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BTEC Sport

Principles of Anatomy
and Physiology in Sport
– Know the structure and
function of the muscular
system.
Introduction!

 About 40% of your body mass is muscle,


whose key function is to move yours bones.

 There are over 640 named muscles in the


human body!

 I will show the principle skeletal muscles, their


actions and muscle fibre types.
Torso

Rectus
abdomini
External s
oblique Internal
oblique
Transversus
abdominis
Thorax

Serratus
anterior
Pectoralis
minor
Pectoralis
major
Intercostals
Arm

Triceps Biceps brachii


Brachii

Pronator teres
Pronator
quadrus
Legs – Lower

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

Tibialis anterior
Calcaneus
Quadriceps group

Sartorius

Vastus Intermedius

Vastus lateralis

Vastus
medialis
Rectus
Back of leg

Adductor magnus
Gluteus maximus
Bicep femoris

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus
Shoulder

Trapezius

Deltoid
Back

Latissimus dorsi

Rhomboid major

Erector spinae
Examples of muscle
functions;
Muscle Function Location Origin Insertion Exercise

Biceps Flexles Inside scapula Radius Arm curls


lower arm upper arm

Triceps Extends Outside Humerus Olecranon Tri dips


lower arm upper arm and scapula process

Deltoids Adducts, Forms cap Clavicle & Humerus Lat raises


flexes and of shoulder scapula
extends
upper arm
Continued…
Pectoral Flexes & Large chest Sternum, Humerus All pressing
adducts muscle clavicle and movements
upper arm ribs

Rectus Flexion & Muscle Pubic crest Xiphoid Sit ups


abdominis rotation of running process
lumbar down
region abdomen

Quadriceps Extends Front of thighIlium and Tibia and squats


lower leg & femur fibula
flexes thigh
Agonist & Antagonist

 Agonist = Muscle that shortens to move a


joint. This is the contracting muscle.
 Antagonist = Muscle that relaxes in
opposition to the agonist. This exerts a
braking control over movement.

Key terms;
 Origin – End of a muscle that is attached to the immovable
bone.
 Insertion – The end of the muscle that is attached to the
moveable bone.
Synergist & Fixator

 Synergist = Muscles that work together to


enable agonists to operate more effectively.
Control and direct movement.

 Fixator
= These muscles stop any unwanted
movement. Stabilise the origin so that the
agonist can achieve maximum and effective
contraction.
Types of contraction
 Isometric = Length of muscle does not change and
joint angle doesn’t alter. E.g. holding a front support
position.

 Concentric = Length of muscle shortens against


resistance. E.g. performing a bicep curl.

 Eccentric = Muscles returns to its normal length after


shortening against resistance.

 Isokentic = Muscles contracts and shortens at a


constant speed. Specialised equipment is needed for
this.
Muscle Fibre types

 Slow oxidative fibres (type1) – Contract


slowly with less force. They are slow to
fatigue and suited for endurance activities.
Have a rich blood supply and contain
many mitochondria. Recruited for low
intensity, longer duration activities such as
marathon running.
Fast oxidative fibres (type
2a)

 These are fast contracting and


able to produce a great force.
They are also resistant to fatigue.
These are suitable for middle
distance events and games
players.
Fast glycolytic fibres (type
2b)

 Contract rapidly and have the capacity


to exert large amounts of force. They
fatigue more readily, making them
better for anaerobic activity. Recruited
for higher intensity, shorter duration
activity, for example sprinting.