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TELEPHONY

ENGR. PHIL 
LOMBOY
TELEPHONY
 the art of projecting a sound wave 
into a given apparatus, transforming 
the sound wave into an electrical 
wave, passing the electrical wave 
over a wire or circuit and then 
transforming the electrical wave 
back into a sound wave.
THREE MAJOR 
FUNDAMENTALS

 PHYSICAL
HUMAN ELEMENT

 MECHANICAL
APPARATUS OR EQUIPMENT

 ELECTRICAL
ELECTRICITY
GENERAL FUNCTIONAL PARTS

 EXCHANGE PART
GENERAL FUNCTIONAL PARTS

 SUBSCRIBER PART
GENERAL FUNCTIONAL PARTS

 INTER ­ EXCHANGE PART
MAIN FUNCTIONS OF TELEPHONE 
SET
 To call the Local Exchange
 To transmit the desired   subscriber’s 
number
 To receive different tone signals
 To transmit and receive speech
 to order the clearing of connection
MODERN COMPONENTS OF A 
TELEPHONE SET

1. Transmitter (mouth piece) – converts the sound 
wave into electrical wave.  

2. Receiver (ear piece) – converts the varying 
electric current that represents the 
transmitted speech signal into an audible 
sound that will re­create the sound.
MODERN COMPONENTS OF A 
TELEPHONE SET

3. Ringer (bell) ­  a signaling system from a 
telephone exchange to a called phone to impart 
that a call should be answered.
MODERN COMPONENTS OF A 
TELEPHONE SET

4. Hybrid Function (speech transformer) – an 
indication coil which is a multiple winding 
transformer intended to interface a 2­wire 
circuit to a 4­wire circuit to permit 2­way 
transmission of signals, that is, in both 
direction at the same time.
MODERN COMPONENTS OF A 
TELEPHONE SET

5. Balancing Network – small amount of the 
transmitted signal is also fed to the receiver of 
the talking phone. Such signal is called the 
sidetone. Varistor is used  for automatic 
adjustment of the sidetone level for telephone 
set.
MODERN COMPONENTS OF A 
TELEPHONE SET

6. Over­Voltage and Reverse Polarity Protection – 
Zener diode is used to protect the circuits from 
transients and over­voltages. Rectifier Bridge 
is the method commonly used to protect 
against polarity reversal.

7. Transmission regulation circuit – together with the


speech transformer, it regulates the strength and
quality of sound.
MODERN COMPONENTS OF A 
TELEPHONE SET

8. Dial system / Push button keypad
Rotary Dial (Pulse Dialing) is marked from 0 to  
9  with  each  number  representing  a 
corresponding  number  of  pulses  that  would  be 
generated once the dial is rotated from a starting 
position towards the fixed point.
MODERN COMPONENTS OF A 
TELEPHONE SET

Keypad System 
(DTMF; Dual Tone Multi Frequency) 
utilizes specific pairs of frequency within the 
voice band for each key. Pressing one of the 
keys causes an electronic circuit to generate 
two tones in the voice frequency band. There is 
a low frequency tone for each column.
MODERN COMPONENTS OF A 
TELEPHONE SET

Keypad System 
(DTMF; Dual Tone Multi Frequency) 
DTMF VS PULSE DIALING
 DTMF dialing recognizes digit tones in 50 
msec, with an interdigit interval of 
another 50 msec.

 Pulse Dialing requires 60 msec break and 
40 msec make (total of 100 msec) for each 
dial pulse. The interdigit interval is 700 
msec. 
EXAMPLE
 How much time would you save if you dial 781­
1005 using DTMF dialing over pulse dialing?
GUESS THE TITLE
SWITCHING SYSTEMS
1. Manual Control
 – early telephone switchboards were operated 
manually using a jack for each line and two plugs 
on a long flexible wire, called cord pair, for 
making the connection.
MANUAL CONTROL

­ to make connection, the operator picked up a 
cord, plugged it into the jack corresponding to the 
line requesting service, obtained from the calling 
party the name or number of the desired party, 
and then plugged the other end of the cord pair 
into the correct outgoing line jack.
SWITCHING SYSTEMS
2. Progressive Control (Step by Step Switching)
  ­ a call is progressively carried out to the desired 
terminal under the direct control of the 
subscriber’s initiated pulses.

