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Fatigue in Offshore structures

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Introduction

• Fatigue is the mechanism whereby cracks grow in


structures.
• Cracks grow due to cyclic or fluctuating loadings only.
• Final failure generally occurs due to tensile stress at
reduced cross sections.
• Structures subjected to fluctuating loads generally are:
Bridges, Cranes, Offshore structures where Live /
Environmental loads have major contribution.
Most of these structures have welded/bolted joints

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Effect of Welding

 Welding process leave minute metallurgical


discontinuities from where cracks may grow.
 Initiation period is normally needed for start of
crack in plain material.
 Cracks spend most of their life propagating i.e.
longer.
 Most Structural welds have rough profile, sharp
changes in direction
 These points cause local stress concentration
small discontinuities close to these points for
highly stressed members and grow faster.

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Local Stress concentration in welds

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

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Typical stress distribution at welds

Fig. 3

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Fatigue Strength

Fig. 4

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Crack size Vs. Stress cycles

Notations

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Primary Factors in Fatigue Life

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S N Curve

Fig. 5

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Effect of Mechanical Strength

Fig. 6

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Design Stress Parameter for cracks
propagating in parent material

Fig. 7

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Effects of Geometrical Stress Concentrations and
other effects
Members having large changes in cross section.e.g. access holes have
stress concentration.
In static design stresses are based on net area as plastic redistribution
normall reduce peaks at ultimate load.
In fatigue design this is not so and if member is welded true stress must be
used see. Fig 10

Fig. 10
Secondary effects
Any secondary effects due to joint fixity in latticed structures and shear lag
& other distortional effects in slender beams are allowed for calculating
stresses.
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Fatigue Analysis

1. Deterministic Method - In the deterministic method, the


sea-state energy is simulated using discrete frequencies
and wave heights with corresponding number of
occurrences. Structural responses and hot spot stresses
are generated for each of these discrete waves. The
summation of fatigue damages due to these discrete
wave load cases are then summed up to obtain the total
damage during the life of the structure.
2. Spectral Method- Spectral method uses the sea-state
energy spectra to generate the transfer function for the
structural response. This transfer function is then
used to generate the hot spot stresses in the joints.

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STRESS CONCENTRATION

In mechanical body presenting discontinuities,


stresses are not uniform along the connecting
surface of a brace and chord.
Figure 8 shows an example of the stress
distribution in a joint with local discontinuities at
the brace chord intersection.

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SCF

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Stress Concentration Factors

The stress concentration factor (SCF) is


defined as the ratio of the highest stress in
the connection (or hot spot stress fhs) to the
nominal brace stress fnom
SCF = fhs / fnom

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Stress Concentration Factors

Kellog equation
Approximate formula can be used for
rapidly assessing SCF in preliminary
analyses.
fhs/vp = 1.8 √g
vp being the punching shear.

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Joint Classification

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Joint Classification
 Always remember that classification is
based on load pattern as well as the
geometry. Engineering judgement must
therefore be used to classify a joint.
 For example a geometrical K joint may be
classified as K joint when forces are
balanced within braces or Y joint when the
force in one brace is reacted
predominantly by the chord, rather than by
the second brace.
For more details refer to API-RP-2A

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SCF formulae(Kuang for T/Y)

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SCF formulae(Kuang for K)

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SCF formulae(Kuang for K)

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SCF formulae(Kuang for K)

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Fatigue Analysis

Fatigue analysis of a joint consists of the


following steps:
1. Calculation of nominal stress ranges in
the brace and the chords
2. Calculation of hot-spot stress range
3. Calculation of joint fatigue lives
using S-N curves for tubular members.

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Fatigue Analysis

Nominal stress range:


Nominal stress ranges in braces and chords are
calculated by a global stress analyses.
Wave histogram: Typical shown here

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Fatigue Related Definitions

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Fatigue Related Definitions

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Fatigue Related Definitions

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Fatigue Related Definitions

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Fatigue Related Definitions

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Fatigue Related Definitions

For further information please read commentary on strength of tubular joints

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Nominal stress ranges

1. Wave heights are grouped in "blocks", for which just one stress
range will be calculated.
Different wave directions need to be considered with a minimum of
three "blocks" per wave direction.
2. For each block one representative wave is chosen, whose action is
supposed to represent the action of the whole block. The highest
wave of the block is normally chosen.
3. Nominal stresses for each joint component are then calculated for
different phase angles of the chosen wave, for one complete cycle
(360°). The nominal stress range for the joint component
is defined as the difference between the highest and the lowest
stress obtained for a full wave cycle. Four to twelve phase angles
per wave are usually considered.

