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6 Ansichten94 SeitenFatigue Analysis for Offshore Structures

Feb 16, 2020

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Fatigue Analysis for Offshore Structures

© All Rights Reserved

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Fatigue Analysis for Offshore Structures

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R Rao Ayilavarapu 1

Introduction

structures.

• Cracks grow due to cyclic or fluctuating loadings only.

• Final failure generally occurs due to tensile stress at

reduced cross sections.

• Structures subjected to fluctuating loads generally are:

Bridges, Cranes, Offshore structures where Live /

Environmental loads have major contribution.

Most of these structures have welded/bolted joints

R Rao Ayilavarapu 2

Effect of Welding

discontinuities from where cracks may grow.

Initiation period is normally needed for start of

crack in plain material.

Cracks spend most of their life propagating i.e.

longer.

Most Structural welds have rough profile, sharp

changes in direction

These points cause local stress concentration

small discontinuities close to these points for

highly stressed members and grow faster.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 3

Local Stress concentration in welds

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

R Rao Ayilavarapu 4

Typical stress distribution at welds

Fig. 3

R Rao Ayilavarapu 5

Fatigue Strength

Fig. 4

R Rao Ayilavarapu 6

Crack size Vs. Stress cycles

Notations

R Rao Ayilavarapu 7

Primary Factors in Fatigue Life

R Rao Ayilavarapu 8

S N Curve

Fig. 5

R Rao Ayilavarapu 9

Effect of Mechanical Strength

Fig. 6

R Rao Ayilavarapu 10

R Rao Ayilavarapu 11

Design Stress Parameter for cracks

propagating in parent material

Fig. 7

R Rao Ayilavarapu 12

Effects of Geometrical Stress Concentrations and

other effects

Members having large changes in cross section.e.g. access holes have

stress concentration.

In static design stresses are based on net area as plastic redistribution

normall reduce peaks at ultimate load.

In fatigue design this is not so and if member is welded true stress must be

used see. Fig 10

Fig. 10

Secondary effects

Any secondary effects due to joint fixity in latticed structures and shear lag

& other distortional effects in slender beams are allowed for calculating

stresses.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 13

Fatigue Analysis

sea-state energy is simulated using discrete frequencies

and wave heights with corresponding number of

occurrences. Structural responses and hot spot stresses

are generated for each of these discrete waves. The

summation of fatigue damages due to these discrete

wave load cases are then summed up to obtain the total

damage during the life of the structure.

2. Spectral Method- Spectral method uses the sea-state

energy spectra to generate the transfer function for the

structural response. This transfer function is then

used to generate the hot spot stresses in the joints.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 14

STRESS CONCENTRATION

stresses are not uniform along the connecting

surface of a brace and chord.

Figure 8 shows an example of the stress

distribution in a joint with local discontinuities at

the brace chord intersection.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 15

SCF

R Rao Ayilavarapu 16

Stress Concentration Factors

defined as the ratio of the highest stress in

the connection (or hot spot stress fhs) to the

nominal brace stress fnom

SCF = fhs / fnom

R Rao Ayilavarapu 17

Stress Concentration Factors

Kellog equation

Approximate formula can be used for

rapidly assessing SCF in preliminary

analyses.

fhs/vp = 1.8 √g

vp being the punching shear.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 18

Joint Classification

R Rao Ayilavarapu 19

Joint Classification

Always remember that classification is

based on load pattern as well as the

geometry. Engineering judgement must

therefore be used to classify a joint.

For example a geometrical K joint may be

classified as K joint when forces are

balanced within braces or Y joint when the

force in one brace is reacted

predominantly by the chord, rather than by

the second brace.

For more details refer to API-RP-2A

R Rao Ayilavarapu 20

SCF formulae(Kuang for T/Y)

R Rao Ayilavarapu 21

SCF formulae(Kuang for K)

R Rao Ayilavarapu 22

SCF formulae(Kuang for K)

R Rao Ayilavarapu 23

SCF formulae(Kuang for K)

R Rao Ayilavarapu 24

Fatigue Analysis

following steps:

1. Calculation of nominal stress ranges in

the brace and the chords

2. Calculation of hot-spot stress range

3. Calculation of joint fatigue lives

using S-N curves for tubular members.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 25

Fatigue Analysis

Nominal stress ranges in braces and chords are

calculated by a global stress analyses.