­ invented by Almon B. Strowger in 1889
PROGRESSIVE CONTROL
PROGRESSIVE CONTROL
SWITCHING SYSTEMS
3. Common Control (Crossbar System)
­ method of switching which when directed to 
a common control unit will select and close a 
path through a matrix arrangement of 
switches called crossbar or crosspoint 
switches.
SWITCHING SYSTEMS
4. Stored Program Control 
(Electronic Switching System; ESS)
­ the switching procedures are controlled by 
means of a computer and program software 
that monitors all office activity, sees what 
service needs are, and initiates action to fulfill 
the need
STORED PROGRAM CONTROL

Stored Program Control 
(Electronic Switching System; ESS)

Features:
SIGNALING
 Refers to the specific signals on the 
transmission line that are used for controlling 
the connection from the calling telephone to 
the called telephone and signals that are used 
to indicate the status of a cal as it is being 
interconnected.

 Provides a means for operating and 
supervising a telephone communication 
system.

 Establishes connections, announces incoming 
calls and reports the fact that a line is busy.
SIGNALING FUNCTIONS
1. Ringing Signals
­ used to operate a visible or audible alarm to 
alert someone of an incoming call.
Note:
 Supervisory signals and 
address signals are 
2. Supervisory Signals
accomplished by means of 
­ used to convey information regarding 
direct current (DC) while 
switchboard conditions. (On­hook or Off­hook)
ringing signals by AC.
 

3. Address Signals
­ convey dialing or digital information when is 
necessary to establish the desired connections.
SIGNALING FUNCTIONS
Three Methods of Subscriber Loop Signaling

1. Wet – Dry
 Signaling information is indicated by the presence 
(wet) and absence (dry) of a battery and ground 
condition on the line at the called end of the trunk.
2. Reverse Battery
 Loop signaling is accomplished by reversing the 
polarity of the battery on the line to indicate 
supervisory conditions.
3. High – Low Method
On Hook – high resistance
Off Hook – low resistance
E & M SIGNALING
 Employs 2 leads to connect the signaling 
equipment to the trunk circuit.

 M lead transmits Battery or ground signals to 
the distant end of the circuits while incoming 
signals are received on the E lead as either a 
ground or open condition

 E & M basically stands for Ear and Mouth
OUT OF BAND SIGNALING
 Makes use of one or more AC tones which lie 
within the passband of the transmission facility 
but just outside the voice band.
 IN BAND SIGNALING
 Signaling tones are transmitted within the 
speech band, usually 1600, 2400 or 2600 Hz.
 COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALING 
SYSTEM
 All signaling for a number of voice paths is 
carried over one common channel, instead of 
within each individual channel.
 ALTERNATE CHANNEL 
SIGNALING
 Two channels are used, one carries the signaling 
signal while the other carries the voice signal.  
An error detector monitors the error rate in the 
signaling channel. If the error is tolerable, the 
system is normal; if more then 3 errors occur for 
a period of 10 second, the line switch unit 
automatically switches the signaling channel 
information to the alternate voice channels and 
the alternate channel information to the signal 
channel.
 CCITT SIGNALING SYSTEM
1. Signaling system number 1
­ It is a 500/20 – Hz system used in the international   
manual service.

2. Signaling System Number 2
­ It is a 600/750 Hz system that had never been used 
in international services.

3. Signaling System Number 3
­ Uses one inband frequency; 2280 Hz, unidirectional 
operation of circuits, for the transmission of both line 
and intermission signals used for terminal traffic.
 CCITT SIGNALING SYSTEM
4. Signaling System Number 4
- It is used for unidirectional operation of circuits; to
inband frequencies: 2040 and 2400 Hz, for the end-
to-end transmission of both line and register
signals.