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Hot spot stress ranges

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S-N Curve

 The X and X1 curves should be used with hot


spot stress ranges based on suitable stress
concentration factors.
 The permissible number of cycles is obtained
from the S-N curve by taking the hot spot stress
range, and entering the graph.
 Note that Curve X presumes welds which merge
smoothly with the adjoining base metal .(profile
welding)
 Welds without such profile control, the X′ curve
is applicable.

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Cumulative Fatigue Damage Ratio

Stress responses to be combined into the long term


stress distribution, which is to be
used to calculate the cumulative fatigue damage ratio D

Where:
n is the number of cycles applied at a given stress range
N is the number of cycles to cause failure for the
given stress range (obtained from appropriate S-N
curve).

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Safety Factor

Design fatigue life of each joint or member


should be at least twice the intended
service life of the structure, i.e. a safety
factor of 2.0 or as per API-RP-2A
Critical elements whose sole failure would
be catastrophic, a larger safety factor to be
applied as per design basis.

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Deterministic Fatigue Analysis

 Establish a wave scatter diagram for the field


location including ranges of wave height, wave
period and occurrences
 Simulation of jacket structure stiffness and deck
stiffness accurately and make the model simple
enough to understand the behaviour.
 Simulate deck and jacket mass accurately
including vertical COG to determine the dynamic
characteristics of the platform

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Deterministic Fatigue Analysis

 Establish Dynamic amplification factors (DAF) either


using discrete approximate method or using wave
response analysis
 Select appropriate wave theory and generate wave
loading on all the members
 Compute stress range using appropriate method
 Determine Stress Concentration factors for all the joints
using recommended empirical equations
 Establish Hot Spot stresses for the tubular joints
 Select required S-N curve for the joint configuration
 Determine Fatigue damage due to all the wave load
cases and sum up to obtain theoretical fatigue damage

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Procedure

 The model input file - which contains general information of the computer model viz., the
geometry, member sizes, materials, loads and load combinations and analysis options.
 The PSI input file is used to model the soil in the form of P-Y, T-Z & Q-Z curves. Non-
linear springs are modeled to support the pile and the surrounding soil.
 The Fatigue input file is used to generate fatigue load combination for different directions
and to specify various analysis options and SCF over rides.
 The SEASTATE module of SACS has been used to generate the cyclical wave loading on
the structure. As the fatigue is caused by only the cyclical loading, the functional loads,
dead weight and buoyancy of the modeled members, is not considered. Wave
environment has been used as specified in reference 4.6. Six load cases are considered
for each wave height in a given direction, for the maximum and minimum and 4
intermediate phase angles. This will produce the extreme stress range for each wave in a
direction.
 Deterministic fatigue approach with interpolative method using Palgrem Miner’s
hypothesis has been used.
 The nominal stresses are calculated at 8 locations of the joint and for each wave direction
and height used in the analysis. The Hot Spot Stresses are then calculated at the same
locations and under the same loadings using appropriate stress concentration factor
(SCF).
 In order to evaluate joints with appropriate SCF the following approach is adopted:

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Procedure

 The structure was first checked for EFTHIMIOU as default SCF.


 A second check is made considering Smedley-Fisher as default
SCF.
 Even though there is no failure reported for both the above cases, a
final run is made with SCF as per EFTHIMIOU for T&Y and X joints
and SCF as per Smedley-Fisher for K and K&T joints. No further
studies were made as all joints were reported safe.
 For in line joints of jacket leg and cans, specific structural joints are
created for analysis and the SCF are used based on the Burdekin
Formula. An overriding SCF of 2.0 has been used for these joints
conservatively.
 All the other inline joints are checked with the SACS inline check
option using DNV SCF, which is closest to the Burdekin formula and
even conservative.
 A minimum SCF of 1.5 has been used in all cases.

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Procedure

The hot spot stresses ranges at each location of the section are
calculated as the maximum hot spot stress difference obtained
among the loadings covering the same wave height and the
same direction.
 For each wave direction the long term hot spot stress range
distribution is divided into classes, the damage corresponding to
the number of cycles within each class is calculated and the
summation is performed.
 The hot spot stress range associated with each class is
calculated by interpolation on the values found in 6.6 above.
 For each class, the number of applications of that stress range to
cause failure is read on the SN curve.
 The cumulative ratio, CDR, for each considered location of a
member, is determined from Palgrem Miner’s sum of partial
damage ratio related to each direction.