Wave histogram: Typical shown here

R Rao Ayilavarapu 26

Fatigue Related Definitions

R Rao Ayilavarapu 27

Fatigue Related Definitions

R Rao Ayilavarapu 28

Fatigue Related Definitions

R Rao Ayilavarapu 29

Fatigue Related Definitions

R Rao Ayilavarapu 30

Fatigue Related Definitions

R Rao Ayilavarapu 31

Fatigue Related Definitions

R Rao Ayilavarapu 32

Nominal stress ranges

1. Wave heights are grouped in "blocks", for which just one stress

range will be calculated.

Different wave directions need to be considered with a minimum of

three "blocks" per wave direction.

2. For each block one representative wave is chosen, whose action is

supposed to represent the action of the whole block. The highest

wave of the block is normally chosen.

3. Nominal stresses for each joint component are then calculated for

different phase angles of the chosen wave, for one complete cycle

(360°). The nominal stress range for the joint component

is defined as the difference between the highest and the lowest

stress obtained for a full wave cycle. Four to twelve phase angles

per wave are usually considered.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 33

Hot spot stress ranges

R Rao Ayilavarapu 34

S-N Curve

spot stress ranges based on suitable stress

concentration factors.

The permissible number of cycles is obtained

from the S-N curve by taking the hot spot stress

range, and entering the graph.

Note that Curve X presumes welds which merge

smoothly with the adjoining base metal .(profile

welding)

Welds without such profile control, the X′ curve

is applicable.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 35

Cumulative Fatigue Damage Ratio

stress distribution, which is to be

used to calculate the cumulative fatigue damage ratio D

Where:

n is the number of cycles applied at a given stress range

N is the number of cycles to cause failure for the

given stress range (obtained from appropriate S-N

curve).

R Rao Ayilavarapu 36

Safety Factor

should be at least twice the intended

service life of the structure, i.e. a safety

factor of 2.0 or as per API-RP-2A

Critical elements whose sole failure would

be catastrophic, a larger safety factor to be

applied as per design basis.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 37

Deterministic Fatigue Analysis

location including ranges of wave height, wave

period and occurrences

Simulation of jacket structure stiffness and deck

stiffness accurately and make the model simple

enough to understand the behaviour.

Simulate deck and jacket mass accurately

including vertical COG to determine the dynamic

characteristics of the platform

R Rao Ayilavarapu 38

Deterministic Fatigue Analysis

using discrete approximate method or using wave

response analysis

Select appropriate wave theory and generate wave

loading on all the members

Compute stress range using appropriate method

Determine Stress Concentration factors for all the joints

using recommended empirical equations

Establish Hot Spot stresses for the tubular joints

Select required S-N curve for the joint configuration

Determine Fatigue damage due to all the wave load

cases and sum up to obtain theoretical fatigue damage

R Rao Ayilavarapu 39

Procedure

The model input file - which contains general information of the computer model viz., the

geometry, member sizes, materials, loads and load combinations and analysis options.

The PSI input file is used to model the soil in the form of P-Y, T-Z & Q-Z curves. Non-

linear springs are modeled to support the pile and the surrounding soil.

The Fatigue input file is used to generate fatigue load combination for different directions

and to specify various analysis options and SCF over rides.

The SEASTATE module of SACS has been used to generate the cyclical wave loading on

the structure. As the fatigue is caused by only the cyclical loading, the functional loads,

dead weight and buoyancy of the modeled members, is not considered. Wave

environment has been used as specified in reference 4.6. Six load cases are considered

for each wave height in a given direction, for the maximum and minimum and 4

intermediate phase angles. This will produce the extreme stress range for each wave in a

direction.

Deterministic fatigue approach with interpolative method using Palgrem Miner’s

hypothesis has been used.

The nominal stresses are calculated at 8 locations of the joint and for each wave direction

and height used in the analysis. The Hot Spot Stresses are then calculated at the same

locations and under the same loadings using appropriate stress concentration factor

(SCF).

In order to evaluate joints with appropriate SCF the following approach is adopted:

R Rao Ayilavarapu 40

Procedure

A second check is made considering Smedley-Fisher as default

SCF.

Even though there is no failure reported for both the above cases, a

final run is made with SCF as per EFTHIMIOU for T&Y and X joints

and SCF as per Smedley-Fisher for K and K&T joints. No further

studies were made as all joints were reported safe.

For in line joints of jacket leg and cans, specific structural joints are

created for analysis and the SCF are used based on the Burdekin

Formula. An overriding SCF of 2.0 has been used for these joints

conservatively.