5. Signaling System Number 5


- Both-way operation of circuits using to inband
frequencies; 2040 and 2400 Hz, for the link-by link
transmission of line signals and six inband
frequencies; 700, 900, 1100, 1300, 1500, and 1700
Hz in a two-out-of six code for the transmission of
register signals.
 CCITT SIGNALING SYSTEM
6. Signaling System Number 6
­ Signaling link carries information by serial mode of 
synchronous data transmission; based on principles of 
common channel signaling techniques in which the 
signaling is removed from the voice path for both 
analog and digital transmission facilities.

7. Signaling System Number 7
­  For integrated Digital Networks (IDN) for both 
telephony and circuit­switched data.
 TELEPHONE AUDIBLE TONE 
SIGNALING
Tone Frequencies Cadence

Dial tone   350 440 Continuous


Note: On Hook refers to a 
Busy tone telephone not in use (handset 
480 620 0.5 sec ON
resting on the switch) and Off 
Ringing Hook refers to a telephone in  0.5 sec OFF
tone use (handset is removed from 
440 480
the switch).
2 sec ON

4 sec OFF
1. When was the first complete sentence ever
transmitted by the telephone?
a. 1860
b. 1876
c. 1892
d. 1905
2. Who invented the first practical system for the
electrical switching of calls installed in 1892?

a. Bell
b. Watson
c. Edison
d. Strowger
3. What part of the conventional telephone set the
transmitter and receiver unit are located?

a. Dial
b. Base
c. Keypad
d. Handset
4. The type of transmitter widely used in the
conventional telephone set

a. Carbon
b. Ceramic
c. Piezoelectric
d. Electromagnetic
5. Who invented the first carbon type transmitter?

a. Bell
b. Watson
c. Gray
d. Edison
6. The type of receiver widely used in the conventional
telephone set

a. Electromagnetic
b. Ceramic
c. Carbon
d. Piezoelectric
7. How many unique tones are used for the 12-key dial-
tone multi frequency keypad?

a. 2
b. 4
c. 7
d. 12
8. In the telephone unit, what is produced when the
balancing network in a hybrid circuit is intentionally
unbalanced slightly so that the small amount of
transmitted signal is fed to the receiver of the talking
phone?

a. Dial tone
b. Side tone
c. Echo
d. Singing
9. The type of dialing possible for telephone set with
rotary dial.

a. Tone dialing
b. Pulse dialing
c. Loop dialing
d. E&M dialing
10. DTMF stands for

a. Digital telephone multimode function


b. Dual tone multifrequency
c. Dialing time made faster
d. Data transmission multiplex filter
11. The signal heard on the telephone line that indicates
readiness of the central office in receiving address or
telephone number

a. Dial tone
b. Ringing tone
c. Busy tone
d. Congestion tone
12. The signal heard on the telephone line which
indicates that the called subscriber sets is in use

a. Dial tone
b. Ringing tone
c. Busy tone
d. Congestion tone
13. Dial tone, busy tone and ring back tone are
examples of _____ signal.

a. Supervision
b. Address
c. Musical
d. Digital
14. Request for service from the telephone is detected
at the Central Office as