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Procedure

The CDR is calculated from the following.


P N
nij
CDR  
I 1 J 1 Nij
1

Where nij = number of stress cycles in stress class j with


constant stress range j from the Jth direction.
Nij = number of cycles of constant stress range j to
cause failure for the Jth class of the Jth class wave
direction

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Procedure
 The minimum life of a given connection is
obtained by dividing the design life of the
structure by the maximum damage at this
location. The fatigue life for a member end is
the lowest of the lives calculated at the
selected circumferential locations.
 The different data and specifications to be
used or followed in the fatigue analysis to be
summarized.

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
 Spectral fatigue is statistical approach
for random nature of confused sea in
rational manner using wave spectra &
transfer functions to develop the structural
response over the wave frequency range.
 Spectral fatigue analysis accounts for the
actual distribution of energy over the entire
frequency range which gives more realistic and
reliable results than deterministic analysis

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
 Constant wave steepness is used to generate transfer
function
 Provide simple relationship between wave height and
frequency.
 Wave steepness is derived by calibration process based
upon matching of global response parameters which are
representative of the predominant fatigue loading.
 Base shear wave load is commonly used at the center of
fatigue damage scatter diagram which contribute most of
the fatigue damage.
 Spectral base shear wave load range shall be calibrated
to the deterministic response by increasing the drag and
inertia coefficients equally until a proper match is
obtained.
 Foregoing calibration is performed for broadside, end-on
and diagonal directions

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
Stiffness
 The computer model should include
three dimensional distribution of stiffness.
 The joints should be created at all the
points having change in thickness.
 The stiffness of all the appurtenances
should be included, including the
conductors.

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
 Mass
The mass model should include all the operating
masses including added mass & entrapped fluid.
 The weighted center of damage of the
directional scatter diagram is calculated.
 The weighting factor is the mean value of the
normalized static base shear transfer function
over the width of each cell in the scatter
diagram.
 This weighting factor introduces a stress period
dependency which allows the cancellation
effects to be reflected in the fatigue damage
scatter diagram.
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Spectral Fatigue Analysis

 The individual damage in each cell of the scatter


diagram is given by:
Di = Nij * ((0.5x(Hj+Hj+1))m/(0.5x(Tj+Tj+1))
 The weighted damage in each cell of the scatter
diagram is given as;
Dij = Nij *
 Where Dij is the damage in each cell of the
fatigue damage scatter diagram, Wj is the period
dependant weighting factor. H is wave height, T
is time period, Nij is number of waves and ‘m’ is
the slope of the S-N curve.

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis

 From the weighted fatigue damage calculations, the sea-


state corresponding to center of fatigue damage scatter
diagram is calculated. From these values, the most
probable maximum wave in the sea-state at the center of
damage of the scatter diagram is determined as
 The center of fatigue damage is given by
 Hc=(∑Di x Hsi) / (∑Di) and Tc=(∑DixTpi)/∑Di
 Href = 1.86 Hc
 Tref = Tc
 This wave period is compared with the static base
shear transfer function for the direction of interest to
confirm that it does not fall in the valley of the transfer
function. In case if it falls in the valley, the same is
shifted to the adjacent peak depending on wave energy
distribution
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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
 From the weighted fatigue damage calculations, the sea-
state corresponding to center of fatigue damage scatter
diagram is calculated. From these values, the most
probable maximum wave in the sea-state at the center of
damage of the scatter diagram is determined as
 The center of fatigue damage is given by
 Hc=(∑Di x Hsi) / (∑Di) and Tc=(∑DixTpi)/∑Di
 Href = 1.86 Hc
 Tref = Tc
 This wave period is compared with the static base shear
transfer function for the direction of interest to confirm
that it does not fall in the valley of the transfer function.
In case if it falls in the valley, the same is shifted to the
adjacent peak depending on wave energy distribution

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis

 The wave steepness's in the range of 1:15


to 1:25 and corresponding to the
steepness contour through the sea-state
at the center of damage of the scatter
diagram, the global base shear transfer
function is developed. At this stage wave
heights and wave periods are reviewed to
eliminate unrealistically large waves at
large wave periods.
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Spectral Fatigue Analysis