All the other inline joints are checked with the SACS inline check

option using DNV SCF, which is closest to the Burdekin formula and

even conservative.

A minimum SCF of 1.5 has been used in all cases.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 41

Procedure

The hot spot stresses ranges at each location of the section are

calculated as the maximum hot spot stress difference obtained

among the loadings covering the same wave height and the

same direction.

For each wave direction the long term hot spot stress range

distribution is divided into classes, the damage corresponding to

the number of cycles within each class is calculated and the

summation is performed.

The hot spot stress range associated with each class is

calculated by interpolation on the values found in 6.6 above.

For each class, the number of applications of that stress range to

cause failure is read on the SN curve.

The cumulative ratio, CDR, for each considered location of a

member, is determined from Palgrem Miner’s sum of partial

damage ratio related to each direction.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 42

Procedure

P N

nij

CDR

I 1 J 1 Nij

1

constant stress range j from the Jth direction.

Nij = number of cycles of constant stress range j to

cause failure for the Jth class of the Jth class wave

direction

R Rao Ayilavarapu 43

Procedure

The minimum life of a given connection is

obtained by dividing the design life of the

structure by the maximum damage at this

location. The fatigue life for a member end is

the lowest of the lives calculated at the

selected circumferential locations.

The different data and specifications to be

used or followed in the fatigue analysis to be

summarized.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 44

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

Spectral fatigue is statistical approach

for random nature of confused sea in

rational manner using wave spectra &

transfer functions to develop the structural

response over the wave frequency range.

Spectral fatigue analysis accounts for the

actual distribution of energy over the entire

frequency range which gives more realistic and

reliable results than deterministic analysis

R Rao Ayilavarapu 45

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

Constant wave steepness is used to generate transfer

function

Provide simple relationship between wave height and

frequency.

Wave steepness is derived by calibration process based

upon matching of global response parameters which are

representative of the predominant fatigue loading.

Base shear wave load is commonly used at the center of

fatigue damage scatter diagram which contribute most of

the fatigue damage.

Spectral base shear wave load range shall be calibrated

to the deterministic response by increasing the drag and

inertia coefficients equally until a proper match is

obtained.

Foregoing calibration is performed for broadside, end-on

and diagonal directions

R Rao Ayilavarapu 46

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

Stiffness

The computer model should include

three dimensional distribution of stiffness.

The joints should be created at all the

points having change in thickness.

The stiffness of all the appurtenances

should be included, including the

conductors.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 47

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

Mass

The mass model should include all the operating

masses including added mass & entrapped fluid.

The weighted center of damage of the

directional scatter diagram is calculated.

The weighting factor is the mean value of the

normalized static base shear transfer function

over the width of each cell in the scatter

diagram.

This weighting factor introduces a stress period

dependency which allows the cancellation

effects to be reflected in the fatigue damage

scatter diagram.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 48

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

diagram is given by:

Di = Nij * ((0.5x(Hj+Hj+1))m/(0.5x(Tj+Tj+1))

The weighted damage in each cell of the scatter

diagram is given as;

Dij = Nij *

Where Dij is the damage in each cell of the

fatigue damage scatter diagram, Wj is the period

dependant weighting factor. H is wave height, T

is time period, Nij is number of waves and ‘m’ is

the slope of the S-N curve.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 49

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

state corresponding to center of fatigue damage scatter

diagram is calculated. From these values, the most

probable maximum wave in the sea-state at the center of

damage of the scatter diagram is determined as

The center of fatigue damage is given by

Hc=(∑Di x Hsi) / (∑Di) and Tc=(∑DixTpi)/∑Di

Href = 1.86 Hc

Tref = Tc

This wave period is compared with the static base

shear transfer function for the direction of interest to

confirm that it does not fall in the valley of the transfer

function. In case if it falls in the valley, the same is

shifted to the adjacent peak depending on wave energy

distribution

R Rao Ayilavarapu 50

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

From the weighted fatigue damage calculations, the sea-

state corresponding to center of fatigue damage scatter

diagram is calculated. From these values, the most

probable maximum wave in the sea-state at the center of

damage of the scatter diagram is determined as

The center of fatigue damage is given by

Hc=(∑Di x Hsi) / (∑Di) and Tc=(∑DixTpi)/∑Di

Href = 1.86 Hc

Tref = Tc

This wave period is compared with the static base shear

transfer function for the direction of interest to confirm

that it does not fall in the valley of the transfer function.