a. Dial pulses
b. Ringing signal
c. Flow of loop current
d. Battery reversal
15. The Strowger or step-by-step system falls under
what type of switching control system?
a. Manual
b. Progressive
c. Common
d. Automatic
16. What type of control system Crossbar switches are
operating?
a. Manual
b. Progressive
c. Common
d. Automatic
17. Line finder switches are found in what kind of
telephone system?
a. Step-by-step
b. Crossbar
c. Digital exchange
d. Mobile telephone system
18. The location where all subscriber lines are
terminated and switching equipment facility is
installed
a. Central office
b. Toll office
c. Gate way
d. Tandem
19. Trunk signaling within the operative voice-band
spectrum
a. In band
b. Out of band
c. Channel associated
d. Common channel
20. Type of channel signaling where signal travels with
the voice channel
a. In band
b. Out of band
c. Channel associated
d. Common channel
21. Type of channel signaling where a completely
independent channel carry signals of many traffic
channels
a. In band
b. Out of band
c. Channel associated
d. Common channel
22. Transmission term corresponding to E & M signals
a. 2 wire
b. 4 wire
c. 8 wire
d. 16 wire
23. E & M stands for
a. Ear and mouth
b. Encode and match
c. Electricity and magnetism
d. Expander and multiplexer
24. E & M is for interoffice trunk while _____ is for
subscriber line
a. Loop
b. 4 wire
c. Tone
d. Data
25. It is the means of transferring line or network related
control information between telephone and central
office or between central office
a. Signaling
b. Dialing
c. Switching
d. Multiplexing
26. A common channel signaling system for use
between stored program controlled exchanges,
designed for use in digital environment
a. Signaling system no. 4
b. Signaling system no. 5
c. Signaling system no. 6
d. Signaling system no. 7
27. To interconnect system of different characteristics by
resolving their incompatibilities
a. Boundary
b. Interface
c. Converter
d. End office
28. It informs the calling party that the distant telephone
is ringing
a. Ringing signal
b. Signaling
c. Ring back signal
d. Busy back signal
29. When was the telephone patented?
a. 1830
b. 1874
c. 1876
d. 1877
30. When the telephone is in _____ state, a direct
current from the central office (CO) flows through the
transmitter and the receiver of the handset
a. On-hook
b. Off-hook
c. Cut-off
d. saturation
31. A microphone used as a telephone transmitter
composed of a thin disk of metal-coated plastic and a
thicker, hollow metal disk
a. Ribbon
b. Carbon
c. Electret
d. Hybrid
32. The device that combines the transmitter and the
receiver to go over the same wire-pair
a. Hybrid
b. Transceiver
c. Loading coil
d. None of these
33. The anti-tinkle circuit
a. Prevents tampering with the telephone
b. Prevents dial pulses from ringing the bell
c. Prevents speech signals from ringing the bell
d. All of the above
34. The number of oscillators required for an
alphanumeric DTMF dialer
a. 6
b. 7
c. 8
d. 9
35. What frequencies were used in pressing the number
5 in pulse dialing?
a. 770Hz, 1366Hz
b. 852Hz, 1366Hz
c. 770Hz, 1336Hz
d. 852Hz, 1336Hz
36. A local loop has a resistance of 1 KΩ, and the
telephone connected to it has and off-hook resistance of
200Ω. Calculate the loop current when the phone is off-
hook.
a. 0 mA
b. 40 mA
c. 48 mA
d. 44mA
37. A type of signaling that determines only the line or
circuit condition
a. Supervisory
b. Routing
c. Address
d. On-/off-hook
38. A signaling system that uses 2040 Hz and 2400 Hz,
two in-band frequencies
a. SS3
b. SS4
c. SS5
d. SS6
39. The out of band, in-channel SF signaling used by
Bell Standard.
a. 2600 Hz
b. 800 Hz
c. 3825 Hz
d. 3700 Hz
40. A switching center
a. Terminates all subscriber lines
b. Provides dial tone to the subscriber
c. Receives the dialed digits
d. All of the above
41. A type of switch that is compatible with pulse dialer.
a. Direct control
b. SXS
c. Crossbar
d. Both a and b
42. A switch that use relays as memory.
a. Progressive control
b. SXS
c. Crossbar
d. Both a and b
43. What are the elements of progressive control
switch?
a. Line equipment
b. Switch train
c. Connector
d. All of the above
44. A telephone feature that uses memory
a. redialing
b. Direct dialing
c. Teleconferencing
d. Call waiting
45. This feature allows the subscriber to carry on a
conversation with more than one subscriber at a time
a. Call hold
b. Call forwarding
c. Conference call
d. Call waiting
46. A return of the talkers voice deriving from its own
instrument..
a. Echo
b. Singing
c. Sidetone
d. crosstalk
47. The component being adjusted to control the amount
of sidetone.
a. Varistor
b. Varactor
c. Volume
d. potentiometer
48. A circuit that returns transmitted data to the source
for the purpose of testing the line
a. Standing wave circuit
b. Echo suppressors
c. Loop-back
d. reflectometer
49. A condition of the telephone handset in which it can
be called
a. on hook
b. off hook
c. busy
d. ring
50. A telephone service wherein calls are rerouted into a
pre-assigned station is called
a. Camp on
b. Call Forwarding
c. Call Barring
d. Speed Calling