 The most probable maximum wave height and period


corresponding to the weighted center of damage (Href
and Tref) are stepped up through the structure and the
deterministic base shear range is determined
 The root mean square [RMS] static base shear wave
loads are calculated for the seastate at the center of
fatigue damage scatter diagram. For this purpose, SACS
modules are used making the mass equal to zero.
 5.6 Assuming zero mean and a Rayleigh distribution of
peaks, the most probable maximum [MPM] base shear
wave load is found using the following

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis

 The root mean square [RMS] static base shear wave loads are
calculated for the seastate at the center of fatigue damage scatter
diagram. For this purpose, SACS modules are used making the
mass equal to zero.
 5.6 Assuming zero mean and a Rayleigh distribution of peaks, the
most probable maximum [MPM] base shear wave load is found
using the following equation:
 = [2*ln ] 0.5
 Where T is the duration of the storm in seconds (3 x 60 x 60 =
10800 sec) and Tz is the mean zero crossing period of waves in the
seastate at the center of damage of fatigue scatter diagram.
 For seastates described by a JONSWAP spectrum, Tz is assumed
to be equal to Tp/1.28
 The spectral base shear wave load range is given as 2 x MPM.

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
 The spectral shear range thus calculated is matched
against the deterministic base shear. The drag and
inertia coefficients are increased to match the spectral
base shear range with the deterministic base shear
range.
 After calibrating the spectral response, dynamic
characteristics are determined. To linearise the
foundation for evaluation of fatigue damage, pile stubs of
appropriate stiffness are modeled. For derivation of the
pile stubs, the most probable maximum wave
corresponding to the center of fatigue damage scatter
diagram is considered. A normal inplace analysis with
these waves is carried out to arrive at the pilehead
forces. Using these forces, pile stub properties are
determined by using SINGLE PILE module in SACS
suite of programs.

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis

 The final fatigue analysis model includes the pile stub,


enhanced drag and inertia coefficients and enhanced
frequency grid which include fine grid around natural
frequency and critical wave periods corresponds to the
peak or valley of the global transfer functions to simulate
random wave time histories base on the structure
dynamics. It is important to note that for spectral
analysis, the loading specified is not the actual loading
causing fatigue damage, but loading used to develop a
relationship between stress range and load frequency.
Assessing the total damage of tubular connections is
based on calculating pseudo transfer functions for all the
remaining sea states in the scatter diagram using the
defined spectral density along eight (8) principal
directions

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
(SACS modules )
 The “SEASTATE” module is used to generate Static base shear
transfer functions for the calibration procedure. For generation of
transfer function, a period range of 11 seconds (12 to 1 seconds) is
considered. This range covers maximum and minimum frequencies,
cancellation and enhancement effects. A considerable number of
wave periods are considered to fully define the transfer function
curve.
 The “SACS IV” which refers to three of the program modules of
SACS system, namely the pre-processor, the solver and the post-
processor modules perform the general purpose static structural
analysis. This module is used to determine the pile head forces for
evaluating the pile stub properties. Once the pile head forces are
obtained, PILE module is run to arrive at the pile stub properties.
 The “DYNPAC” module is used to determine the dynamic
characteristics in terms of mode shapes, natural periods of the
platform for subsequent use while determining the response for the
seastate.

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
(SACS modules )
 The “WAVE RESPONSE” module is used to
determine the response spectrum of the platform
for the imposed seastate based on the dynamics
of the structure. This module is also used to
determine the static RMS value of the transfer
function.
 The “FATIGUE” module is used to determine
the total fatigue damage and service life of the
major tubular connections.

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
(SACS modules )
 The fatigue life shall be reported for –
Nodal Joints
 In-line joints
 Cellar Deck Nodal joints

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Spectral Fatigue Analysis
 Following S-N curves may be used if not
specified in design specification:
 DOE-T, API X’ (or API X in case of weld
profiling) for nodal joints
 DOE-F2 for inline joints
 DOE-D for deck beam connections immediately
above the jacket top, where the portal action is
dominant.
 DOE-W for fillet weld connection of doubler plate
to chord

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Procedure
Analysis to be performed accordance with the
Structural Design brief, Codes & References and
limited to the following considerations:
• Design life of the platform with factor of safety is
50 years (refer to design brief).
• Directional wave scatter diagram details and
geographical heading of the waves relative to the
SACS default orientations
• Initial drag and inertia coefficients are based on
design brief or Codes.
• Wave kinematics factor of 1.0 in the analysis.
AIRY or Design wave theory to be used for
generation of transfer function curves in wave
response analysis.
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Procedure

 Water depth corresponding to Mean Sea


Level (MSL).
 Enhance initial frequency grid for final
fatigue analysis to include the fine grid
around natural frequency and critical wave
periods correspond to the peak or valley of
the global transfer function to simulate
random wave time histories based on the
structure dynamics.