In case if it falls in the valley, the same is shifted to the

adjacent peak depending on wave energy distribution

R Rao Ayilavarapu 51

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

to 1:25 and corresponding to the

steepness contour through the sea-state

at the center of damage of the scatter

diagram, the global base shear transfer

function is developed. At this stage wave

heights and wave periods are reviewed to

eliminate unrealistically large waves at

large wave periods.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 52

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

corresponding to the weighted center of damage (Href

and Tref) are stepped up through the structure and the

deterministic base shear range is determined

The root mean square [RMS] static base shear wave

loads are calculated for the seastate at the center of

fatigue damage scatter diagram. For this purpose, SACS

modules are used making the mass equal to zero.

5.6 Assuming zero mean and a Rayleigh distribution of

peaks, the most probable maximum [MPM] base shear

wave load is found using the following

R Rao Ayilavarapu 53

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

The root mean square [RMS] static base shear wave loads are

calculated for the seastate at the center of fatigue damage scatter

diagram. For this purpose, SACS modules are used making the

mass equal to zero.

5.6 Assuming zero mean and a Rayleigh distribution of peaks, the

most probable maximum [MPM] base shear wave load is found

using the following equation:

= [2*ln ] 0.5

Where T is the duration of the storm in seconds (3 x 60 x 60 =

10800 sec) and Tz is the mean zero crossing period of waves in the

seastate at the center of damage of fatigue scatter diagram.

For seastates described by a JONSWAP spectrum, Tz is assumed

to be equal to Tp/1.28

The spectral base shear wave load range is given as 2 x MPM.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 54

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

The spectral shear range thus calculated is matched

against the deterministic base shear. The drag and

inertia coefficients are increased to match the spectral

base shear range with the deterministic base shear

range.

After calibrating the spectral response, dynamic

characteristics are determined. To linearise the

foundation for evaluation of fatigue damage, pile stubs of

appropriate stiffness are modeled. For derivation of the

pile stubs, the most probable maximum wave

corresponding to the center of fatigue damage scatter

diagram is considered. A normal inplace analysis with

these waves is carried out to arrive at the pilehead

forces. Using these forces, pile stub properties are

determined by using SINGLE PILE module in SACS

suite of programs.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 55

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

enhanced drag and inertia coefficients and enhanced

frequency grid which include fine grid around natural

frequency and critical wave periods corresponds to the

peak or valley of the global transfer functions to simulate

random wave time histories base on the structure

dynamics. It is important to note that for spectral

analysis, the loading specified is not the actual loading

causing fatigue damage, but loading used to develop a

relationship between stress range and load frequency.

Assessing the total damage of tubular connections is

based on calculating pseudo transfer functions for all the

remaining sea states in the scatter diagram using the

defined spectral density along eight (8) principal

directions

R Rao Ayilavarapu 56

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

(SACS modules )

The “SEASTATE” module is used to generate Static base shear

transfer functions for the calibration procedure. For generation of

transfer function, a period range of 11 seconds (12 to 1 seconds) is

considered. This range covers maximum and minimum frequencies,

cancellation and enhancement effects. A considerable number of

wave periods are considered to fully define the transfer function

curve.

The “SACS IV” which refers to three of the program modules of

SACS system, namely the pre-processor, the solver and the post-

processor modules perform the general purpose static structural

analysis. This module is used to determine the pile head forces for

evaluating the pile stub properties. Once the pile head forces are

obtained, PILE module is run to arrive at the pile stub properties.

The “DYNPAC” module is used to determine the dynamic

characteristics in terms of mode shapes, natural periods of the

platform for subsequent use while determining the response for the

seastate.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 57

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

(SACS modules )

The “WAVE RESPONSE” module is used to

determine the response spectrum of the platform

for the imposed seastate based on the dynamics

of the structure. This module is also used to

determine the static RMS value of the transfer

function.

The “FATIGUE” module is used to determine

the total fatigue damage and service life of the

major tubular connections.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 58

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

(SACS modules )

The fatigue life shall be reported for –

Nodal Joints

In-line joints

Cellar Deck Nodal joints

R Rao Ayilavarapu 59

Spectral Fatigue Analysis

Following S-N curves may be used if not

specified in design specification:

DOE-T, API X’ (or API X in case of weld

profiling) for nodal joints

DOE-F2 for inline joints

DOE-D for deck beam connections immediately

above the jacket top, where the portal action is

dominant.

