized effect is considered here, hence S2 for Category A is being used. Also
• q = 0.613 x 322 = 627.8 N/mm2

BM at centre of the panel=627.8×(Cpe+CPi)h2×0.104×1.4


=627.8×(1.1+0.2)×(2.85)2×0.104×1.4
=964.6Nm/m (Cpe and Cpi from CP3, Chapter V: Part 2)

(BM coefficient for four-sided simply supported panel is 0.104; table 3.1, BS:8110)
BM/leaf = 964.6/2 = 482.3 Nm per m
( Since both leaves are of same stiffness)
e centre = (482.3 x 103/94.66 x 103) = 5.1 mm
P + P1 = 94.66 Kn/m
Resultant = ecc = (2.22/2) + 5.1 = 6.21 mm = 0.06 t
• b) Wind blowing west-east direction
The panel B is not only subjected to dead and imposed loads, but also subjected to wind loading from
west to east direction. Then

BM at centre = 0.104 qh2× γ f = 1650.84 N.m per m


BM/leaf = 1650.84/2 = 825.42 Nm per m
ecc = (825.42/103) / (94.66 X 103) = 8.72 mm = 0.06 t

Resultant e = 8.72- (2.22/2) = 7.61 mm = 0.074 t

The bending moment induced due to wind loading acts against those due to the vertical load).

• Since resultant eccentricity of case (b) is greater than case (a), case (b) eccentricity is considered
in the design.
• b) Wind blowing west-east direction
The panel B is not only subjected to dead and imposed loads, but also subjected to wind loading from
west to east direction. Then

BM at centre = 0.104 qh2× γ f = 1650.84 N.m per m


BM/leaf = 1650.84/2 = 825.42 Nm per m
ecc = (825.42/103) / (94.66 X 103) = 8.72 mm = 0.06 t

Resultant e = 8.72- (2.22/2) = 7.61 mm = 0.074 t

The bending moment induced due to wind loading acts against those due to the vertical load).

• Since resultant eccentricity of case (b) is greater than case (a), case (b) eccentricity is considered
in the design.
Calculation of characteristic compressive stress fk for wall B (inner leaf)
Design of the outer leaf of the cavity wall B in GF
Load combination:Windward side

The design is similar to the inner leaf and will not be considered any further. The slight tension
which is developing is of no consequence, since 6 to 10% of the dead and imposed load will be
transferred to the outer leaf even in cases where the slab is supported on the inner skin. The
staircase and lift well will also provide the stability against the wind which has been neglected.
However, any facing brick having water absorption between 7 and 12% in 1:¼:3 mortar may be
used, provided that it satisfies the lateral load design. The grade of mortar is kept the same as
for the inner leaf.
Idealized structure for vertical load design
Idealized structure for wind load design
Thank You !