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Procedure
 Pile stub calculation based on single pile analysis for the pilehead forces
corresponding to the maximum probable wave with respect to the centre
of fatigue damage scatter diagram For wave response analysis, a critical
damping of 2% is considered.
 Stress Concentration Factors variations, recommendations by Efthymiou
(Model C options) are considered.
 S-N curve, recommendations by Department of Energy (DOE) or API.
Other load path dependant SCFs also can be used in the analysis.
Review results of fatigue life assessment for non-nodal joints, it has been
observed that the SCF calculations are based on the assumption that the
connection between tubular of different thickness is concentric with
double sided groove weld. Considering half of the thickness difference as
“e”, SCF is calculated as given by the formula SCF = 1+3*e/t where “t” is
the thickness of the thinner part connected results in a very low fatigue
life.
 Most of the jacket connections are provided with one sided closure
welds, equivalent SCFs to be considered based on the recommendations
provided in “Design of Steel Structures: N-004”; NORSOK Standard.

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Procedure
The equation for SCF is given by the following
formula:
6δ 1 α
SCF  1  2.5
e
t T 
1  
t

where α
1.82L 1
2.5
Dt T 
1  
t

Sketch for the single sided closure welded Can/Sleeve is:

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Spectral Fatigue

Single sided can sleeve SCF calculation

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Procedure

SCF, minimum values for chord and brace hot spots are
specified in the analysis as given below:
For Chord Axial Stress at Crown Point = 1.00
For Chord Axial Stress at saddle point = 1.00
For Chord Inplane bending Stress = 1.00
For Chord Out of plane bending stress = 1.00
For brace Axial Stress at Crown Point = 1.60
For brace Axial Stress at saddle point = 1.60
For brace Inplane bending Stress = 1.60
For brace Out of plane bending stress = 1.60

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METHODOLOGY

 The spectral fatigue analysis is carried out using computer model from the
inplace analysis with Drag and Inertia coefficients specified in the design
specification.
 6.6.2 The spectral fatigue analysis method uses the wave scatter diagram
directly to represent the long-term statistics of the sea-state. This uses the
wave spectrum to represent the range of wave frequencies present in a
random sea-state. The effect of wave frequency on wave loading and
structural response is accounted through the use of hot spot stress transfer
functions for evaluating response in each random sea-state.
 6.6.3 To determine the transfer function, suitable wave heights are selected
so that an appropriate level of non-linear wave loading is introduced. To
achieve this, waves of constant steepness is considered (Wave steepness
is a simple relation between wave height and wavelength). However to
select the actual wave height which causes maximum damage an
appropriate calibration procedure is adopted for the actual structure and
environment as described to arrive at a design constant steepness.

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Procedure

 The calibration is based on matching of global response


parameters, which are, representative of predominant
fatigue loading. For matching purposes the base shear is
considered as the response criteria and the sea-state
representing the maximum fatigue damage is used for
this. For this purpose the center of fatigue damage
scatter diagrams along each direction are considered.
Transfer functions are developed for the wave steepness
through the centre of damage in the scatter diagram, the
spectral response is then calibrated by increasing the
drag and inertia coefficients. Following procedure is
adopted in calibrating the spectral response:

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Procedure

Calculate weighted center of damage of the directional


scatter diagram. The weighting factor is the mean value
of the normalized static base shear transfer function over
the width of each cell in the scatter diagram. This
weighing factor introduces a stress period dependency
which allows the cancellation effects to be reflected in
the fatigue damage scatter diagram.
The weighted damage in each cell of the scatter diagram
is given as ;
Dij = Nij * Wj*0.5[Hi+Hi+1]m/{0.5[Tj+Tj+1}
Where Dij is the damage in each cell of the fatigue
damage scatter diagram, Wj is the period dependant
weighting factor.