DOE-W for fillet weld connection of doubler plate

to chord

R Rao Ayilavarapu 60

Procedure

Analysis to be performed accordance with the

Structural Design brief, Codes & References and

limited to the following considerations:

• Design life of the platform with factor of safety is

50 years (refer to design brief).

• Directional wave scatter diagram details and

geographical heading of the waves relative to the

SACS default orientations

• Initial drag and inertia coefficients are based on

design brief or Codes.

• Wave kinematics factor of 1.0 in the analysis.

AIRY or Design wave theory to be used for

generation of transfer function curves in wave

response analysis.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 61

Procedure

Level (MSL).

Enhance initial frequency grid for final

fatigue analysis to include the fine grid

around natural frequency and critical wave

periods correspond to the peak or valley of

the global transfer function to simulate

random wave time histories based on the

structure dynamics.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 62

Procedure

Pile stub calculation based on single pile analysis for the pilehead forces

corresponding to the maximum probable wave with respect to the centre

of fatigue damage scatter diagram For wave response analysis, a critical

damping of 2% is considered.

Stress Concentration Factors variations, recommendations by Efthymiou

(Model C options) are considered.

S-N curve, recommendations by Department of Energy (DOE) or API.

Other load path dependant SCFs also can be used in the analysis.

Review results of fatigue life assessment for non-nodal joints, it has been

observed that the SCF calculations are based on the assumption that the

connection between tubular of different thickness is concentric with

double sided groove weld. Considering half of the thickness difference as

“e”, SCF is calculated as given by the formula SCF = 1+3*e/t where “t” is

the thickness of the thinner part connected results in a very low fatigue

life.

Most of the jacket connections are provided with one sided closure

welds, equivalent SCFs to be considered based on the recommendations

provided in “Design of Steel Structures: N-004”; NORSOK Standard.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 63

Procedure

The equation for SCF is given by the following

formula:

6δ 1 α

SCF 1 2.5

e

t T

1

t

where α

1.82L 1

2.5

Dt T

1

t

R Rao Ayilavarapu 64

Spectral Fatigue

R Rao Ayilavarapu 65

Procedure

SCF, minimum values for chord and brace hot spots are

specified in the analysis as given below:

For Chord Axial Stress at Crown Point = 1.00

For Chord Axial Stress at saddle point = 1.00

For Chord Inplane bending Stress = 1.00

For Chord Out of plane bending stress = 1.00

For brace Axial Stress at Crown Point = 1.60

For brace Axial Stress at saddle point = 1.60

For brace Inplane bending Stress = 1.60

For brace Out of plane bending stress = 1.60

R Rao Ayilavarapu 66

METHODOLOGY

The spectral fatigue analysis is carried out using computer model from the

inplace analysis with Drag and Inertia coefficients specified in the design

specification.

6.6.2 The spectral fatigue analysis method uses the wave scatter diagram

directly to represent the long-term statistics of the sea-state. This uses the

wave spectrum to represent the range of wave frequencies present in a

random sea-state. The effect of wave frequency on wave loading and

structural response is accounted through the use of hot spot stress transfer

functions for evaluating response in each random sea-state.

6.6.3 To determine the transfer function, suitable wave heights are selected

so that an appropriate level of non-linear wave loading is introduced. To

achieve this, waves of constant steepness is considered (Wave steepness

is a simple relation between wave height and wavelength). However to

select the actual wave height which causes maximum damage an

appropriate calibration procedure is adopted for the actual structure and

environment as described to arrive at a design constant steepness.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 67

Procedure

parameters, which are, representative of predominant

fatigue loading. For matching purposes the base shear is

considered as the response criteria and the sea-state

representing the maximum fatigue damage is used for

this. For this purpose the center of fatigue damage

scatter diagrams along each direction are considered.

Transfer functions are developed for the wave steepness

through the centre of damage in the scatter diagram, the

spectral response is then calibrated by increasing the

drag and inertia coefficients. Following procedure is

adopted in calibrating the spectral response:

R Rao Ayilavarapu 68

Procedure

scatter diagram. The weighting factor is the mean value

of the normalized static base shear transfer function over

the width of each cell in the scatter diagram. This

weighing factor introduces a stress period dependency

which allows the cancellation effects to be reflected in

the fatigue damage scatter diagram.