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Procedure
From the weighted fatigue damage calculations,
the seastate corresponding to center of fatigue
damage scatter diagram is calculated. From
these values, the most probable maximum wave
in the seastate at the center of damage of the
scatter diagram is determined
Href = 1.86 Hc Tref = Tc
This wave period is compared with the static
base shear transfer function for the direction of
interest to confirm that it does not fall in the
valley of the transfer function. In case if it falls in
the valley, the same is shifted to the adjacent
peak depending on wave energy distribution.

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Procedure

 For wave steepness in the range of 1:15 to 1:25 and corresponding


to the steepness contour through the seastate at the center of
damage of the scatter diagram, the global base shear transfer
function is developed. At this stage wave heights and wave periods
are reviewed to eliminate unrealistically large waves at large wave
periods.
 The most probable maximum wave height and period corresponding
to the weighted center of damage (Href and Tref) are stepped up
through the structure and the base shear range is determined
 The root mean square [RMS] static base shear wave loads are
calculated for the seastate at the center of fatigue damage scatter
diagram. For this SACS modules are used by making the mass
equal to zero.

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Procedure

 Assuming zero mean and a Rayleigh distribution of


peaks, the most probable maximum [MPM] base shear
wave load is found using the following equation:
 MPM/RMS= [2*lnT/Tz ]0.5
 Where T is the duration of the storm in seconds (3 x 60 x
60 = 10800 sec) and Tz is the mean zero crossing
period of waves in the seastate at the center of damage
of fatigue scatter diagram.
 For seastates described by a JONSWAP spectrum, Tz is
assumed to be equal to Tp/1.28
 The spectral base shear wave load range is given as 2 x
MPM

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Procedure

 The spectral shear range thus calculated is


matched against the deterministic base shear.
The drag and inertia coefficients are increased
to match the spectral base shear range with the
deterministic base shear range.
 To account for the sensitivity of the structure,
four principal directions (broad side, end on and
two diagonals) are considered for calibration

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Procedure

 After calibrating the spectral response, dynamic characteristics are


determined. To linearise the foundation for evaluation of fatigue damage,
pile stubs of appropriate stiffness are modeled. For derivation of the pile
stubs, the most probable maximum wave corresponding to the center of
fatigue damage scatter diagram is considered. A normal inplace analysis
with these waves is carried out to arrive at the pilehead forces. Using these
forces, pile stub properties are determined by using SINGLE PILE module
in SACS suite of programs.
 6.6.6 The final fatigue analysis model includes the pile stub, enhanced drag
and inertia coefficients and enhanced frequency grid which include fine grid
around natural frequency and critical wave periods corresponds to the peak
or valley of the global transfer functions to simulate random wave time
histories base on the structure dynamics. It is important to note that for
spectral analysis, the loading specified is not the actual loading causing
fatigue damage, but loading used to develop a relationship between stress
range and load frequency. Assessing the total damage of tubular
connections is based on calculating pseudo transfer functions for all the
remaining sea states in the scatter diagram using the defined spectral
density along eight (8) principal directions.

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Procedure
(SACS modules)
SACS modules used for the analysis are :

 SEASTATE module is used to generate Static base shear transfer


functions for the calibration procedure. For generation of transfer
function, a period range of 11 seconds (12 to 1 seconds) is
considered. This range covers maximum and minimum
frequencies, cancellation and enhancement effects. A
considerable number of wave periods are considered to fully
define the transfer function curve.
 SACS IV which refers to three of the program modules of SACS
system, namely the pre-processor, the solver and the post-
processor modules perform the general purpose static structural
analysis. This module is used to determine the pile head forces
for evaluating the pile stub properties.
 PILE module is run once the pile head forces are obtained,to
arrive at the pile stub properties.

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Procedure
(SACS modules)

 The “DYNPAC” module is used to determine the


dynamic characteristics in terms of mode shapes, natural
periods of the platform for subsequent use while
determining the response for the sea-state.
 WAVE RESPONSE module is used to determine the
response spectrum of the platform for the imposed sea-
state based on the dynamics of the structure. This
module is also used to determine the static RMS value of
the transfer function.
 FATIGUE module is used to determine the total fatigue
damage and service life of the major tubular connections

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Code provisions
API-RP-2A 21st edition code provisions are:
In lieu of detailed fatigue analysis, simplified fatigue
analyses, which have been calibrated for the design
wave climate, may be applied to tubular joints in
Category L-3 template type platforms as defined in
Section 1.7 that :
1. Are constructed of notch-tough ductile steels.
2. Have redundant, inspectionable structural framing.
3. Have natural periods less than 3 seconds.
Such simplified methods are particularly useful for
preliminary design of all structure categories and types,
in water depths up to 400 feet (122 m).

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Code provisions
A space frame analysis should be performed to obtain the structural
response in terms of nominal member stress for given wave forces applied
to the structure. In general, wave force calculations should follow the
procedures described in Section 2.3.1. However, current may be neglected
and. therefore, considerations for apparent wave period and current
blockage are not required. In addition, wave kinematics factor equal to 1.0
and conductor shielding factor equal to 1.0 should be applied for fatigue
waves. The drag and inertia coefficients depend on the sea state level, as
parameterized by the Keulegan-Carpenter Number K (see Commentary
C2.3.lb7). For small waves (1.0 < K < 6.0 for platform legs at mean water
level),
values of Cm = 2.0, Cd = 0.8 for rough members and Cd = 0.5 for smooth
members
should be used.
Guidelines for considering directionality, spreading, tides and marine growth
are provided in the commentary for this section.
A spectral analysis technique should be used to determine the stress
response for each sea state. Dynamic effects should be considered for sea
states having significant energy near a platform's natural period.

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Code provisions
In general the design fatigue life of each joint and
member should not be less than the intended service life of
the structure multiplied by a Safety Factor. For the design
fatigue life, D, should not exceed unity.
For in-situ conditions, the safety factor for fatigue of steel
components should depend on the failure consequence (i.e.
criticality) and in-service inspectability. Critical elements are
those whose sole failure could be catastrophic. In lieu of a
more detailed safety assessment of Category L-1 structures, a
safety factor of 2.0 is recommended for inspectable, non-failure
critical, connections.

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Code provisions

For failure-critical and/or noninspectable


connections, increased safety factors are recommended,
as shown in Table 5.2.5-1. A reduced safety factor is
recommended for Category L-2 and L-3 conventional steel
jacket structures on the basis of in-service performance
data:
SF=1.0 for redundant diver or ROV inspectable framing,
with
safety factors for other cases being half those in the table.

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Code Provisions

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SCF’s

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SCF’s

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SCF’s

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S-N curves
5.4 S-N CURVES FOR ALL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS,
EXCEPT TUBULAR CONNECTIONS
Non-tubular members and connections in deck structures,
appurtenances and equipment; and tubular members and
attachments to them, including ring stiffeners, may be subject to
variations of stress due to environmental loads or operational loads.
Operational loads would include those associated with machine
vibration, crane usage and filling and emptying of tanks. Where
variations of stress are applied to conventional weld details,
identified in ANSI/AWS D1.1- 2002 Table 2.4, the associated S-N
curves provided in AWS Figure 2.11 should be used, dependent on
degree of redundancy. Where such variations of stress are applied
to tubular nominal stress situations identified in ANSI/AWS D1.1-
2002 Table 2.6, the associated S-N curves provided in AWS
Figure2.13 should be used. Stress Categories DT, ET, FT, K1, and
K2, refer to tubular connections where the SCF is not known. Where
the hot spot stress concentration factor can be determined, Sections 5.3 and 5.5 of
this Recommended Practice take precedence

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

5.5.1 Basic S-N curves

Design S-N curves are given below for welded tubular and
cast joints. The basic design S-N curve is of the form:
Log10(N) = Log10(k1) – m Log10(S) (5.4.1-1)
where
N = the predicted number of cycles to failure under
stress range S,
k1 = a constant,
m = the inverse slope of the S-N curve.
Table 5.5.1-1 presents the basic WJ and CJ curves. These
S-N curves are based on steels with yield strength less
than 72 ksi (500 MPa).

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

The basic design S-N curves given in Table 5.5.1-1 are


applicable for joints in air and submerged coated joints.
For Welded Joints in seawater with adequate
cathodic protection, the m = 3 branch of the S-N curve
should be reduced by a factor of 2.0 on life,
with the m = 5 branch remaining
unchanged and the position of the slope change adjusted
accordingly.

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

5.5.2 Thickness effect


The WJ curve is based on 5/8-in. (16 mm) reference thickness.
For material thickness above the reference thickness,
the following thickness effect should be applied for as welded joints

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S-N CURVES FOR TUBULAR CONNECTIONS

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Tubular S-N Curve

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Weld Improvement Techniques

5.5.3

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Tubular S-N Curve

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End of Fatigue design

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