The weighted damage in each cell of the scatter diagram

is given as ;

Dij = Nij * Wj*0.5[Hi+Hi+1]m/{0.5[Tj+Tj+1}

Where Dij is the damage in each cell of the fatigue

damage scatter diagram, Wj is the period dependant

weighting factor.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 69

Procedure

From the weighted fatigue damage calculations,

the seastate corresponding to center of fatigue

damage scatter diagram is calculated. From

these values, the most probable maximum wave

in the seastate at the center of damage of the

scatter diagram is determined

Href = 1.86 Hc Tref = Tc

This wave period is compared with the static

base shear transfer function for the direction of

interest to confirm that it does not fall in the

valley of the transfer function. In case if it falls in

the valley, the same is shifted to the adjacent

peak depending on wave energy distribution.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 70

Procedure

to the steepness contour through the seastate at the center of

damage of the scatter diagram, the global base shear transfer

function is developed. At this stage wave heights and wave periods

are reviewed to eliminate unrealistically large waves at large wave

periods.

The most probable maximum wave height and period corresponding

to the weighted center of damage (Href and Tref) are stepped up

through the structure and the base shear range is determined

The root mean square [RMS] static base shear wave loads are

calculated for the seastate at the center of fatigue damage scatter

diagram. For this SACS modules are used by making the mass

equal to zero.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 71

Procedure

peaks, the most probable maximum [MPM] base shear

wave load is found using the following equation:

MPM/RMS= [2*lnT/Tz ]0.5

Where T is the duration of the storm in seconds (3 x 60 x

60 = 10800 sec) and Tz is the mean zero crossing

period of waves in the seastate at the center of damage

of fatigue scatter diagram.

For seastates described by a JONSWAP spectrum, Tz is

assumed to be equal to Tp/1.28

The spectral base shear wave load range is given as 2 x

MPM

R Rao Ayilavarapu 72

Procedure

matched against the deterministic base shear.

The drag and inertia coefficients are increased

to match the spectral base shear range with the

deterministic base shear range.

To account for the sensitivity of the structure,

four principal directions (broad side, end on and

two diagonals) are considered for calibration

R Rao Ayilavarapu 73

Procedure

determined. To linearise the foundation for evaluation of fatigue damage,

pile stubs of appropriate stiffness are modeled. For derivation of the pile

stubs, the most probable maximum wave corresponding to the center of

fatigue damage scatter diagram is considered. A normal inplace analysis

with these waves is carried out to arrive at the pilehead forces. Using these

forces, pile stub properties are determined by using SINGLE PILE module

in SACS suite of programs.

6.6.6 The final fatigue analysis model includes the pile stub, enhanced drag

and inertia coefficients and enhanced frequency grid which include fine grid

around natural frequency and critical wave periods corresponds to the peak

or valley of the global transfer functions to simulate random wave time

histories base on the structure dynamics. It is important to note that for

spectral analysis, the loading specified is not the actual loading causing

fatigue damage, but loading used to develop a relationship between stress

range and load frequency. Assessing the total damage of tubular

connections is based on calculating pseudo transfer functions for all the

remaining sea states in the scatter diagram using the defined spectral

density along eight (8) principal directions.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 74

Procedure

(SACS modules)

SACS modules used for the analysis are :

functions for the calibration procedure. For generation of transfer

function, a period range of 11 seconds (12 to 1 seconds) is

considered. This range covers maximum and minimum

frequencies, cancellation and enhancement effects. A

considerable number of wave periods are considered to fully

define the transfer function curve.

SACS IV which refers to three of the program modules of SACS

system, namely the pre-processor, the solver and the post-

processor modules perform the general purpose static structural

analysis. This module is used to determine the pile head forces

for evaluating the pile stub properties.

PILE module is run once the pile head forces are obtained,to

arrive at the pile stub properties.

R Rao Ayilavarapu 75

Procedure

(SACS modules)

dynamic characteristics in terms of mode shapes, natural

periods of the platform for subsequent use while

determining the response for the sea-state.

WAVE RESPONSE module is used to determine the

response spectrum of the platform for the imposed sea-

state based on the dynamics of the structure. This

module is also used to determine the static RMS value of

the transfer function.

FATIGUE module is used to determine the total fatigue

damage and service life of the major tubular connections

R Rao Ayilavarapu 76

Code provisions

API-RP-2A 21st edition code provisions are:

In lieu of detailed fatigue analysis, simplified fatigue

analyses, which have been calibrated for the design

wave climate, may be applied to tubular joints in

Category L-3 template type platforms as defined in

Section 1.7 that :

1. Are constructed of notch-tough ductile steels.

2. Have redundant, inspectionable structural framing.

3. Have natural periods less than 3 seconds.

Such simplified methods are particularly useful for

preliminary design of all structure categories and types,

in water depths up to 400 feet (122 m).

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Code provisions

A space frame analysis should be performed to obtain the structural

response in terms of nominal member stress for given wave forces applied

to the structure. In general, wave force calculations should follow the

procedures described in Section 2.3.1. However, current may be neglected

and. therefore, considerations for apparent wave period and current

blockage are not required. In addition, wave kinematics factor equal to 1.0

and conductor shielding factor equal to 1.0 should be applied for fatigue

waves. The drag and inertia coefficients depend on the sea state level, as

parameterized by the Keulegan-Carpenter Number K (see Commentary

C2.3.lb7). For small waves (1.0 < K < 6.0 for platform legs at mean water

level),

values of Cm = 2.0, Cd = 0.8 for rough members and Cd = 0.5 for smooth

members

should be used.

Guidelines for considering directionality, spreading, tides and marine growth

are provided in the commentary for this section.

A spectral analysis technique should be used to determine the stress

response for each sea state. Dynamic effects should be considered for sea

states having significant energy near a platform's natural period.

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Code provisions

In general the design fatigue life of each joint and

member should not be less than the intended service life of

the structure multiplied by a Safety Factor. For the design

fatigue life, D, should not exceed unity.

For in-situ conditions, the safety factor for fatigue of steel

components should depend on the failure consequence (i.e.

criticality) and in-service inspectability. Critical elements are

those whose sole failure could be catastrophic. In lieu of a

more detailed safety assessment of Category L-1 structures, a

safety factor of 2.0 is recommended for inspectable, non-failure

critical, connections.

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Code provisions

connections, increased safety factors are recommended,

as shown in Table 5.2.5-1. A reduced safety factor is

recommended for Category L-2 and L-3 conventional steel

jacket structures on the basis of in-service performance

data:

SF=1.0 for redundant diver or ROV inspectable framing,

with

safety factors for other cases being half those in the table.

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Code Provisions

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SCF’s

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SCF’s

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SCF’s

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S-N curves

5.4 S-N CURVES FOR ALL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS,

EXCEPT TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

Non-tubular members and connections in deck structures,

appurtenances and equipment; and tubular members and

attachments to them, including ring stiffeners, may be subject to

variations of stress due to environmental loads or operational loads.

Operational loads would include those associated with machine

vibration, crane usage and filling and emptying of tanks. Where

variations of stress are applied to conventional weld details,

identified in ANSI/AWS D1.1- 2002 Table 2.4, the associated S-N

curves provided in AWS Figure 2.11 should be used, dependent on

degree of redundancy. Where such variations of stress are applied

to tubular nominal stress situations identified in ANSI/AWS D1.1-

2002 Table 2.6, the associated S-N curves provided in AWS

Figure2.13 should be used. Stress Categories DT, ET, FT, K1, and

K2, refer to tubular connections where the SCF is not known. Where

the hot spot stress concentration factor can be determined, Sections 5.3 and 5.5 of

this Recommended Practice take precedence

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

Design S-N curves are given below for welded tubular and

cast joints. The basic design S-N curve is of the form:

Log10(N) = Log10(k1) – m Log10(S) (5.4.1-1)

where

N = the predicted number of cycles to failure under

stress range S,

k1 = a constant,

m = the inverse slope of the S-N curve.

Table 5.5.1-1 presents the basic WJ and CJ curves. These

S-N curves are based on steels with yield strength less

than 72 ksi (500 MPa).

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

R Rao Ayilavarapu 87

S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

applicable for joints in air and submerged coated joints.

For Welded Joints in seawater with adequate

cathodic protection, the m = 3 branch of the S-N curve

should be reduced by a factor of 2.0 on life,

with the m = 5 branch remaining

unchanged and the position of the slope change adjusted

accordingly.

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

The WJ curve is based on 5/8-in. (16 mm) reference thickness.

For material thickness above the reference thickness,

the following thickness effect should be applied for as welded joints

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

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Tubular S-N Curve

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Weld Improvement Techniques

5.5.3

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Tubular S-N Curve

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End of Fatigue design

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